Transcendental Meditation refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation and less to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi created and introduced the TM technique and TM movement in India in the mid-1950s; the Maharishi taught thousands of people during a series of world tours from 1958 to 1965, expressing his teachings in spiritual and religious terms. TM became more popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as the Maharishi shifted to a more technical presentation, his meditation technique was practiced by celebrities. At this time, he began training TM teachers and created specialized organizations to present TM to specific segments of the population such as business people and students. By the early 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of people; the TM technique involves the use of a silently-used sound called a mantra, is practiced for 15–20 minutes twice per day. It is taught by certified teachers through a standard course of instruction, which costs a fee that varies by country.
According to the Transcendental Meditation movement, it is a non-religious method for relaxation, stress reduction, self-development. The technique has been seen as both non-religious; the United States Court of Appeals upheld the federal ruling that TM was "religious in nature" and therefore could not be taught in public schools. TM is one of the most practiced and researched meditation techniques, it is not possible to say whether it has any effect on health as the research, as of 2007, is of poor quality. The Transcendental Meditation program and the Transcendental Meditation movement originated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the organization, continue beyond his death in 2008. In 1955, "the Maharishi began publicly teaching a traditional meditation technique" learned from his master Brahmananda Saraswati that he called Transcendental Deep Meditation and renamed Transcendental Meditation; the Maharishi initiated thousands of people developed a TM teacher training program as a way to accelerate the rate of bringing the technique to more people.
He inaugurated a series of world tours which promoted Transcendental Meditation. These factors, coupled with endorsements by celebrities who practiced TM and claims that scientific research had validated the technique, helped to popularize TM in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of individuals and the Maharishi was overseeing a large multinational movement. Despite organizational changes and the addition of advanced meditative techniques in the 1970s, the Transcendental Meditation technique has remained unchanged. Among the first organizations to promote TM were the Spiritual Regeneration Movement and the International Meditation Society. In modern times, the movement has grown to encompass schools and universities that teach the practice, includes many associated programs based on the Maharishi's interpretation of the Vedic traditions. In the U. S. non-profit organizations included the Students International Meditation Society, AFSCI, World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, Global Country of World Peace and Maharishi Foundation.
The successor to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leader of the Global Country of World Peace, is Tony Nader. The meditation practice involves the use of a silently-used mantra for 15–20 minutes twice per day while sitting with the eyes closed, it is reported to be one of the most practiced, among the most researched, meditation techniques, with hundreds of published research studies. The technique is made available worldwide by certified TM teachers in a seven-step course, fees vary from country to country. Beginning in 1965, the Transcendental Meditation technique has been incorporated into selected schools, universities and prison programs in the US, Latin America and India. In 1977 a US district court ruled that a curriculum in TM and the Science of Creative Intelligence being taught in some New Jersey schools was religious in nature and in violation of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution; the technique has since been included in a number of educational and social programs around the world.
The Transcendental Meditation technique has been described as both religious and non-religious, as an aspect of a new religious movement, as rooted in Hinduism, as a non-religious practice for self-development. The public presentation of the TM technique over its 50-year history has been praised for its high visibility in the mass media and effective global propagation, criticized for using celebrity and scientific endorsements as a marketing tool. Advanced courses supplement the TM technique and include an advanced meditation program called the TM-Sidhi program; the Transcendental Meditation movement consists of the programs and organizations connected with the Transcendental Meditation technique and founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Transcendental Meditation was first taught in the 1950s in India and has continued since the Maharishi's death in 2008; the organization was estimated to have 900,000 participants worldwide in 1977, a million by the 1980s, 5 million in more recent years, including some notable practitioners.
