A transaxle is a single mechanical device which combines the functions of an automobile's transmission and differential into one integrated assembly. It can be produced in both automatic versions. Transaxles are near universal in all automobile configurations that have the engine placed at the same end of the car as the driven wheels: the front-engine/front-wheel drive. Many mid- and rear-engined vehicles use a transverse engine and transaxle, similar to a front-wheel drive unit. Others use a longitudinal engine and transaxle like Ferrari's 1989 Mondial t which used a "T" arrangement with a longitudinal engine connected to a transverse transaxle. Front-wheel drive versions of modern Audis, from the A4 upwards, along with their related marques from the Volkswagen Group use a similar layout, but with the transaxle mounted longitudinally; the front-wheel drive Renault 16 had a longitudinal engine and transaxle, with the engine behind the transaxle. The transaxle case was designed to allow the final-drive ring gear to be on either side of the pinion.
Front-engine, rear-wheel drive vehicles tend to have the transmission up front just after the engine, but sometimes a front engine drives a rear-mounted transaxle. This is done for reasons of weight distribution, is therefore common on sports cars. Another advantage is that as the driveshaft spins at engine speed it only has to endure the torque of the engine, instead of that torque multiplied by the 1st gear ratio; this design was pioneered in the 1934 Škoda Popular, in the 1950 Lancia Aurelia, designed by Vittorio Jano. Since this placement of the gearbox is unsuitable for a live axle, the rear suspension is either independent, or uses a de Dion tube. Rare exceptions to this rule were the Bugatti T46 and T50 which had a three speed gearbox on a live axle; the Nissan GT-R and Ferrari FF are unusual in being all-wheel-drive cars with front-engined layouts and rear-mounted transaxles. In the Nissan, one driveshaft sends power to the transaxle and another driveshaft sends power back along the car to the front wheels.
In the Ferrari, the rear transaxle works in the conventional manner, whilst the drive to the front wheels comes from a separate gearbox at the front of the engine. Notable Front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout vehicles with a transaxle design include: Volkswagen and Porsche made extensive use of transaxles in their rear engined vehicles. Over the years, models adopting this configuration have included: 1921–1925 Rumpler Tropfenwagen 1938–2003 Volkswagen Beetle 1940–1945 Volkswagen Kübelwagen 1941–1944 Volkswagen Schwimmwagen 1948–1965 Porsche 356 1950–1990 Volkswagen Type 2 T1-T3 1955–1974 Volkswagen Karmann Ghia 1960–1969 Chevrolet Corvair 1961–1973 Volkswagen Type 3 1963–1976 Hillman Imp 1963–present Porsche 911 1964–1969 Škoda 1000 MB 1965–1969, 1976 Porsche 912 1968–1974 Volkswagen Type 4 1969–1976 Porsche 914 1969–1980 Škoda 100, Škoda 110 R 1971-1978 Maserati Bora 1971-1992 De Tomaso Pantera 1975–1989 Porsche 930 1976–1990 Škoda 105, Škoda 120, Škoda 130, Škoda Garde, Škoda Rapid 1981–1983 DeLorean 1984-1988 Pontiac Fiero 2013–present Praga R1 All Audi cars with longitudinal engines and their'trademark' quattro four-wheel drive system, along with their related marques from the Volkswagen Group which share the same layout, utilise a transaxle.
This is mounted behind the front-mounted engine and contains the'gearbox', along with both the centre differential, the front differential and final drive unit. Other 4WD applications include: 1979-2002 Volkswagen Vanagon/Caravelle Syncro Edition - rear-engined, transaxle in the front. Hybrid Synergy Drive Axle Transmission Differential Powertrain Drivetrain Transfer case
Carlos Cossio was a militant university reformer, lawyer, legal philosopher and Argentinian professor. One of his most important works is the concept of the Egological Theory of Law. Cossio had his primary and secondary education in Tucumán moved to Buenos Aires to study Law at the University of Buenos Aires, where he joined the university reform movement, being one of the leaders of the Student Center, he completed his doctoral thesis on the topic of "The University Reform and the Problem of the New Generation," published in 1927. From 1934 to 1948, he taught at the National University of La Plata where he began to develop his theories on egological law. In 1948, he took over the Chair of Philosophy of Law at the University of Buenos Aires, where he finished the definition of his original conception of law, he was surrounded by a large group of followers and disciples, including Ambrose Lucas Gioja, Julio Cesar Cueto Rua, Genaro Carrió, José Vilanova, Daniel Herrendorf, Enrique Aftalion, Carlos Spini, who formed the "Argentina Legal School."
During this time, his recognition and prestige reached a level. His definition of law as "interference intersubjective behaviors" brought him into a controversy with Hans Kelsen, creator of the Pure Theory of Law, at the same law school in Buenos Aires in 1949. In 1956, he was forced to leave his position as chair by the military government of Pedro Eugenio Aramburu because of his alleged sympathy for the Peronists, it was only in 1973 when he could return thanks to the efforts of his friend and disciple, Julio Raffo; the military and its supporters destroyed the strength of the "Argentina Law School" and its potential for expansion. The liberal bourgeoisie and the political right never forgave their devotion to their independent politics and the fact that they never supported a political party, instead ardently defending their ideas and proposals. Cossio did respond to an official survey on the possible constitutional reform that materialized in 1949. While many of his colleagues didn't comment, instead distancing themselves during the military dictatorships of General Juan Carlos Ongania and Jorge Rafael Videla, the old professor spoke out against the regime and condemned the human rights violations.
