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Transfer case

A transfer case is a part of the drivetrain of four-wheel-drive, all-wheel-drive, other multiple powered axle vehicles. The transfer case transfers power from the transmission to the front and rear axles by means of drive shafts, it synchronizes the difference between the rotation of the front and rear wheels, may contain one or more sets of low range gears for off-road use. The transfer case receives power from the transmission and sends it to both the front and rear axles; this can be done with hydraulics, or chain drive. On some vehicles, such as four-wheel-drive trucks or vehicles intended for off-road use, this feature is controlled by the driver; the driver can put the transfer case into either "two-wheel-drive" or "four-wheel-drive" mode. This is sometimes accomplished by means of a shifter, similar to that in a manual transmission. On some vehicles this may be electronically operated by a switch instead; some vehicles, such as all-wheel-drive sports cars, have transfer cases. Such a transfer case is permanently "locked" into all-wheel-drive mode.

Transfer cases that are designed to allow for normal road use synchronize the difference between the rotation of the front and rear wheels, in much the same way the differential acts on a given axle. This is necessary because rear tires never turn at the same speed. Different rates of tire rotation are due to different tire diameters and different gear ratios in the front and rear differentials since manufacturers will have a lower ratio in the front vs. the rear to help with control. If the transfer case did not make up the difference between the two different rates of rotation, binding would occur and the transfer case could become damaged; this is why a transfer case, not designed for on-road use will cause problems with driveline windup if driven on dry pavement. Transfer cases designed for off-road use can mechanically lock the front and rear drive shafts when needed; this is the equivalent to the differential lock. The transfer case may contain one or more sets of low range gears for off-road use.

Low range gears are engaged with electronic switch. On many transfer cases, this shifter is the same as the one that selects 4WD operation. Low range gears allow the vehicle to drive at much slower speeds while still operating within the usable power band / RPM range of the engine; this increases the torque available at the axles. Low-range gears are used for inclement road conditions, towing a heavy load, driving on unimproved roads, extreme off-road maneuvers such as rockcrawling; this feature is absent on all-wheel-drive cars. Some large vehicles, such as heavy equipment or military trucks, may have more than one low-range gear. Transfer cases used on "part-time" four-wheel-drive off-road vehicles such as trucks, rock-crawling vehicles, some military vehicles allow the driver to select 2WD or 4WD, as well as high or low gear ranges; those used in sports cars and performance sedans are "transparent" to the driver. There are two different types of internal power-transfer mechanism found in most transfer cases.

Gear-driven transfer cases use sets of gears to drive either the front or both the front and rear driveshafts. These are strong, heavy units that are used in large trucks, but there are several gear drive cases in production for passenger cars. Chain-driven transfer cases use a chain to drive most only one axle, but can drive both axles. Chain-driven transfer cases are quieter and lighter than gear-driven ones, they are used in vehicles such as full size trucks, Jeeps and SUVs. Some off-road driving enthusiasts modify their vehicles to use gear-driven transfer cases, accepting the additional weight and noise to gain the extra strength they provide. Transfer cases are classified as either "divorced"/independent or "married". Married transfer cases are bolted directly to the transmission between the transmission's output shaft and the rear or main driveshaft. Sometimes a married transfer case is an integral part of the transmission and the two components share the same housing or "case", as is found on recent Subaru products and some other all-wheel-drive cars.

A divorced or independent transfer case is separate from the transmission. It is located further down the driveline than a married transfer case and connected to the transmission output shaft by a short driveshaft. Independent transfer cases are used on long wheelbase vehicles, such as commercial trucks or military trucks. Manual Shift On-the-Fly transfer cases have a selector lever on the driver's side floor transmission hump and may have either two sealed automatic front axle locking hubs or two manual front axle hub selectors of "LOCK" and "UNLOCK" or "FREE". To engage the four-wheel-drive system the vehicle must be moving at a low speed; the speed at which 4x4 can be engaged depends on the vehicle. This is only for the four-wheel-drive high setting. To engage the four-wheel-drive low setting, the vehicle must be stopped and the transmission must be shifted to neutral the four-wheel-drive low can be selected. Electronic Shift On-the-Fly transfer cases have a dash-mounted selector switch or buttons with front sealed automatic locking axle hubs or drive flanges.

