Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Nakhon Ratchasima is one of the four major cities of Isan, known as the "big four of Isan". The city is known as Korat, a shortened form of its name, it is the governmental seat of Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District. Nakhon Ratchasima is the heart of the Nakhon Ratchasima metropolitan area. Korat is at the western edge of the Korat Plateau, it once marked the boundary between Lao and Siamese territory. It is the gateway to the Lao-speaking northeast, its location is 14°58.5′N 102°6′E. As of 2010, the municipal area had a population of 142,645. Archeological evidence suggests that in Sung Noen District, 32 km west of present-day Nakhon Ratchasima there were two ancient towns called Sema and Khorakapura. N The latter name was shortened to Nakhon Raj; the present city name is a portmanteau of Nakhon Sema. The city is known as "Korat", a short version of the ancient Khmer name "ankor raj". Prior to the 14th century, the area of Nakhon Ratchasima was under Khmer empire suzerainty and known in Khmer as Angkor raj, Nokor Reach Seyma, or Nokor Reach Borei, Koreach.
Phimai, to the north, was more important. King Narai of Ayutthaya in the 17th century, ordered a new city built on the site to serve as a stronghold on Ayutthaya's northeastern frontier. Nakhon Ratchasima was thereafter mentioned in Siamese chronicles and legal documents as a "second-class" city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. A royal governor ruled the city in a hereditary position. After the final phase of the Ayutthaya kingdom ended with its complete destruction by the Burmese in 1767, a son of King Boromakot attempted to set himself up ruler in Phimai, holding sway over Korat and other eastern provinces. King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom sent two of his generals, brothers Thong Duang and Boonma, to defeat the prince, executed in 1768. Thong Duang became King Rama I of the kingdom, Korat became his strategic stronghold on the northeastern frontier to supervise the Lao and Khmer tributary states. In 1826, Vientiane King Chao Anouvong, perceiving Siam as weakened, attacked Korat in the Laotian Rebellion against King Rama III, to rage on for two years.
Lady Mo, the wife of the deputy governor at the time, is credited with having freed the city from Anouvong's army, has been honored with a statue in the center of downtown Korat. A full account of the war and its impact on Laos and Siam, is detailed in the book, Lady Mo and Heroism at Tung Samrit, written by Frank G Anderson; the city's old wall, east of the monument was designed and built by a French engineer, believed to be the one who built Naraimaharaj Palace in Lopburi. The French-based design is reflected in the moat system that surrounds the innermost portion of the city. Nakhon Ratchasima continued to be an important political and economic center in the northeastern region under the Monthon administrative reforms of the late-19th century. In November 1900, the Royal State Railways of Siam began operation of the Nakhon Ratchasima Line from Bangkok with Korat Station as its terminus; the Ubon Ratchathani Line to the town of Warin opened 1 November 1922. The Thanon Chira Junction to Khon Kaen opened on 1 April 1933.
Korat station was changed to Nakhon Ratchasima Railway Station in 1934. In October 1933, after the Siamese revolution of 1932 ended the absolute monarchy, the city became the headquarters of the Boworadet Rebellion, an abortive uprising against the new government in Bangkok. In April 1981 during another attempted coup, the government, together with the royal family, took refuge in Korat. From 1962-1976, during the Vietnam War, Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base hosted components of the Royal Thai Air Force, the United States Air Force, a complement of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. After the US withdrawal in 1976, the Thai Air Force assumed full control. During the 1980s and early-1990s, the airfield was jointly operated as a civil airport for Nakhon Ratchasima; this ended with the opening of Nakhon Ratchasima Airport in the early-1990s. On 13 August 1993, Thailand's worst hotel disaster happened in the city, the collapse of the Royal Plaza Hotel, killing 137 people. There are three seasons in the region: Hot, Cold.
In the cold season, minimum temperatures in Korat proper will drop to about 18 °C, in rural areas, down to about 12 °C. Korat's economy has traditionally been dependent on agriculture, it is known as a processing centre for Isan's production of rice and sugar. The Isan region accounts for half of Thailand's exports of those commodities. Together, these three agricultural commodities employ 700,000 Isan families. Korat is one of two sites in Thailand manufacturing disk drives by Seagate Technology, employing 12,100 workers in Korat. Korat has become the commercial hub, not only for Isan, but for neighbouring Cambodia and Laos. All three of Thailand's largest Bangkok-based department store chains have invested in expansive outlets in the city, which will boast one million square metres of retail space by late 2017. Nakhon Ratchasima Airport lies 26 km east of the city. There are no scheduled air services operating from the airport. Nakhon Ratchasima is on the northeastern railway line, connecting Bangkok with Ubon Ratchathani and Nong Khai.
