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Trans-Am Series

The Trans-Am Series is an automobile racing series held in North America. The Trans-Am Series was created in 1966 by Sports Car Club of America President John Bishop. Known as the Trans-American Sedan Championship, the name was changed to the Trans-American Championship for 1967 and henceforth; the series has in fact gone by a variety of different names through the years, some linked to sponsors, some not. It has evolved over time from its original format as a Manufacturers' Championship series for modified passenger sedans and coupés to its current form as a Drivers' / Manufacturers' Championship Series, open to GT style racecars. Champion drivers have been recognized, Drivers' Championships awarded since the 1972 season. Over the years, the series has raced on a variety of different types of race tracks all over the country, as well as at venues in Canada and San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2003. Since 2015, Trans Am has been a national series, racing at tracks throughout the East Coast and Midwest.

In 2017, the new stand-alone West Coast Championship was added to the Trans Am Series. There are six races on the schedule, two of which are joint, or "shared" races with the national Championship series, in which drivers from both championship series race together in the same races, but only earn points in the championship series that they are entered in. In 2017, Pirelli became the exclusive tire supplier and presenting sponsor for the Trans Am Series, all classes use Pirelli P ZERO radial ply racing slicks; the change from bias ply tires to Pirelli P ZERO radial tires has been well received, has resulted in faster average speeds and improved lap times in all four classes. In late 2016, the Trans Am Race Company announced that after a long absence, the Trans Am Series would return to the West Coast with the 2017 Trans Am West Coast Championship, partnering with the Sportscar Vintage Racing Association; the West Coast Championship Series consists of a separate 3 race competition, plus one round, shared with the Trans Am Championship Series at Circuit of the Americas.

For 2017, the schedule was reorganized, with five race venues receiving new dates, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway being added, Louisiana's NOLA Motorsports Park being dropped. For 2018, the Brainerd, MN and New Jersey Motorsports Park races were dropped, a race at the Pittsburgh International Race Complex was added for the TA, TA3, TA4 classes only. There are now 12 race venues on the Trans Am Championship Series schedule, with the Chevrolet Detroit Grand Prix presented by Lear race being open to TA2 class cars only. There are 13 actual races on the schedule, as the TA2 cars race twice in Detroit. For 2018, the West Coast Championship's race at Willow Springs, CA was dropped, Sonoma, CA was added, a shared race at INDY was added, expanding their series to a separate 3 round competition, plus two shared races; the schedule for 2019 continues to be 12 races long, but the mid-April Homestead, Florida race date changes to an early May event at Weathertech Raceway, Laguna Seca, California -- the first time the series has raced there since 2004.

The early August Pittsburgh race was dropped, having been replaced by the Memorial Day Motorsports Festival at Connecticut's Lime Rock Park, the first time the series will have raced there in three years, it will be the thirtieth time overall. Additionally, the Indianapolis race weekend moves from mid-June to early August, the "shared" Circuit of the Americas race weekend moves from early November back to early October; the Chevrolet Detroit Grand Prix presented by Lear moves from early June to May 31st -- June 2nd, just four days after the event at Lime Rock Park ends. The season finale at Daytona International Speedway moves up one week to mid-November. On the 2019 West Coast Championship schedule, the season is one race longer, opens a couple of weeks earlier at Willows, California's Thunderhill Raceway Park; the shared event at Laguna Seca takes place in early May, with Sonoma moving from early June to mid-June, replacing the shared event at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The shared event at Circuit of the Americas moves from early November to early October.

For 2020, the season finale at Daytona was dropped due to unresolvable scheduling conflicts, after a two year absence, the race at Brainerd, Minnesota was reinstated to honor the late Jed Copham, the track's co-owner and part time Trans Am Series driver. The season's grand finale in both series will now be the shared event at Circuit Of The Americas, with that race being moved from October to November; the Indianapolis race holds the distinction of being the only event, open to all competitors who are registered to race in the Trans Am Championship series, or either of the regional sub-championship series. In the West Coast Championship series, the season will start one month earlier at Sonoma Raceway, which will for the first time also hold a second race in late August to make up for the Auto Club Speedway race being dropped. Other than this and minor reordering, the schedule remains at six races, with Laguna Seca as the other shared event with both series racing together. TA class cars are high-performan

Canadian Journal of Chemistry

The Canadian Journal of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by NRC Research Press. It was established in 1951 as the continuation of Canadian Journal of Research, Section B: Chemical Sciences. Papers are loaded to the web in advance of the printed issue and are available in both pdf and HTML formats; the journal is abstracted and indexed by the following services: Chemical Abstracts, ChemInform, Chemistry Citation Index, Current Contents, Derwent Biotechnology Abstracts, GeoRef, INIS Atomindex, Methods in Organic Synthesis, Referativny Zhurnal, the Science Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2017 impact factor is 1.084. Official website

