Trans TV is an Indonesian national television station based in South Jakarta. Owned by Chairul Tanjung, it launched on 15 December 2001, it is similar to other commercial stations, showing news, drama series, variety shows, quiz shows, former children's programs. For the first time, Trans TV was the main broadcaster of 2018 FIFA World Cup. Most group matches and all of the finals were broadcast here; as the result, it topped the rating as in 19 June 2018. It was incorporated under a license from the Department of Trade and Industry, South Jakarta with Number 809/BH.09.05/III/1998. Its shares are owned by the Para Inti Investindo, a subsidiary of Para Group. In August 1998, Trans TV's existence was published in State Gazette No. 8687 as PT Televisi Transformasi Indonesia. It was obtaining permission to broadcasting planned since on October 1998 based in Jakarta, was operating from Trans TV Television Centre Headquarters at Jalan Kapten Pierre Tendean No. 12-14A in Mampang Prapatan, South Jakarta in Jakarta it born names Televisi Transformasi Indonesia was granted a broadcasting licence.
It was technican stations started television broadcasting metropolitan on 1 July 2001 at 16:00 local time it began trial transmission in Jabodetabek, Trans TV broadcasts via UHF was located on UHF channel 29 in the Jabodetabek with the pattern of broadcasting techniques for runtime a 3 hours on daily at Trans TV Television Centre Headquarters at Jalan Kapten Pierre Tendean No. 12-14A in Mampang Prapatan, South Jakarta in Jakarta for trial of technican stations form 3 months between 1 July to 30 September 2001. Trans TV was trial transmission stations started television broadcasting metropolitan programs aired Trans-Tune in was inaugurated from Bandung and surroundings on 1 October 2001 at 16:00 local time afternoon. Was aired network by Trans TV has started test of transmission was launched form Bandung Supermal most extensive in the Capital of the West Java. Trans TV was introduced to the public. Studio stage, the two host bring interactive quiz to attract potential audience, while presenting series of music video clips.
The program presents the news division, which contains feature both primetime evening-nightly main prime news bulletin actual programmes aired Berita Hari Ini was runtime broadcasting of news aired 30-minutes and one news journalist reader for male and female, with the pattern of broadcasting techniques for runtime a 2-hours on daily at Trans TV Television Centre Headquarters at Jalan Kapten Pierre Tendean No. 12-14A in Mampang Prapatan, South Jakarta in Jakarta. The channel started its trial broadcasts on 2 October 2001 at 16:00 WIB, it began trial transmission in Jabodetabek and Bandung via UHF and it was located on UHF channel 29 in the Jabodetabek and UHF channel 42 in Bandung. It was the first time, its trial broadcast lasted for 45 days between 2 October and 15 November 2001 at Trans TV Television Centre Headquarters at Jalan Kapten Pierre Tendean No. 12-14A in Mampang Prapatan, South Jakarta. It was test of transmission trial stations started television broadcasting nationalwide on Ramadhan 2001 at 16:00 local time afternoon it began trial transmission in Jabodetabek.
Trans-Tune was renamed as Transvaganza it was runtime broadcasting a 6 hours on daily. Trans TV started showing American English movie theaters and American English television series programmes for started television broadcasting form 29 days between form 16 November to 14 December 2001 at Trans TV Television Centre Headquarters at Jalan Kapten Pierre Tendean No. 12-14A in Mampang Prapatan, South Jakarta in Jakarta, Trans TV went on air for the first time in a trial of broadcasts to seven cities such as: Jabodetabek, Semarang, Solo and Medan was introduced in November 2001. It was started television network opened television broadcasting on-air nationwide on 15 December 2001, In the Jabodetabek the UHF channel for Trans TV is 29. Trans TV was went on air for the first time in a trial of broadcasts to seven cities such as: Jakarta, Semarang, Solo and Medan. Other Indonesian cities are expected to follow through establishment of national television stations that relayed television broadcast of Trans TV.