Programs include the Transcendental Meditation technique, an advanced meditation practice called the TM-Sidhi program, an alternative health care program called Maharishi Ayurveda, a system of building and architecture called Maharishi Sthapatya Ve
Empire Orienteering Club was founded in 1987 to promote the sport of orienteering and develop suitable maps in the Capital District of New York State. The club was founded by Ed Downey, Ed Jaeger, Eric Hamilton and William Jameson during a meeting at the Guilderland, NY public library in the Spring of 1987. Today, EMPO organizes 15 events per year, has produced nearly 25 specialized, five color orienteering maps in the Albany, NY area. EMPO is a member of Orienteering USA. Blueberry Hill, Washington Ave. Extension, Albany, NY - No longer in use Camp Pinnacle, New Scotland, NY Camp Wakpominee, Fort Ann, NY Central Park, Schenectady, NY - Under development Cole Hill State Forest, East Berne, NY Colonie Mohawk River Park, Colonie, NY Crandall Park, Glens Falls, NY Dwaas Kill Nature Preserve, Clifton Park, NY Five Rivers Environmental Education Center, Delmar, NY Foxenkill Flats, Berne, NY Garnet Hill, North River, NY Grafton Lakes State Park, Grafton, NY - Major revision planned Hayes Nature Park, Clifton Park, NY Kinns Road County Forest, Clifton Park, NY Lapland Lake Resort, Benson, NY Moreau Lake State Park, Moreau, NY Partridge Run State Wildlife Management Area, Berne, NY Peebles Island State Park, Waterford, NY Pineridge Cross County Ski Center, Poestenkill, NY Pleasant Valley Farms, Berne, NY Saratoga Biathlon & Competition Center, Day, NY Saratoga Spa State Park, Saratoga Springs, NY Schenectady Museum Nature Preserve, Niskayuna, NY - Now expanded and renamed Niskayuna Parks Tawasentha Park, Guilderland, NY Thacher State Park, New Scotland, NY Vischer Ferry Nature and Historic Preserve, Clifton Park, NY Washington Park, Albany, NY West Sky Nature Preserve, Clifton Park, NY Woods Hollow Nature Preserve, Milton, NY Empire has run the following major US events.
1992 US Intercollegiate Championships - Grafton Lakes State Park, Grafton, NY 1993 US Relay Championships, Thacher State Park, New Scotland, NY 1997 US Ski-O Championships, Garnet Hill, North River, NY 1998 Billygoat Run XX, Mt. Norwottuck/The Notch, Hadley, MA 2000 US Ski-O Championships, Day, NY 2006 US Short-O and US Long-O Championships, Thacher State Park and Camp Pinnacle, New Scotland, NY 2007 Billygoat Run XXIX, Thacher State Park and Camp Pinnacle, New Scotland, NY 2010 US Individual Championships, Moreau Lake State Park, Moreau, NY 2012 Billygoat Run XXXIV, Moreau Lake State Park, Moreau, NY 2013 US Team Trials and US Sprint/Middle/Long Championships, Camp Wakpominee, Fort Ann, NY / Moreau Lake State Park, Moreau, NY 2015 US'A' Meet at Pineridge Cross Country Ski Center, East Poestenkill, New York The Empire Club won the Perm Cup at the 2014 US Ski-Orienteering Championships, held at the Von Trapp Lodge in Stowe, VT, defeating 14 other US club teams; the Empire Club won first place in the medium-sized club division at the 2014 US Orienteering Championships, held at Letchworth State Park in New York.
"Getting their bearings", Times Union, October 14, 2009 "Orienteering is where it's at", The Spotlight, October 7, 2009 "Finding Their Way", Gloversville-Johnstown Leader-Herald, November 2, 2003 "BKW Finds Way to Championship", Altamont Enterprise, April 12, 2001 "Details of a January Ski-O", ONA, January 2001 "Course Data", http://www.billygoat.org/statistics/courses.html "No Path, No Rules: The Wildest New Race", Men's Journal, June 2012 EMPO External website
Darrin Phillip Gayles is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida and former Florida Circuit Court Judge. Gayles received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1990 from Howard University, he received a Juris Doctor in 1993 from the George Washington University Law School. He began his career as an Assistant State Attorney in the Miami-Dade State Attorney's Office from 1993 to 1997. From 1997 to 1999, he served as an Assistant District Counsel at the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service. From 1999 to 2004, he served as an Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of Florida. In 2004, Gayles became a judge, serving as a County Judge in Miami-Dade County within the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. From 2011 to 2014, he served as a Circuit Court Judge on the Eleventh Judicial Circuit Court of Florida. Gayles is gay. On February 6, 2014, President Obama nominated Gayles to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, to the seat vacated by Judge Patricia A. Seitz, who took senior status on November 16, 2012.
He received a hearing before the United States Senate Judiciary Committee on April 1, 2014. On May 8, 2014 his nomination was reported out of committee by voice vote. On June 12, 2014, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid filed for a motion to invoke cloture on the nomination. On June 16, 2014 the United States Senate voted 55–37 on the motion to invoke cloture. On June 17, 2014 the United States Senate voted 98–0 in favor of final confirmation, making Gayles the first gay African-American man to be confirmed as a United States federal judge, he received his judicial commission on June 19, 2014. Darrin P. Gayles at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Darrin P. Gayles at Ballotpedia