Robert Wisdom

Robert Ray Wisdom is an American actor best known for his roles as Howard "Bunny" Colvin in The Wire and Norman "Lechero" St. John in Prison Break. Wisdom was born in Washington, D. C. to Jamaican parents. He is a graduate of Columbia University, he appeared in four of the five seasons of the HBO program The Wire as Howard "Bunny" Colvin. Wisdom had auditioned for the role of Stringer Bell, he has starred in the 2004 films Barbershop 2: Back in Business and Ray, the 2007 film Freedom Writers. He landed a regular role on season 3 of Prison Break playing the role of a Panamanian drug kingpin named Lechero, he had recurring roles in the television series Supernatural, Happy Town, Burn Notice. Wisdom was once a producer for NPR's All Things Considered. From 2012 to 2013, Wisdom was a series regular in season one of the ABC drama series Nashville, as Coleman Carlisle. Robert Wisdom on IMDb

Nike Doggart

Nike Doggart is a conservationist, environmental activist, writer. Doggart has an MA and a MSc, was educated at Christ Church, Oxford and at University College, London, she began her career as a marine conservationist in Belize. Her research work in the forests of Tanzania has yielded the discovery of various new species, including a frog from the Eastern Arc Mountains, named after her, Arthroleptis nikeae. Doggart is an advisor to the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, she has lobbied the Tanzanian government to conserve water and forestry resources, to promote environmentally sustainable forms of economic development. One of the most innovative and successful programs that she has promoted is the introduction of sustainable butterfly farming for women living adjacent to the Amani Nature Reserve. Doggart was a presenter and advisor on the BBC's Villages on the Front Line, broadcast in 2006, she is the Editor of The Arc Journal. She has two children and Olivia. Nike Doggart profile on Research Gate

119th Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 119th Brigade the Welsh Bantam Brigade, was an infantry brigade formation of the British Army during World War I. Part of Lord Kitchener's'New Armies', it served in the 40th Division on the Western Front; the brigade number was reactivated for deception purposes during World War II. 119th Brigade was a New Army or'Kitchener's Army' formation raised during 1915. An earlier 119th Brigade had been raised in late 1914 as part of the'Fifth New Army', but when the Fourth New Army was broken up in April 1915 to provide reserve units for the First to Third New Armies, the formations of the Fifth took their place, the original 119th Brigade was renumbered 100th Brigade. By the time the new 119th Brigade was organised the flow of volunteers had dwindled, the standard of height for infantry soldiers had been lowered in order to encourage recruitment; the brigade's four battalions were composed of these'bantams' recruited in Wales. The Welsh Bantam Brigade adopted the number 119 when it was assigned to 40th Division in September 1915.

The original units forming 119th Brigade were as follows: 19th Battalion, Royal Welsh Fusiliers – formed in March 1915 by the Welsh National Executive Committee and trained with 38th Infantry Division 12th Battalion, South Wales Borderers – formed at Newport in March 1915 by the Welsh National Executive Committee and assigned to the Welsh Bantam Brigade 17th Battalion, Welsh Regiment – formed at Cardiff in December 1914 and assigned to 38th Division 18th Battalion, Welsh Regiment – formed at Cardiff in January 1915 and assigned to 38th Division 119th Brigade Machine Gun Company – joined on disembarkation in France February 1916. 119th Trench Mortar Battery – joined on disembarkation in France February 1916. Divisional organisation and training was delayed because the other brigades contained a large proportion of under-developed and unfit men, unlike 119's'hardy, well-knit Welshmen'; the rest of the division had to undergo a drastic weeding-out and the drafting in of new battalions before it was fit for service.

This was completed in February 1916. Divisional training was intensified and it was warned for overseas service in May 1916. Disembarkation was carried out at Le Havre between 2 and 6 June, 40th Division concentrated in the Lillers area by 9 June ready to take its place in the line. Units went into the trenches attached to formations of I Corps for familiarisation, the division took over its own section of line. 18th Welch of 119th Brigade carried out 40 Division's first trench raid in July 1916. A few months after 119th Brigade's arrival in France, a noted fighting general, Brig.-Gen. Frank Crozier, was appointed to the command. During the bitter winter in the mud of the old Somme battlefield he trained the men, when the Germans retreated to their Hindenburg Line in early 1917, the Welsh Bantam Brigade fought its first offensive actions, the Borderers taking'Fifteen Ravine', the Welch taking a ridge named'Welch Ridge' and the Royal Welch Fusiliers taking La Vacquerie and renaming it'Fusilier Ridge'.