This channel is only available from pay and satellite television on Indovision platform on channel 87, First Media platform on channel 9 and Palapa C2 satellite. Trans TV. was launched started on 15 December 2001. Trans TV programming includes variety shows such as Extravaganza, the Dorce Show and Indonesian versions of Thank God You're Here and The Gong Show, it broadcasts religious programs, gossip shows soap operas and regular news. Trans TV broadcasts every Thomas & Uber Cup since 2002. Sport programmes including 2002 Tiger Cup, La Liga and Copa del Rey in 2001-2003, but since 2012, Trans TV broadcast football match again with FA Community Shield, La Liga, Copa del Rey, England National Football, FA Cup. Since 15 December 2017, Trans TV obtained the broadcasting rights for 2018 FIFA World Cup; the Flash iZombie Arrow Gotham EXO's Showtime The Matrix 4 List of Indonesian language television channels (i
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals and other devices. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities provide cost-free wireless access. Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was ubiquitous worldwide, global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second; the Internet developed from the ARPANET, funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.
Use by a wider audience only came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. In the early to mid-1980s, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. LANs operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, to 56 kbit/s by the late 1990s. Dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs; these dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections. The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol and the point-to-point protocol extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users. Broadband Internet access shortened to just broadband, is defined as "Internet access, always on, faster than the traditional dial-up access" and so covers a wide range of technologies.
Broadband connections are made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection. Broadband provides improved access to Internet services such as: Faster world wide web browsing Faster downloading of documents, photographs and other large files Telephony, radio and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote system administration Online gaming massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interaction-intensiveIn the 1990s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. S. made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses and schools were using broadband connections. In 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were equal at 130 million each.
In 2010, in the OECD countries, over 90% of the Internet access subscriptions used broadband, broadband had grown to more than 300 million subscriptions, dial-up subscriptions had declined to fewer than 30 million. The broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy.
Starting in 2006, mobile broadband access is available at the consumer level using "3G" and "4G" technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE. In addition to access from home and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available; some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing; some access points may provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", "Web payphone". Many hotels have public terminals fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, other venues offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA; these services may be free to all, free to customer
Kingston, Australian Capital Territory
Kingston is the oldest and one of the most densely populated suburbs of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The suburb is named after Charles Cameron Kingston, the former Premier of South Australia and minister in the first Australian Commonwealth Government, it is adjacent to the suburbs of Barton, Fyshwick and Manuka. The suburb of Kingston is situated about 4 km from the centre of Canberra. In the early years of Canberra's development, Eastlake occupied the area now known as Kingston. Eastlake Football and Cricket club is one of the few reminders of Kingston long past. Eastlake was designated as a workers living quarters while the suburb of Forrest was reserved for middle and higher ranking public servants. About 120 portable wooden cottages for construction workers were built at the Causeway in 1925 and 1926. Canberra's first hall for community gatherings and entertainment was at the Causeway where the recreation hall was completed in 1926 with voluntary labour using materials provided by the Federal Capital Commission.
After the second world war, housing at the Causeway and Westlake was considered sub-standard. Although all of the original Westlake cottage have been demolished, the Causeway survives with the original temporary wooden cottages now replaced with brick veneer cottages; as it was separated from the rest of the suburb by Wentworth Avenue and was situated to the north of the railway station the Causeway was a distinct district within the suburb of Kingston, however, it is now abutted by the new Kingston foreshore development. The Causeway it is on the edge of a road called the Causeway, planned as a dam across the Molonglo River that would back up East Lake, planned by Walter Burley Griffin but never built; the cottages at Causeway were designed by HM Rolland and were first erected at Westlake in 1924 Acton and at the Causeway in 1925–1926. The Westlake cottages were sold off from the mid-1950s – last cottage removed in 1965. A number are now down the South Coast. One sits with a new coat of paint, in River Street, Oaks Estate.
