Trance is a genre of electronic music that emerged from the British new-age music scene and the early 1990s German techno and hardcore scenes. At the same time trance music was developing in Europe, the genre was gathering a following in the Indian state of Goa. Trance music is characterized by a tempo lying between 110–150 bpm, repeating melodic phrases and a musical form that distinctly builds tension and elements throughout a track culminating in 1 to 2 "peaks" or "drops". Although trance is a genre of its own, it liberally incorporates influences from other musical styles such as techno, pop, chill-out, classical music, tech house and film music. A trance is a state of hypnotism and heightened consciousness; this is portrayed in trance music by the mixing of layers with distinctly foreshadowed build-up and release. A common characteristic of trance music is a mid-song climax followed by a soft breakdown disposing of beats and percussion leaving the melody or atmospherics to stand alone for an extended period before building up again.
Trance tracks are lengthy to allow for such progression and have sufficiently sparse opening and closing sections to facilitate mixing by DJs. Trance is instrumental, although vocals can be mixed in: they are performed by mezzo-soprano to soprano female soloists without a traditional verse/chorus structure. Structured vocal form in trance music forms the basis of the vocal trance subgenre, described as "grand and operatic" and "ethereal female leads floating amongst the synths". However, male singers, such as Jonathan Mendelsohn, are featured; the "Trance" name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush that listeners claim to experience, or it may indicate an actual trance-like state the earliest forms of this music attempted to emulate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed. A writer for Billboard magazine writes, “Trance music is best described as a mixture of 70s disco and 60s psychedelia”. Another possible antecedent is Yuzo Koshiro and Motohiro Kawashima's electronic soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series of video games from 1991 to 1994.
It was promoted by the well-known UK club-night "Megatripolis" whose scene catapulted it to international fame. Examples of early trance releases include but are not limited to KLF's 1988 release'What Time Is Love', German duo Jam & Spoon's 1992 12" Single remix of the 1990 song "The Age Of Love", German duo Dance 2 Trance's 1990 track "We Came in Peace"; the writer Bom Coen traces the roots of trance to Paul van Dyk's 1993 remix of Humate's "Love Stimulation". However, Van Dyk's trance origins can be traced further back to his work with Visions of Shiva, being the first tracks he released In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, the development of another subgenre, epic trance, finds some of its origins in classical music, with film music being influential. Trance was arguably at its commercial peak in the second part of 1990s and early 2000s. Classic trance employs a 4/4 time signature, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, 32 beat phrases and is somewhat faster than house music.
A kick drum is placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat is placed on the upbeat. Extra percussive elements are added, major transitions, builds or climaxes are foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase. Rapid arpeggios and minor keys are common features of Trance, the latter being universal. Trance tracks use one central "hook", or melody, which runs through the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and 32 bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody. Instruments are removed every 4, 8, 16, or 32 bars. In the section before the breakdown, the lead motif is introduced in a sliced up and simplified form, to give the audience a "taste" of what they will hear after the breakdown; the final climax is "a culmination of the first part of the track mixed with the main melodic reprise". As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are built with sparser intros and outros in order to enable DJs to blend them together immediately.
More recent forms of trance music incorporate other styles and elements of electronic music such as electro and progressive house into its production. It emphasizes harsher basslines and drum beats which decrease the importance of offbeats and focus on a four on the floor stylistic house drum pattern; the BPM of more recent styles tends to be on par with house music at 120 to 135 beats per minute. However, unlike house music, recent forms of trance stay true to their melodic breakdowns and longer transitions. Trance music is broken into a number of subgenres including acid trance, classic trance, hard trance, progressive trance, uplifting trance. Uplifting trance is known as "anthem trance", "epic trance", "commercial trance", "stadium trance", or "euphoric trance", has been influenced by classical music in the 1990s and 2000s by leading artists such as Ferry Corsten, Armin Van Buuren, Tiësto, Rank 1 and at present with the development of the subgenre "orchestral uplifting trance" or "uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Sound Apparel, Andy Blueman, Ciro Visone, Arctic Moon, Sergey Nevone & Simon O'Shine, among others.
