A trampoline is a device consisting of a piece of taut, strong fabric stretched between a steel frame using many coiled springs. Not all trampolines have springs. People bounce on trampolines for competitive purposes; the fabric that users bounce on is not elastic itself. A game similar to trampolining was developed by the Inuit, who would toss blanket dancers into the air on a walrus skin one at a time during a spring celebration of whale harvest. There is some evidence of people in Europe having been tossed into the air by a number of people holding a blanket. Mak in the Wakefield Second Shepherds' Play and Sancho Panza in Don Quixote are both subjected to blanketing – however, these are non-voluntary, non-recreational instances of quasi-judicial, mob-administered punishment; the trampoline-like life nets once used by firefighters to catch people jumping out of burning buildings were invented in 1887. The 19th-century poster for Pablo Fanque's Circus Royal refers to performance on trampoline.
The device is thought to have been more like a springboard than the fabric-and-coiled-springs apparatus presently in use. These may not be the true antecedents of the modern sport of trampolining, but indicate that the concept of bouncing off a fabric surface has been around for some time. In the early years of the 20th century, some acrobats used a "bouncing bed" on the stage to amuse audiences; the bouncing bed was a form of small trampoline covered by bedclothes, on which acrobats performed comedy routines. According to circus folklore, the trampoline was first developed by an artiste named du Trampolin, who saw the possibility of using the trapeze safety net as a form of propulsion and landing device and experimented with different systems of suspension reducing the net to a practical size for separate performance. While trampoline-like devices were used for shows and in the circus, the story of du Trampolin is certainly apocryphal. No documentary evidence has been found to support it. William Daly Paley of Thomas A. Edison, Inc. filmed blanket tossing initiation of a new recruit in Company F, 1st Ohio Volunteers in 1898.
The first modern trampoline was built by George Nissen and Larry Griswold in 1936. Nissen was a gymnastics and diving competitor and Griswold was a tumbler on the gymnastics team, both at the University of Iowa, United States, they had observed trapeze artists using a tight net to add entertainment value to their performance and experimented by stretching a piece of canvas, in which they had inserted grommets along each side, to an angle iron frame by means of coiled springs. It was used to train tumblers but soon became popular in its own right. Nissen explained. Nissen had heard the word on a demonstration tour in Mexico in the late 1930s and decided to use an anglicized form as the trademark for the apparatus. In 1942, Griswold and Nissen created the Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company, began making trampolines commercially in Cedar Rapids, Iowa; the generic term for the trademarked trampoline was a rebound tumbler and the sport began as rebound tumbling. It has become a generic trademark.
Early in their development Nissen anticipated trampolines being used in a number of recreational areas, including those involving more than one participant on the same trampoline. One such game was Spaceball—a game of two teams of two on a single trampoline with specially constructed end "walls" and a middle "wall" through which a ball could be propelled to hit a target on the other side's end wall. During World War II, the United States Navy Flight School developed the use of the trampoline in its training of pilots and navigators, giving them concentrated practice in spatial orientation that had not been possible before. After the war, the development of the space flight programme again brought the trampoline into use to help train both American and Soviet astronauts, giving them experience of variable body positions in flight; the first Trampoline World Championships were organised by Ted Blake of Nissen, held in London in 1964. The first World Champions were both Dan Millman and Judy Wills Cline.
Cline went on to dominate and become the most decorated trampoline champion of all time. One of the earliest pioneers of trampoline as a competitive sport was Jeff Hennessy, a coach at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Hennessy coached the United States trampoline team, producing more world champions than any other person. Among his world champions was his daughter, Leigh Hennessy. Both Jeff and Leigh Hennessy are in the USA Gymnastics Hall of Fame; the competitive gymnastic sport of trampolining has been part of the Olympic Games since 2000. On a modern competitive trampoline, a skilled athlete can bounce to a height of up to 10 metres, performing multiple somersaults and twists. Trampolines feature in the competitive sport of Slamball, a variant of basketball, Bossaball, a variant of volleyball. There are a number of other sports that use trampolines to help develop and hone acrobatic skills in training before they are used in the actual sporting venue. Examples can be found in diving and freestyle skiing.