A photograph showing one of the cottages on the move is in Westlake One of the Vanished Suburbs of Canberra – Gugler, A. The timber cottages at the Causeway were pulled down; the cottage design, referred to as portable timber cottages, designed by Rolland were based on the cottages erected at Westlake by Contractor John Howie for his married men – built 1922. He built nearby 18 or more timber huts for his single men, known as the Hostel Camp; the Burns Club was founded there in 1924. The following areas are heritage listed: The Kingston/Griffith Garden City heritage precinct, sections 15, 16 and 17 of Kingston and section 22 of Griffith, bounded by Dawes, Howitt and Kennedy streets, Burke Crescent and Cunningham streets and Canberra Avenue; the first stage of the precinct was constructed in 1926 and 1927 to accommodate lower rank public servants and workmen for the opening of the provisional Parliament House in 1927. The listed area is the only part of the original East Lake precinct; the Kingston Powerhouse Historic Precinct.
The powerhouse was the first permanent public building in Canberra. It was closed in 1929, but reactivated for periods between 1936 and 1942 and between 1948 and 1957; the Fitters’ Workshop, the second permanent public building, is in the precinct. The siren and whistle, which signalled times to Government outdoor workers in south Canberra for many years, is included in the listing; some Arizona and Himalayan cypresses near the original government printing works completed in 1927 east of Wentworth Avenue and north of Giles Street. The former Transport Depot, the centre of government transport operations in Canberra from 1927 to 1992 and is notable for the steel welded rigid portal frame, built to support its roof in 1940 and is considered to be one of the earliest examples of this technology in the world of its size; the building has housed The Old Bus Depot Markets since 14 February, 1998. The Causeway Hall, built by voluntary labour in 1925 and served for some time as the city's principal place of entertainment, including as "a picture theatre, dance hall and the venue for other entertainment such as concerts and boxing matches".
The Canberra Baptist Church, 11 Currie Crescent, constructed from 21 March 1928 and dedicated on 24 February 1929. It was the second permanent church built after the founding of Canberra and is considered by the ACT Heritage Council to be "a fine example of the Inter-War Gothic style and its internal and external integrity add to this significance." In recent years Kingston has been redeveloped with medium-density housing including townhouses and units. Most of Kingston south of Kingston Avenue is zoned for a predominant height of "3 storeys, with a maximum height of 4 storeys only where it is not the dominant feature of a street frontage", although there are two high-rise blocks north of the shopping centre and the detached houses in three city blocks in the south have heritage protection; the most recent development is the Kingston Foreshores development in which large numbers of high-value apartments are being built along the foreshores of Lake Burley Griffin. The area had been used for industrial purposes and is located between the Canberra railway station and the Kingston Powerhouse.
These new developments and the rise of a café society have reformed Kingston as one of the most exclusive suburbs in Canberra. The Kingston Foreshores are zoned for four-story units, but six-storey units are permitted under some conditions in some areas. Parts of the Kingston Group Centre are now zo
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access, always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services. Different criteria for "broad" have been applied at different times, its origin is in physics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband". With the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies, it is still occupying a single channel; the key difference is that what is considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.
The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access, faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56 kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning. In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality. In radio, for example, a narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction; this broad band is divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal. In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line.
In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details. The various forms of digital subscriber line services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels; each channel is at higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time. However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire, it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line techniques. Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband. Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names such as the original 1980s 10BASE5 to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable.
Broadband systems use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band. The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel; the 10BROAD36 broadband variant of Ethernet was standardized by 1985, but was not commercially successful. The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, both cable and DSL modems have Ethernet connectors on them. A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while a single-frequency or Lo-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels; the U. S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband. "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.
In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video in composite form with separate baseband audio. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and feeds the information into the system. However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand. Power lines have been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband signaling, modern high-speed systems use broadband signaling to achieve high data rates.