Unlike the manual transfer case, this system has a transfer case motor. To engage the four-wheel-drive system the vehicle must

Dickey–Fuller test

In statistics, the Dickey–Fuller test tests the null hypothesis that a unit root is present in an autoregressive model. The alternative hypothesis is different depending on which version of the test is used, but is stationarity or trend-stationarity, it is named after the statisticians David Dickey and Wayne Fuller, who developed the test in 1979. A simple AR model is y t = ρ y t − 1 + u t where y t is the variable of interest, t is the time index, ρ is a coefficient, u t is the error term. A unit root is present if ρ = 1; the model would be non-stationary in this case. The regression model can be written as Δ y t = y t − 1 + u t = δ y t − 1 + u t where Δ is the first difference operator; this model can be estimated and testing for a unit root is equivalent to testing δ = 0. Since the test is done over the residual term rather than raw data, it is not possible to use standard t-distribution to provide critical values. Therefore, this statistic t has a specific distribution known as the Dickey–Fuller table.

There are three main versions of the test: 1. Test for a unit root: Δ y t = δ y t − 1 + u t 2. Test for a unit root with drift: Δ y t = a 0 + δ y t − 1 + u t 3. Test for a unit root with drift and deterministic time trend: Δ y t = a 0 + a 1 t + δ y t − 1 + u t Each version of the test has its own critical value which depends on the size of the sample. In each case, the null hypothesis is that there is a unit root, δ = 0; the tests have low statistical power in that they cannot distinguish between true unit-root processes and near unit-root processes. This is called the "near observation equivalence" problem; the intuition behind the test is. If the series y is stationary it has a tendency to return to a constant mean. Therefore, large values will tend to be followed by smaller values, small values by larger values. Accordingly, the level of the series will be a significant predictor of next period's change, will have a negative coefficient. If, on the other hand, the series is integrated positive changes and negative changes will occur with probabilities that do not depend on the current level of the series.

It is notable that Δ y t = a 0 + u t may be rewritten as y t = y 0 + ∑ i = 1 t u i + a 0 t with a deterministic trend coming from a 0 t and a stochastic intercept term coming from y 0 + ∑ i = 1 t u i, resulting in what is referred to as a stochastic trend. There is an extension of the Dickey–Fuller test called the augmented Dickey–Fuller test, which removes all the structural effects in the time series and tests using the same procedure. Which of the three main versions of the test should be used is not a minor issue; the decision is important for the power of the unit root test. Inappropriate exclusion of the intercept or deterministic time trend term leads to bias in the coefficient estimate for δ, leading to the actual size for the unit root test not matching the reported one. If the time trend term is inappropriately excluded with the a 0 term estimated t

Astoria (Marianas Trench album)

Astoria is the fourth studio album recorded by Canadian rock band Marianas Trench. It was released on October 23, 2015 through 604 Records and Cherrytree Records and Interscope Records; the album represents the band's official return to the music scene after promotion of their previous album, Ever After, ended in 2013, was preceded by the retrospective EP, Something Old / Something New earlier in 2015. In 2011, Marianas Trench released their third studio album, Ever After, which produced five top-50 singles, including lead single "Haven't Had Enough", which became the group's highest charting single to date at number 9. After releasing the last single from that era, "By Now", in 2013, the group returned to the studio to record their next album. During the promotion for Ever After, lead singer and songwriter, Josh Ramsay achieved mainstream success as a songwriter and producer on fellow Canadian Carly Rae Jepsen's No. 1 hit "Call Me Maybe". This helped pave the way for the band signing an American record deal with Cherrytree Records and promoting to a broader audience.

The group released "Pop 101" featuring hip hop artist Anami Vice on July 29, 2014 as the intended lead single for the then-unnamed fourth album. A second single, "Here's to the Zeros", was released in December 2014, with the full album expected the following spring; the album's release was pushed back to the fall. When the band announced Astoria, they decided not to include either of these tracks, as they no longer fit the tone of the record. Both of these buzz singles, along with two previously-unreleased songs recorded before their debut album, Fix Me, were instead released as a four-track extended play fittingly titled Something Old / Something New, released on May 26, 2015. Similar to their previous two albums, Astoria is conceived as a loose concept album, with a cohesive theme and transition tracks bridging the individual songs composing the album. According to Ramsay, this album is inspired by 1980s fantasy and adventure films, The Goonies in particular; that film inspired the title, the album's artwork, as well as the title of their accompanying US tour.