There are two main railw
Ranong is a town in southern Thailand, former capital of the Ranong Province and the Mueang Ranong District. The town covers the area of the tambon Khao Niwet; as of 2005, it had a population of 16,163. Ranong lies 586 kilometres south-southwest of Bangkok by road. Ranong is opposite Myanmar's Kawthaung; the Tenasserim Hills rise directly to the east of Ranong, another small ridge runs along the edge of the estuary to the town's north. Ranong has a tropical monsoon climate. There is little variation in the temperature throughout the year, although the pre-monsoon months are somewhat hotter in the day. However, Ranong's position to the west of the Tenasserim Hills means that the monsoon season's rains are amplified, resulting in torrential rains from May until October, significant rainfall in the transition months of April and November. Phet Kasem Road runs through the city. Ranong Airport is about 24 kilometres south of town; the Port Authority of Thailand operates the Ranong Port, Thailand's principal Indian Ocean port.
In 2008, the Ranong human-smuggling incident resulted in 54 deaths. Ranong travel guide from Wikivoyage
State Railway of Thailand
The State Railway of Thailand is the state-owned rail operator under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transport in Thailand. As of 2018, the network serves around 35 million passengers annually; the passenger count is expected to double by 2027 when expansion plans are realised and the network grows to serve 61 provinces. The SRT was founded as the Royal State Railways of Siam in 1890. King Chulalongkorn ordered the Department of Railways to be set up under the Department of Public Works and Town and Country Planning. Construction of the Bangkok-Ayutthaya railway, the first part of the Northern Line, was started in 1890 and inaugurated on 26 March 1896; the Thonburi-Phetchaburi line the Southern Line, was opened on 19 June 1903. The first railway commander of the RSR was Prince Purachatra Jayakara The Northern Line was built as 1,435 mm standard gauge, but in September 1919 it was decided to standardize on 1,000 mm meter gauge and the Northern Line was regauged during the next ten years. On 1 July 1951, RSR changed its name to the present State Railway of Thailand.
As of 2014 SRT had 4,043 km of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. Nearly all is single-track, although some important sections around Bangkok are double or triple-tracked and there are plans to extend this. By comparison, Thailand has 390,000 km of highways. In 2017, the SRT lost 17 billion baht; the SRT has suffered a loss every year since it was turned into a state-owned enterprise under the Transport Ministry in 1951. The SRT has debts amounting to nearly 100 billion baht, its annual operating losses are estimated at a minimum of 10 billion baht. In 2017 the military government budgeted more than 76 billion baht for SRT infrastructure investments; the funding is to be used for double-track rail expansions, an extension of Bangkok's elevated railway, construction of bridges and track improvements. In the fiscal year ending 30 September 2016, the SRT had managed to disburse only 53 percent of its allotted investment budget of 60 billion baht; this compares with an average disbursement rate of 80 percent by Thailand's other 55 state-owned enterprises.
Disbursement rate is seen as an indicator of efficient management. "If you look at the SRT they are a bit like a patient in and everyone is saying to him'you are the future' and trying to kick him out of bed when he is still moaning and groaning," said Ruth Banomyong, a logistics and transport expert at Thammasat University. The worst financially performing state enterprise, the SRT operates at a loss despite being endowed with large amounts of property—the SRT is one of Thailand's largest land holders, owning an estimated 39,840 hectares— and receiving large government subsidies, it reported a preliminary loss of 7.58 billion baht in 2010. Recurring government attempts at restructuring and/or privatization throughout the 2000s have always been opposed by the union and have not made any progress. SRT's failings are reflected in passenger numbers, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit have dropped from 88 million in 1994 to 44 million in 2014; the SRT has long been popularly perceived by the public as resistant to change.