One main advantage of trampolining as a training tool for other acrobatic sports is that it allows repetitive drill practice for acrobatic experience every two seconds or less, compared with many minutes with sports that involve hills, ramps or high platforms. In some situations, it can be safe
Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of beliefs, they play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics and philosophy, these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences; the study of concepts has served as an important flagship of an emerging interdisciplinary approach called cognitive science. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the mind Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents Concepts as Fregean senses, where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental statesConcepts can be organized into a hierarchy, higher levels of which are termed "superordinate" and lower levels termed "subordinate".
Additionally, there is the "basic" or "middle" level at which people will most categorize a concept. For example, a basic-level concept would be "chair", with its superordinate, "furniture", its subordinate, "easy chair". A concept is instantiated by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence where they are sometimes called classes, schema or categories. In informal use the word concept just means any idea. A central question in the study of concepts is the question of. Philosophers construe this question as one about the ontology of concepts --; the ontology of concepts determines the answer to other questions, such as how to integrate concepts into a wider theory of the mind, what functions are allowed or disallowed by a concept's ontology, etc.
There are two main views of the ontology of concepts: Concepts are abstract objects, concepts are mental representations. Within the framework of the representational theory of mind, the structural position of concepts can be understood as follows: Concepts serve as the building blocks of what are called mental representations. Mental representations, in turn, are the building blocks of, and these propositional attitudes, in turn, are the building blocks of our understanding of thoughts that populate everyday life, as well as folk psychology. In this way, we have an analysis that ties our common everyday understanding of thoughts down to the scientific and philosophical understanding of concepts. In a physicalist theory of mind, a concept is a mental representation, which the brain uses to denote a class of things in the world; this is to say that it is a symbol or group of symbols together made from the physical material of the brain. Concepts are mental representations that allow us to draw appropriate inferences about the type of entities we encounter in our everyday lives.
Concepts do not encompass all mental representations, but are a subset of them. The use of concepts is necessary to cognitive processes such as categorization, decision making and inference. Concepts are thought to be stored in long term cortical memory, in contrast to episodic memory of the particular objects and events which they abstract, which are stored in hippocampus. Evidence for this separation comes from hippocampal damaged patients such as patient HM; the abstraction from the day's hippocampal events and objects into cortical concepts is considered to be the computation underlying sleep and dreaming. Many people report memories of dreams which appear to mix the day's events with analogous or related historical concepts and memories, suggest that they were being sorted or organised into more abstract concepts; the semantic view of concepts suggests. In this view, concepts are abstract objects of a category out of a human's mind rather than some mental representations. There is debate as to the relationship between natural language.
However, it is necessary at least to begin by understanding that the concept "dog" is philosophically distinct from the things in the world grouped by this concept—or the reference class or extension. Concepts that can be equated to a single word are called "lexical concepts". Study of concepts and conceptual structure falls into the disciplines of linguistics, philosophy and cognitive science. In the simplest terms, a concept is a name or label that regards or treats an abstraction as if it had concrete or material existence, such as a person, a place, or a thing, it may represent a natural object that exists in the real world like a tree, an animal, a stone, etc. It may name an artificial object like a chair, house, etc. Abstract ideas and knowledge domains such as freedom, science, etc. are symbolized by concepts. It is important to realize that a concept is a symbol, a represe
James Scott may refer to: James Scott, African-American ragtime composer James Scott, British filmmaker James Scott, British television actor James Scott, character on the TV soap opera Shortland Street James Honeyman-Scott, British guitarist and member of The Pretenders James Scott, Sergeant of Marines in the New South Wales Marine Corps James Scott, British naval officer James Bruce Scott, officer in the British Indian Army James Robinson Scott, Scottish naval surgeon and noted amateur botanist James Stanley Scott, Royal Canadian Air Force officer James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, noble recognized by some as James II of England James Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, English nobleman and politician James Scott, British MP, 1710–1711 James Scott, MP for Kincardineshire 1713–1734 James Winter Scott, MP for North Hampshire, 1832–1837 James Scott, British MP, 1929–1931 Sir James Sibbald David Scott, 3rd Baronet, 3rd Scott baronets, of Dunninald Sir James Sibbald Scott, 1st Baronet, 1st Scott baronets, of Dunninald James Alan Scott, Australian politician James A. Scott, member of the Florida Senate James F. Scott, delegate to the Second Wheeling Convention of 1861 James Reid Scott and colonial administrator in the Australian colony of Tasmania James George Scott, colonial administrator in Burma James M. Scott, Canadian politician James M. Scott, member of the Virginia House of Delegates James Scott, American professional basketball player James Scott, Scottish footballer James Scott, Scottish footballer James Scott, Scottish footballer James Scott, Scottish footballer James Scott, Scottish footballer for Motherwell James Melvin Scott, Senior Olympian, inventor James Scott, American light heavyweight fighter James Scott, NFL wide receiver James Brown Scott, American authority on international law James C.