Marianas Trench participated the US on the Hey You Guys!! Tour in the fall of 2015 in support of the album; the tour began in Portland, OR on November 3, 2015 and ended in Grand Rapids, MI on February 14, 2016. The band released a video to their official Vevo channel regarding the making of the album; the group has announced a Canadian tour called the "Never Say Die Tour", will be accompanied by Walk Off The Earth. The tour is set to start on March 9, 2016. On May 20, the group released a music video for "This Means War". In July and August, the group went on the SPF 80s tour in the US. "One Love" was released on September 2015 as the official lead single for the album. It entered the Billboard Canadian Hot 100 at number 60 on the chart dated October 3, 2015; the song has been described by critics as more pop than the group's earlier music and has been favorably compared to previous ballad singles "Good to You" and "Fallout". "One Love" was serviced to American hot adult contemporary radio through 604 Records on November 9, 2015.

A second official single, "This Means War", was serviced to Canadian radio on February 16, 2016. It was the group's first single to not enter the Canadian Hot 100. "Who Do You Love" was released as the third official single on September 8, 2016. The thirteenth track, "Wildfire", was released to iTunes on October 2, 2015 as a promotional single supporting pre-orders of the album. All music and lyrics by Josh Ramsay. Personnel per booklet


Bistec alemán or crudo alemán is a typical German-Chilean dish similar to a steak tartare. It is made by putting finely chopped raw beef mince onto a piece of pre-sliced white bread and adding lemon juice, chopped onions and a sauce made of yogurt and mayonnaise. Most it is derived from the German Mett, a preparation of minced pork served with chopped onions; the predominance of cattle farming in southern Chile in contrast to pig farming in Central Europe led to a local adaptation, using beef instead of pork to recreate this traditional dish. List of beef dishes Stephan Küeffner and Kristina Schreck. Frommer's Easter Island. 2007. Page 253

Margaret Levyns

Margaret Rutherford Bryan Levyns was an eminent South African phytogeographer and taxonomist. Margaret Levyns was educated at home by her mother and attended Ellerslie Girls' School, she was awarded two bursaries. In 1908 she enrolled at the South African College intending to study mathematics and chemistry, with botany for her honours year. Prof. Harold Pearson persuaded her to take botany as a major subject. After winning two scholarships, the Queen Victoria Scholarship and the 1851 Exhibition Memorial Scholarship and spending 1912-14 at Newnham College, she returned to South Africa and was promptly awarded another scholarship to the John Innes Institute where she chose to study genetics. On returning to South Africa for the second time, she took up a lecturing post in the Botany Department at the South African College which became the University of Cape Town, she was the first woman to receive a D. Sc. degree from University of Cape Town, for her 1932 thesis'A taxonomic study of Lobostemon and Echiostachys'.

Her publications included A Guide to the Flora of the Cape Peninsula in 1929, substantial sections of Flora of the Cape Peninsula by Adamson & Salter in 1950. After her retirement in 1945, she remained active in the botanical field and published numerous papers on taxonomy and phytogeography, she revised a number of South African genera e.g. Muraltia. In 1923 she married John Levyns Assistant Provincial Secretary of the Cape Province and who served on the council of the Botanical Society of South Africa. Margaret Levyns is commemorated in Thamnochortus levynsiae Pillans, Nivenia levynsiae H. Weimarck and Crassula levynsiae Adamson; some 12 000 of her collected specimens are lodged with other herbaria. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Levyns. President of Section B of the South African Association for Advancement of Science 1952/53 South African Medal 1958 President of the Royal Society of South Africa 1962/63 Timeline of women in science Biography of Margaret Levyns at the S2A3 Biographical Database of Southern African Science Royal Society of South Africa University of Cape Town Libraries