In the year, 119th Brigade took a leading part in the capture of Bourlon Wood during the Battle of Cambrai. Despite the formation's lack of experience of fighting with tanks, 40th Division's attack was the most successful on 23 November. Once inside the wood, Crozier found that both flanks were in the air, but stocked his positions with food and ammunition to hold out against fierce counter-attacks. Although 119th Brigade was relieved by the Guards Division after epic fighting, the cavalry failed to move through to continue the battle. After the losses of 1917 the Welsh Bantam Brigade had disappeared and in February 1918 it was reorganised. 19th Royal Welsh Fusiliers sent a draft to one of its Regular battalions and was disbanded, as were 12th South Wales Borderers and 17th Welsh. Only 18th Welsh of the original brigade remained; the Brigade Machine Gun Company left to join the Divisional Machine Gun Battalion. 119th Brigade took part in the following further actions during the German Spring Offensive of 1918: Battle of St Quentin 21–23 March First Battle of Bapaume 24–25 March Battle of Estaires 9–11 April Battle of Hazebrouck 12–13 April.

After suffering heavy losses in these actions, 40th Division was withdrawn from the Line and temporarily formed into two Composite Brigades. No 2 Composite Brigade formed under Brig-Gen Crozier on 27 April 1918 consisted of: A Battalion B Battalion C Battalion Company of 40th Battalion, Machine Gun Corps 136th Field Ambulance Royal Army Medical Corps No 2 Company, 40th Divisional Train, Army Service Corps2 Composite Brigade was engaged in digging the Poperinghe Line in case of further German breakthroughs, it was withdrawn on 2 May, in common with the rest of the division the units were reduced to training cadres and sent to England. In June 1918, 40th Division was reconstituted from'Garrison Guard' battalions composed of men of Medical Category'B1'; the division was revived on 14 June, when 119th Brigade had the following composition: No 7 Garrison Guard Battalion became 13th Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers No 8 Garrison Guard Battalion became 13th Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment No 11 Garrison Guard Battalion became 12th Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment 119th Trench Mortar Battery, recon

Tukey's range test

Tukey's range test known as the Tukey's test, Tukey method, Tukey's honest significance test, or Tukey's HSD test, is a single-step multiple comparison procedure and statistical test. It can be used to find means that are different from each other. Named after John Tukey, it compares all possible pairs of means, is based on a studentized range distribution; the Tukey HSD tests should not be confused with the Tukey Mean Difference tests. Tukey's test compares the means of every treatment to the means of every other treatment; the confidence coefficient for the set, when all sample sizes are equal, is 1 − α for any 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. For unequal sample sizes, the confidence coefficient is greater than 1 − α. In other words, the Tukey method is conservative; the observations being tested are independent among the groups. The groups associated with each mean in the test are distributed. There is equal within-group variance across the groups associated with each mean in the test. Tukey's test is based on a formula similar to that of the t-test.

In fact, Tukey's test is a t-test, except that it corrects for family-wise error rate. The formula for Tukey's test is: q s = Y A − Y B S E, where YA is the larger of the two means being compared, YB is the smaller of the two means being compared, SE is the standard error of the sum of the means; this qs value can be compared to a q value from the studentized range distribution. If the qs value is larger than the critical value q α obtained from the distribution, the two means are said to be different at level α, 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Since the null hypothesis for Tukey's test states that all means being compared are from the same population, the means should be distributed; this gives rise to the normality assumption of Tukey's test. The Tukey method uses the studentized range distribution. Suppose that we take a sample of size n from each of k populations with the same normal distribution N and suppose that y ¯ min is the smallest of these sample means and y ¯ max is the largest of these sample means, suppose S2 is the pooled sample variance from these samples.

The following random variable has a Studentized range distribution. Q = y ¯ max − y ¯ min S 2 / n This value of q is the basis of the critical value of q, based on three factors: α k df The distribution of q has been tabulated and appears in many textbooks on statistics. In some tables the distribution of q has been tabulated without the 2 factor. To understand which table it is, we can compute the result for k = 2 and compare it to the result of the Student's t-distribution with the same degrees of freedom and the same α. In addition, R offers a quantile function for q; the Tukey confidence limits for all pairwise comparisons with confidence coefficient of at least 1 − α are y ¯ i ∙ − y ¯ j ∙ ± q α. Notice that the point estimator and the estimated variance are the same as those for a single pairwise comparison; the only difference between the confidence limits for simultaneous comparisons and those for a single comparison is the multiple of the estimated standard deviation. Note that the sample sizes must be equal when using the studentized range approach.

Σ ^ ε is the standard deviation of the entire design, not just