Scott, political scientist and agrarian studies scholar James F. Scott, Australian artist James F. Scott, American physicist and FRAM pioneer James Hope-Scott, English barrister and Tractarian James Maurice Scott, British explorer and writer James Robb Scott, Scottish architect James Scott, British cardiologist James Scott, convicted of contributing to the Great Flood of 1993 James Scott, Scottish obsetrician and gynaecologist James Scott, Irish police officer James Scott, English cleric and academic, known for his "Anti-Sejanus" letters James Scott, Irish Anglican priest James V. Scott, minister in the United Church of Canada Jim Scott Jamie Scott Jamie Scott, British singer
Following the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001, religious and academic figures organized conferences in Montreal in 2006, 2011 and 2016. The aim was to counter any negative image of religion that may have resulted from the attacks, to formulate a "Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the World's Religions". Religion in general began to acquire a negative connotation after the events of September 11, 2001 on account of the close association of these events with Islamic fundamentalism. Many in the academic and faith communities, felt that such a negative image of religion was detrimental to the future of humanity because religion is a major force in human affairs which can be harnessed for either good or evil. Many members of these communities felt that associating religion with evil was not only inaccurate, it deprived humanity of a major source of promoting well-being. A series of conferences was therefore organized to emphasize that religion can play a positive role in human affairs, to evolve a Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the World's religions.
The motto of the first global conference which met September 11–15, 2006, was inaugurated by the Iranian Peace laureate Madam Shirin Ebadi was: "Can religion be a force for good?"The second global conference met on September 4, 2011. It was inaugurated by Nobel Peace laureate the Dalai Lama with the motto: "Peace through religion." The third conference met on September 2016, at the Palais des Congrès in Montreal, Canada. The motto of this conference was" From Faith to Interfaith"; the theme which unifies all these conferences is that of evolving a Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the World's Religions, a project, launched in Montreal in 1998 on the occasion of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations. The relationship of the religions of the world and human rights has been a much debated issue since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948 by the United Nations. Two basic approaches to this relationship are prominent.
According to one, religions have a negative relationship to human rights inasmuch as human rights discourse provides a norm in the light of which the doctrines and practices of the world's religions could be judged. Such an attempt reveals that religions fall short of meeting human rights norms and therefore the relationship of religion to human rights acquires a negative aspect. Another view takes a somewhat opposite position. According to it, the religions of the world played a major role in the formulation of human rights and can offer fresh perspectives on ways to secure human flourishing, the obvious goal of human rights discourse; this more positive approach to the relationship between religion and human rights is evident in the various documents on human rights produced by the religions of the world, some of which are enumerated below. Pacem in Terris, June 23, 1963 Declaration on Judaism and Human Rights, adopted in Montreal on April 23, 1974 a) Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights, September 19, 1981.
The three conferences mentioned above represent a progressive effort to formulate a joint response from the world's religions to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by way of formulating a Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the World's Religions, a project which has the support of five Nobel Peace laureates who are its patrons: the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Madam Shirin Ebadi, Bishop Belo of Timor Leste, Professor Elie Wiesel. Berkley Center for Religion and World Affairs. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the World's Religions". Georgetown University. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Khan, Abrahim H.. "A Universal Declaration of Human Rights by World Religions: Basis and Problems". Revue Quebecoise de Droit International. 11. Ter Haar, Gerrie. Bridge Or Barrier: Religion and Visions for Peace. Leiden: Brill. Sharma, Arvind, ed.. The World's Religions After September 11, Volumes I-IV. Wesport, Connecticut: Praeger Perspectives. Sharma, Arvind, ed.. Windows to the World's Religions: Selected Proceedings of the Global Congress on the World's Religions Afterr September 11.