Related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance, which has become a general term for a wide variet
Peninsula Gaming, LLC was a casino operator based in Dubuque, with five properties in Iowa and Kansas. It was acquired by Boyd Gaming in 2012. In January 1999, Los Angeles-based AB Capital agreed to purchase the Diamond Jo Casino in Dubuque, Iowa for $77 million; the company's major shareholders were Los Angeles investment banker Brent Stevens and Las Vegas gaming developer Michael Luzich. The purchase was completed in July 1999, by which time the company had changed its name to Peninsula Gaming. In February 2002, Peninsula bought a fifty percent interest in the Evangeline Downs racetrack in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana from B. I. Moody for $15 million, they bought the remaining half several months from William Trotter for another $15 million, plus 0.5% of slot revenues for the first ten years. After Lafayette voters had rejected slot machines at the track, Evangeline Downs had planned a move to St. Landry Parish, which Peninsula carried out; the casino at the new site opened in late 2003, with races following in 2005.
In 2004, Peninsula announced a proposed sister casino to the Diamond Jo, to be built in Worth County, Iowa at a cost of $40 million. The project was awarded a gaming license in May 2005, the Diamond Jo Worth opened in April 2006. In 2009, Peninsula proposed building a $150-million racetrack casino in Des Moines, Iowa that would be a sister property to the Prairie Meadows racino. Prairie Meadows rejected the plan. In June 2009, Peninsula agreed to buy the Amelia Belle riverboat casino in Amelia, Louisiana from Columbia Sussex for $106.5 million. The purchase closed in October 2009. In November 2009, the company partnered with a group of local investors in a proposal to build a casino in Fort Dodge, Iowa; the application for Diamond Jo Fort Dodge was rejected by the Iowa Racing and Gaming Commission, over concerns that the casino would draw too much business from the Wild Rose Casino in Emmetsburg. Criminal charges were filed against Peninsula and two of its executives, alleging that they improperly funneled $25,000 in campaign contributions to Governor Chet Culver through three of the Fort Dodge investors.
The case was settled, with the criminal charges being dismissed and Peninsula agreeing to pay the costs of the investigation plus a $4,000 civil penalty. In 2010, Peninsula held discussions with the city of Davenport, Iowa about redeveloping or replacing the Rhythm City Casino, but the company withdrew to focus on its proposed Kansas casino. In July 2010, Peninsula submitted a bid for the sole available casino license in south central Kansas, proposing to build the Kansas Star Casino in Mulvane; the proposal was selected as the winner, Peninsula opened the casino in a temporary facility in December 2011, moving to a permanent facility in December 2012. In May 2012, Boyd Gaming agreed to buy Peninsula Gaming for $1.45 billion. Boyd executives emphasized the high growth potential of the Kansas Star Casino; the acquisition was completed on November 20, 2012. Amelia Belle Casino — Amelia, Louisiana Diamond Jo Casino — Dubuque, Iowa Diamond Jo Casino — Northwood, Iowa Evangeline Downs Racetrack & Casino — Opelousas, Louisiana Off-track betting parlors in Eunice, Port Allen, St. Martinville Kansas Star Casino — Mulvane, Kansas
Vancouver Fire Rescue Services was founded in 1886 and today serves the city of Vancouver, British Columbia providing fire, medical first response and extrication services. In 2017, VF&RS responded to 67,000 emergency calls; the Vancouver Volunteer Fire Brigade was established in 1886 with one volunteer hose-wagon company assigned to protect the new city which had lumber mills at the time, within 16 days of its existence, the city of Vancouver burned to the ground. A week after the fire the city purchased its first fire engine from Ontario, the item arrived in August of that year, which made the volunteers confident that they could handle any situation that occurred. A second engine arrived in 1888 along with two new firehalls growing the strength from one company to three companies. J. H. Charlisle was appointed the city's first fire chief who began motorizing fire brigade...the first motorized fire engine was purchased in 1908 from the Seagrave company of Columbus. By 1911, the department was ranked third best in the world, falling behind London and Leipzing Germany.