KION-TV, virtual channel 46, is a CBS/CW+/Telemundo-affiliated television station licensed to Monterey, United States and serving the Monterey Bay area. The station is owned by Gazette Company. KION-TV's studios are located on Moffett Street in Salinas behind the city's airport, its transmitter is located on Mount Toro, about 10 miles south of Salinas; the station is available on channel 5 on most cable systems. KION operates digital translator KMUV-LD licensed to Monterey, with transmitter on Fremont Peak. KION started out as KMST-TV on January 25, 1969, as a CBS affiliate, taking it over from NBC affiliate KSBW which had it as a secondary channel. KMST was available in markets that reached from the Monterey Bay area to California. Retlaw Broadcasting, a subsidiary of Retlaw Enterprises, a company owned by relatives of Walt Disney, acquired KMST from its original local owners in 1979. By 1993, San Jose's TCI cable opted to drop KMST; that year, Retlaw sold the station to a partnership between Harron Communications and Smith Broadcasting, with Smith Broadcasting having control of the joint venture).

On October 4, the new owners changed Channel 46's call sign to KCCN-TV. The next year, Smith Broadcasting sold its share of the station to Harron, in order to purchase KSBW. At that time, KCBA owned by the Ackerley Group, signed a local marketing agreement with KCCN, with Ackerley taking over the operations of both stations; the beginning of the LMA came at a time when CBS' ratings were at one of the lowest points in the network's history, while Fox's ratings were on the rise. Although KCCN was longer-established, KCBA became the senior partner in the LMA. On February 23, 1997, KCCN changed its call letters again, this time to KION. Late in 1998, Ackerley sold KCBA to Seal Rock Broadcasters, it took more than a year for this transaction to receive Federal Communications Commission approval, due to the then-pending license renewals for both stations. However, Ackerley continued to operate KCBA through an LMA with its new owners, resulting in KION now becoming the senior partner in the LMA. By that time CBS' ratings had recovered to be competitive with those of ABC and NBC.

Two years Ackerley merged with Clear Channel Communications. Clear Channel added the -TV suffix to KION's legal call sign when what was KTXX took the KION call letters on August 14, 2002. From 1995 to 2003, KION and KCBA carried UPN programs such as WWF/E SmackDown! and the 2002 version of The Twilight Zone as a secondary affiliate. On April 20, 2007, Clear Channel entered into an agreement to spin off its entire television stations group to Newport Television, a broadcasting holding company established by the private equity firm Providence Equity Partners. However, Newport Television could not keep KION or Telemundo affiliate KMUV-LP due to Providence Equity Partners' partial ownership of several media properties that serve parts of the Monterey market. KION and KMUV were sold to the Cowles Publishing Company, the owner of KHQ-TV and The KHQ Television Group in Spokane, Washington; the deal closed on May 7, 2008. On that day, Cowles Publishing took over the LMA for KCBA from Newport Television.

However, for some time afterward, Newport Television's website continued to list all three stations as being owned and/or operated by Newport. Subsequently, KION and the other former Clear Channel/Newport stations acquired by Cowles switched their website CMS providers from Inergize Digital to Worldnow. On September 20, 2013, News-Press & Gazette Company announced that it would purchase KION-TV and KMUV-LP, as well as San Luis Obispo sister station KKFX-CA. NPG would take over some of the operations of Santa Maria sister station KCOY-TV, which Cowles retained but sold to VistaWest Media LLC, under a shared services agreement, as NPG's holdings in the area included KEYT-TV in Santa Barbara; the sale was completed on December 13. The existing LMA for KCBA was terminated on December 1, as that station's operations were assumed by Entravision Communications through a joint sales agreement. After NPG closed on the purchase, Internet Broadcasting took over the operations of KION's web site, as for all other NPG station websites.

KION radio is no longer co-owned with KION-TV, as Clear Channel continues to operate the radio station. For several years after Clear Channel sold the television station, the radio station's logo continued to echo that of KION-TV's previous logo, with a "1" and a "0" added to turn "46" into "1460". On June 20, 2014, KION redesigned its website with a new logo consistent with the rest of the NPG stations in San Luis Obispo, Santa Maria, Santa Barbara; the station's digital signal is multiplexed: KION-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 46, on February 17, 2009, the original target date by which full-power television in the United States was to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 32. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 46. KION has evening newscasts seven days a week, totaling 23 hours of news per week.

On weekdays, a two-hour morning news block b