Trains are late, most of its equipment is old and poorly maintained. Under the auspices of the Transport Ministry, the SRT has submitted a rehabilitation plan that will be presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission on 30 July 2018; the commission, chaired by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha is expected to approve the plan. The plan calls for SRT to become the largest railway state enterprise in ASEAN. By 2027, anticipating income growth from asset management and cost management, SRT foresees profits of over 20 billion baht. Rail freight, cheaper—only half the cost of road transport—safer, more environmentally-friendly than road transport, accounted for only 1.4 percent of freight tonnage carried in 2015. SRT aims to boost its share of cargo transport to six percent with its double track expansion by 2022. Expansion of SRT's freight service, which could earn more money than the subsidized passenger service, has been neglected for decades in favour of Thailand's roads; the SRT's poor financial performance and resistance to reform, coupled with the Asian financial crisis of 1997, resulted in stringent restraints being placed on SRT staffing.
In July 1998, the Thai cabinet issued an order that the SRT could only hire five new employees for every 100 retirees. As of 2018, the order remains in effect. SRT officials estimated in 2017 that the enterprise needed to boost staff by 20 percent to 12,000. In 2018 SRT claims that it needs 18,015 employees to operate efficiently, but only has 10,035 on staff. To make up the shortfall, the SRT hires around 4,000 "daily workers" on daily wages of 300 baht, it has caused the SRT to pay massive amounts of overtime pay to current employees. For example, one station master in Pattani was paid 61,210 in monthly salary, but an additional 102,271 baht in overtime pay. To address a long list of complaints accusing SRT of a lack of transparency in bids for projects and procurement deals, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha fired the governor and board of the State Railway of Thailand in February 2017, using his special powers under Section 44 of the interim constitution. On the Southern Line, between Hat Yai Junction and Su-ngai Kolok railway station, in the south of Songkhla Province, Pattani Province, Yala Province and Narathiwat Province there have been regul
Phuket City is a city in the south-east of Phuket island, Thailand. It is the capital of Phuket Province; as of 2007 the city had a population of 75,573. It covers the subdistricts Talat Talat Nuea of Mueang Phuket district. Phuket is 862 km south of Bangkok. Phuket is one of the oldest cities in Thailand, it was an important port on the west of the Malay Peninsula. The old buildings in Phuket town indicate its former prosperity, they were constructed. The architectural style, called "Sino-Portuguese", is European mixed with Chinese modern. Characteristic is a single or two-storey building with a narrow front compensated for by considerable depth; the tiles, perforated windows and other details are all influenced by Chinese and European styles mixed together. On 13 February 2004 the town was elevated to city status; the major religion is Buddhism. The Buddhist temples in the city are attractive destinations for national and international tourists. Along the streets some Hindu temples depicting the statues of Lord Ganesha and Lord Brahma can be seen.
Phuket International Airport Roadways to other provinces. Las Vegas, United States George Town, Malaysia Phuket Town travel guide from WikivoyageForbes and Henley, Phuket's Historic Peranakan Community Phuket City official website
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
Mueang Trang District
Mueang Trang Mueang Thap Thiang, is the capital district of Trang Province, Thailand. The city has a population of 59,637 and covers the whole tambon Thap Thiang of Mueang Trang District. Mueang Trang or the previous name Thap Thiang, became the capital district of Trang Province in 1915, when the capital was moved inland from Kantang, prone to flooding. Neighboring districts are Na Yong, Yan Ta Khao, Sikao, Wang Wiset, Huai Yot of Trang Province and Si Banphot of Phatthalung Province; the district is divided into 15 sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 118 villages. The city Trang covers the whole tambon Thap Thiang; the township Khlong Teng covers parts of tambon Na Tham Nuea. There are further 14 tambon administrative organizations. Missing numbers are tambon. Na Muen Si village in tambon Na Yong is the home of the Na Muen Si Woven Cloth Community Enterprise; the group of elderly women has resurrected the village's ancient art of weaving. The collective weaves 39 patterns using 10 traditional looms along with ki kratuk shuttle looms.
In 2014, the Na Muen Si Woven Cloth Museum opened with the financial support of local authorities and the Central Group. The museum exhibits about 100 traditional fabrics donated by the elders of the village and newly woven cloth that exhibits its 32 original patterns. Chuan Leekpai – politician Arkhom Chenglai – boxer who won 1992 Summer Olympics bronze medal