By 1917 it was motorized and was recognized as the Vancouver Fire Department. In 1929 the municipalities of South Vancouver and Point Grey amalgamated with the City of Vancouver which meant the merger of the South Vancouver Fire Department and the Point Grey Fire Brigade, which added six new halls and increased the strength of the department by 100 men. Since 1893, 48 Vancouver firefighters have died in the line of duty. Current Fire Chief and General Manager - Darrell Reid There are 20 Fire Halls located throughout the city of Vancouver, organized into three Battalions. Vancouver's current complement of fire apparatus includes: 13x 2007 Spartan / Smeal CAFS engines 2x 2007 Spartan / Smeal CAFS 125' aerial ladder quints 2x 2007 Spartan / SVI custom-built hazmat units 1x 2007 Spartan / SVI air/light equipment unit 14x 2016/17 Spartan / Smeal CAFS engines/rescue-engines 10x 2016/17 Spartan / Smeal CAFS 105' aerial ladder quints 1x 2016 Spartan / SVI technical heavy rescue The VFRS has operated fireboats since 1928 when the city introduced the J.
H. Carlisle, it operates 4 boats, Fireboats 1, 3, 4 and 5. The boats are shared under an agreement with the neighbouring municipalities of Burnaby, Port Moody and the city and district of North Vancouver. Fireboats 3, 4 and 5 were part of a fleet of five aluminum boats designed by naval engineering firm Robert Allan Ltd. and built in 1992. Fireboat 1 was built by MetalCraft Marine of Kingston and arrived in 2016. A second boat will arrive in 2017, at which time two of the 1992 built boats will be retired, while one will be kept as a reserve. Former fireboats: J. H. Carlisle 1928-1971 Fireboat No. 2 1951-1987 VFRS uses a standard logo displayed on uniforms and vehicles: Maltese cross fire hydrant EMS Star of Life helmet, horn and axe Call Volume On June 13, 1886, workers were burning brush to make way for development when high winds picked up the flames and began burning out of control. Vancouver Volunteer Hosewagon Company No. 1, comprising a dozen volunteers, grabbed buckets and axes in attempt to extinguish the conflagration.
The city had purchased a fire engine which had not yet arrived resulting in most of the city being burned down in 45 minutes. On July 3, 1960, a fire broke out at the BC Forest Products Mill near Oak St and W 6th Ave. Initial crews responded and reported large flames and smoke coming from the mill; the chief on scene upgraded the alarm calling in additional companies. Flames started to spread from the mill itself to a nearby dock, which resulted in the Chief declaring the incident as a five alarm call, VFRS's first five-alarm fire. All halls were tapped out which sent the fire boat and all but a few apparatus down to the fire ground. A total of 350 firefighters battled the flames for hours on the hot day. A large crowd had gathered to watch firefighting operations which hampered efforts to extinguish the blaze. Most of the mill burned. On June 15, 2011, the Vancouver Canucks were in the final game of the Stanley Cup playoffs. Over 100,000 people had gathered in the Downtown core to watch the game on large outdoor screens.
Around 8 PM the game was nearing the end with Canucks losing by several points, at that moment the crowd started to become unruly. Families headed out of the Downtown core. Police officers staged near the CBC live site at Georgia and Cambie moved into a large crowd of fans when they started throwing objects at the large screen; the crowd at the CBC live site preceded to flip over a pickup truck outside the Canada Post building and light it ablaze. Police offices formed a circle around the burning truck and cleared a path for Engine 8 to bring in a Supply line and crew. Engine 8's crew were able to knock down the fire, but were forced to leave the area as the crowd started throwing objects at police officers; the Emergency Operations Center was activated and Police teams were sent to various intersections to form up and don riot gear. Multiple fire apparatus were sent to key locations and were told to stage and remain visible in case people required medical treatment or had information to report.
Around 8:30 violence spilled into other areas of the Downtown core resulting in fights, rubbish fires and burning vehicles. Fire crews were unable to reach some of the injured as violent crowds continued with destruction and mayhem. Orders were given at 9 pm for all staged apparatus to return to quarters and wait for further instructions due to the fact at the time Vancouver Police was deploying crowd control officers armed with tear gas and flash grenades. Dozens of 911 calls were being made f