His major work is Ideology and Law, developed from the concept of phenomenology of judgment, the judge's process of interpretation and understanding of the law, the ideological and class backgrounds of liberal capitalist law. In his early thesis in the publication The Law, Cossio explained that what judges do affects everyone and that what judges do remains hidden, both for themselves and for those who are subject to their decisions. "We are all involved in what judges do, good or bad, not just for what might be perceived at first glance", Cossio says, "but much more because all of them, day by day and hour by hour, they do something for the right wing or the left wing, for democracy or totalitarianism, gravitating over the social life as agents of the law". Those judges ignore the scope of their duties "because the said contribution being something more vivid than a thought, is on the basis of the situation that those agents of the law defend, a situation referred to the leading social structures".
Cossio accepted the Pure Theory of Law of Hans Kelsen, made it an important part of his own theory. However, the tension between the two visions was always present. Cossio accepted positive law, but did not accept the mechanistic normativism as the object of legal science. Cossio distinguished himself by demonstrating that law should be understood and interpreted by a theory of knowledge with respect to human behavior in intersubjective interference, it was not just about ideal legal subjects but about people, real human beings: "the law as human behavior." Cossio's work asserted that, "The judge looks at the law not as conclusive and finished, but as something, making its living character of human life." His work, unlike his skeptics', was translated into French, the former Yugoslavic language, Polish, Finnish and other languages. In 1986 he received the Konex Award for his development of the Humanities in Argentina; the egological theory of law is one of the most outstanding expressions of the Latin American cultural movement influenced by the university reform.
Its main followers are Albert Brimo and Julio Cesar Cueto Rua. Cossio was an excellent Poet, though continually neglected by the Argentinian Society of Writers, his most well-known poem is "Agua herrada". Its development appeared in his book entitled "The egological theory of law and the legal concept of freedom," whose first edition was published in 1944, twenty years a second edition was published by the printer Abeledo-Perrot, a traditional legal publisher in Buenos Aires, Argentina, his ideas took shape around 1941 and drew from Edmund Husserl, the last great classical philosopher, delved into Kant, Martin Heidegger and Hans Kelsen. Husserl used the theory of objects acts theory and difference, Kantian root, between formal legal logic and transcendental legal logic. Cossio's contribution was a legal philosophy of science that struck alike the religious mood of Thomistic natural law and legal positivism from the nineteenth century, renovated by the technical-legal. Parthian positive law with Cossian construction shelved the mechanistic normativism as an object of legal science to study the right understanding and interpreting by a theory of knowledge about
Cyba Audi is a communication strategist and entrepreneur based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. She is the Founder and Managing Director of Saba Consultants, which provides counsel in strategic communications planning, reputation building, investor relations to clients in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, she was a Senior Presenter and Producer at Al Arabiya News Channel, where she conceived and launched the channel’s first business-news show, Al-Aswaq Al-Arabiya, in June 2005. Soon after its launch, the show became the highest-rated business program on Arab television, she anchored Al Arabiya’s main business shows five days a week for five years. Cyba Audi provides executive coaching to corporate managers, she is a much-solicited moderator at international forums and conferences, both locally and internationally. Audi is a feminist. Cyba Audi was born in 1965 in Lebanon, her passion for business administration began to develop during her high school years, as she used to assist her father with running their family business.
Upon obtaining her Lebanese Baccalaureate from International College, Audi pursued a Bachelor of Business Administration at the American University of Beirut, from which she graduated in 1986. Soon after receiving her B. B. A, Audi moved to London, UK, where she worked as a trust specialist and account executive at Banque Française de Londres, a small private bank, she joined Merrill Lynch in 1998 as a relationship manager. As such, she managed and rebalanced the portfolio of individuals’ investments and acted as an expert in succession planning until 2003. Audi's strong background in finance caught the attention of the senior management of CNBC Arabiya. Audi moved to Dubai in May of that year to work as a Senior Anchor at the launched channel. For two years, she anchored the shows Kalam Al-Souq, which followed the regional stock markets during the day, Jalsat Al-Aamal, which reviewed economic and business news of the day. In 2005, Audi joined Al Arabiya News Channel, where she helped conceive and launch its business show Al-Aswaq Al-Arabiya in June of the same year.
For five years, she anchored Al Arabiya’s main business shows five days a week, interviewing company executives, bankers and central bank governors. Audi was known for her detailed analysis and her tough interviewing style, which earned her a leading position among Arab business television anchors. To cover live business events in the region, she traveled extensively throughout the GCC in Saudi Arabia; this enabled her to gain local insights on specific industries as well as financial and economic issues. Audi wrote an opinion column in the Arabic edition of Bloomberg Businessweek. Throughout her career in television, Audi noticed that business leaders in the region had trouble in communicating their company news in an effective way. In 2010, she established the media relations and financial service communications firm Saba Consultants, where she serves as its Head Storyteller and Managing Director. Saba Consultants counsels high-profile individuals, regional governments, listed companies on building their reputation, communicating with stakeholders, positioning themselves.
The firm crafts corporate strategies, modern visuals, digital campaigns for clients. Audi coaches chief executives and senior government officials on public image, public speaking, facing the media. Audi is an experienced moderator and presenter at local and international business events; these include webcasts, including “1,000 Voices for the Future” by Empower Peace, conferences like Leaders in Dubai, such forums as the World Economic Forum, the Global Competitiveness Forum, Global Humanitarian Forum. Saba Communications Consultants website Cyba Audi presenting Saudi Lomar on Al Arabiya in May 2009