One example is the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a
Hybrid fiber-coaxial is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network that combines optical fiber and coaxial cable. It has been employed globally by cable television operators since the early 1990s. In a hybrid fiber-coaxial cable system, the television channels are sent from the cable system's distribution facility, the headend, to local communities through optical fiber subscriber lines. At the local community, a box called an optical node translates the signal from a light beam to radio frequency, sends it over coaxial cable lines for distribution to subscriber residences; the fiberoptic trunk lines provide adequate bandwidth to allow future expansion and new bandwidth-intensive services. The fiber optic network extends from the cable operators' master headend, sometimes to regional headends, out to a neighborhood's hubsite, to a coaxial cable node which serves anywhere from 25 to 2000 homes. A master headend will have satellite dishes for reception of distant video signals as well as IP aggregation routers.
Some master headends house telephony equipment for providing telecommunications services to the community. A regional or area headend/hub will receive the video signal from the master headend and add to it the public and government access cable TV channels as required by local franchising authorities or insert targeted advertising that would appeal to a local area; the various services are encoded and upconverted onto RF carriers, combined onto a single electrical signal and inserted into a broadband optical transmitter. This optical transmitter converts the electrical signal to a downstream optically modulated signal, sent to the nodes. Fiber optic cables connect the headend or hub to optical nodes in a point-to-point or star topology, or in some cases, in a protected ring topology. A fiber optic node has a broadband optical receiver, which converts the downstream optically modulated signal coming from the headend or hub to an electrical signal going to the homes; as of 2015, the downstream signal is a RF modulated signal that begins at 50 MHz and ranges from 550–1000 MHz on the upper end.
The fiber optic node contains a reverse- or return-path transmitter that sends communication from the home back to the headend. In North America, this reverse signal is a modulated RF ranging from 5–42 MHz while in other parts of the world, the range is 5–65 MHz; the optical coupler combined with the optical receiver forms a node. The optical portion of the network provides a large amount of flexibility. If there are not many fiber-optic cables to the node, wavelength division multiplexing can be used to combine multiple optical signals onto the same fiber. Optical filters are used to split optical wavelengths onto the single fiber. For example, the downstream signal could be on a wavelength at 1490 nm and the return signal could be on a wavelength at 1310 nm; the coaxial portion of the network connects 25–2000 homes in a tree-and-branch configuration off of the node. RF amplifiers are used at intervals to overcome cable attenuation and passive losses of the electrical signals caused by splitting or "tapping" the coaxial cable.
Trunk coaxial cables are connected to the optical node and form a coaxial backbone to which smaller distribution cables connect. Trunk cables carry AC power, added to the cable line at either 60 or 90 V by a power supply and a power inserter; the power is added to the cable line so that optical nodes and distribution amplifiers do not need an individual, external power source. The power supply might have a power meter next to it depending on local power company regulations. From the trunk cables, smaller distribution cables are connected to a port of the trunk amplifier to carry the RF signal and the AC power down individual streets. If needed, line extenders, which are smaller distribution amplifiers, boost the signals to keep the power of the television signal at a level that the TV can accept; the distribution line is "tapped" into and used to connect the individual drops to customer homes. These taps pass the RF signal and block the AC power unless there are telephony devices that need the back-up power reliability provided by the coax power system.
The tap terminates into a small coaxial drop using a standard screw type connector known as an F connector. The drop is connected to the house where a ground block protects the system from stray voltages. Depending on the design of the network, the signal can be passed through a splitter to multiple TVs. If too many splitters are used to connect multiple TVs, the signal levels will decrease, picture quality on analog channels of TVs past those splitters will go down requiring the use of a "drop" or "house" amplifier, or more crudely, multiple drops to the same building. By using frequency-division multiplexing, a HFC network may carry a variety of services, including analog TV, digital TV, video on demand and high-speed data. Services on these systems are carried on RF signals in the 5 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency band; the HFC network is operated bi-directionally, meaning that signals are carried in both directions on the same network from the headend/hub office to the home, from the home to the headend/hub office.
The forward-path or downstream signals carry information from the headend/hub office to the home, such as video content and Internet data. The first HFC networks, old unupgraded HFC networks, are only one-way systems. Equipment for one-way systems may use POTS or radio networks to communicate to the headend; the return-path or upstream signals carry information from the home to the headend/hub office, such as control s