Eliyahu Boruch Finkel was an influential maggid shiur at the Mir yeshiva in Jerusalem. He was born in Jerusalem, Israel to Rabbi Moshe Finkel, son of the rosh yeshiva of the Mir, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Finkel, grandson of Rabbi Nosson Tzvi Finkel, the Alter of Slabodka, his mother was Nechama Eidel Levin, daughter of Rabbi Mordechai Dovid Levin, rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Eitz Chaim). He grew up under the tutelage of his grandfather, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda, studied in Talmud Torah Yavneh. At the age of 10 he went to learn in Yeshivas Tiferes Tzvi, a school named after his grandfather Rabbi Nosson Tzvi Finkel. Half a year after his bar mitzvah, he moved to the Mir yeshiva and learned in chavruta with Rabbi Chaim Kamil, where he was recognized as an outstanding student. While learning at the Mir, he became close with Rabbi Nochum Partzovitz, he would learn with Rabbi Partovitz every day for a few hours, covering all the sugyos of Shas those topics not studied in yeshivas. Because of all the years that they learned together, Rabbi Eliyahu Boruch considered Rabbi Partzovitz his rebbe muvhak.
In recognition of Finkel's tremendous abilities, the roshei yeshiva appointed him to be a maggid shiur at a young age. In the summer of 1967 he went to learn in the Ponevezh Yeshiva, where he learned in chavruta with Rabbi Mordechai Shlomo Berman, one of the roshei yeshivas, he learned with Ponevezh rosh yeshiva Rabbi Shmuel Rozovsky, who said about Eliyahu Boruch: "There was Rabbi Eliyahu Boruch Kamai, now we have Rabbi Eliyahu Boruch Basrai". After his tenure in Ponevezh, he returned to the Mir until his marriage to Chana Gelman, daughter of Rabbi Shlomo Gelman of Queens, New York, his shiurim were characterized by profundity on the one hand and clarity on the other in the most complicated sugyos. He would give over his shiur with excitement, his students recall his simchas ha-chaim and the personal relationship. His shiurim influenced the way of learning in the Mir and in other yeshivos as well. Many of his students now say shiurim of their own and give over Rabbi Finkel's way of learning to the next generation of students and Torah scholars.
Before his death, Rabbi Finkel was delivering the second-largest shiur in the Mir, teaching hundreds of students. Rabbi Finkel died on 31 March 2008, his funeral took place the following morning in the main building of the yeshiva. Tens of thousands of mourners accompanied his bier to Har HaMenuchos, where he was buried in the new area for rabbis, his eldest son, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Leib Finkel says shiur as his father's successor
Zhengzhou BRT Route B1 is a bus rapid transit route operated by Zhengzhou Bus. The route is the first route with dedicated bus lanes in Zhengzhou BRT; the route was commenced on 28 May 2009, together with 8 other feeder routes. The route was a loop line running on Nongye Road, Zhongzhou Avenue, Weilai Road, Hanghai Road and Tongbai Road. Due to the construction of Zhengzhou Metro Line 5 on Hanghai Road and Tongbai Road and the construction of Nongye Expressway above Nongye Road, most platforms of the route on these three roads have been removed. Services of the route on Nongye Road has been suspended; the route is U-shaped, running on Zhongzhou Avenue, Weilai Road, Hanghai Road, Tongbai Road, Wulongkou S. Road and Dianchang Road, with the eastern terminus at Zhongzhou Avenue and Nongye Road and the western terminus at Dianchang Road B/T; the route has a number of branch routes. B10: Kunlun Road and Longhai Road ↔ Fogang B/T B12: Zhengzhou railway station ↔ Lamei Road B/T B13: Dianchang Road B/T ↔ Kunlun Road and Ruhe Road B15: North 3rd Ring Road and Zhongzhou Avenue ↔ Shihua Road B/T B16: Shangwu Inner Ring Road and Shangwu E. 1st Street ↔ Ganjiang Road B/T B17: Zhengzhou railway station ↔ Jingkai 8th Avenue B/T B18: Gaocun ↔ Minsheng E.
Street and Zhengguang Road B19: Liuzhuang ↔ Convention and Exhibition Center B21: Zhengzhou railway station ↔ Qinhe Road and West 3rd Ring Road B25: Zhengzhou East railway station ↔ Zhongzhou Avenue and Nongye Road B38: North 3rd Ring Road and Shakou Road ↔ Zhengzhou East railway station B53: Zhengzhou Bus Company ↔ Wenhua Road and Sanquan Road 263: Huayuankou B/T ↔ Zhengzhou No.7 People's Hospital Yutong ZK6180HGC Yutong ZK6180CHEVG1 Yutong ZK6180CHEVNPG3