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Transform fault

A transform fault or transform boundary is a fault along a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal. It ends abruptly where it connects to another plate boundary, either another transform, a spreading ridge, or a subduction zone. Most such faults are found in oceanic crust, where they accommodate the lateral offset between segments of divergent boundaries, forming a zigzag pattern; this is a result of oblique seafloor spreading where the direction of motion is not perpendicular to the trend of the overall divergent boundary. A smaller number of such faults are found on land, although these are better-known, such as the San Andreas Fault. A transform fault is a special case of a strike-slip fault that forms a plate boundary. Transform boundaries are known as conservative plate boundaries because they involve no addition or loss of lithosphere at the Earth's surface. Geophysicist and geologist John Tuzo Wilson recognized that the offsets of oceanic ridges by faults do not follow the classical pattern of an offset fence or geological marker in Reid's rebound theory of faulting, from which the sense of slip is derived.

The new class of faults, called transform faults, produce slip in the opposite direction from what one would surmise from the standard interpretation of an offset geological feature. Slip along transform faults does not increase the distance between the ridges it separates; this hypothesis was confirmed in a study of the fault plane solutions that showed the slip on transform faults points in the opposite direction than classical interpretation would suggest. Transform faults are related to transcurrent faults and are confused. Both types of fault are side-to-side in movement. Transform faults form a tectonic plate boundary, while transcurrent faults do not; the effect of a fault is to relieve strain, which can be caused by compression, extension, or lateral stress in the rock layers at the surface or deep in the Earth's subsurface. Transform faults relieve the strain by transferring displacement between ridges or subduction zones, they act as the plane of weakness, which may result in splitting in rift zones.

Transform faults are found linking segments of mid-oceanic ridges or spreading centres. These mid-oceanic ridges are where new seafloor is created through the upwelling of new basaltic magma. With new seafloor being pushed and pulled out, the older seafloor slides away from the mid-oceanic ridges toward the continents. Although separated only by tens of kilometers, this separation between segments of the ridges causes portions of the seafloor to push past each other in opposing directions; this lateral movement of seafloors past each other is where transform faults are active. Transform faults move differently from a strike-slip fault at the mid-oceanic ridge. Instead of the ridges moving away from each other, as they do in other strike-slip faults, transform-fault ridges remain in the same, fixed locations, the new ocean seafloor created at the ridges is pushed away from the ridge. Evidence of this motion can be found in paleomagnetic striping on the seafloor. A paper written by geophysicist Taras Gerya theorizes that the creation of the transform faults between the ridges of the mid-oceanic ridge is attributed to rotated and stretched sections of the mid-oceanic ridge.

This occurs over a long period of time with the spreading center or ridge deforming from a straight line to a curved line. Fracturing along these planes forms transform faults; as this takes place, the fault changes from a normal fault with extensional stress to a strike-slip fault with lateral stress. In the study done by Bonatti and Crane and gabbro rocks were discovered in the edges of the transform ridges; these rocks are created deep inside the Earth's mantle and rapidly exhumed to the surface. This evidence helps to prove that new seafloor is being created at the mid-oceanic ridges and further supports the theory of plate tectonics. Active transform faults are between faults. Fracture zones represent the active transform-fault lines, which have since passed the active transform zone and are being pushed toward the continents; these elevated ridges on the ocean floor can be traced for hundreds of miles and in some cases from one continent across an ocean to the other continent. The most prominent examples of the mid-oceanic ridge transform zones are in the Atlantic Ocean between South America and Africa.

Known as the St. Paul, Romanche and Ascension fracture zones, these areas have deep identifiable transform faults and ridges. Other locations include: the East Pacific Ridge located in the South Eastern Pacific Ocean, which meets up with San Andreas Fault to the North. Transform faults are not spreading centers; the best example is the San Andreas Fault on the Pacific coast of the United States. The San Andreas Fault links the East Pacific Rise off the West coast of Mexico to the Mendocino Triple Junction off the coast of the Northwestern United States, making it a ridge-to-transform-style fault; the formation of the San Andreas Fault system occurred recently during the Oligocene Period between 34 million and 24 million years ago. During this period, the Farallon plate, followed by the Pacific plate, collided into the North American plate; the collision led to the subduction of

Eino Leino (wrestler)

Eino Aukusti Leino was a Finnish freestyle wrestler. He competed at the 1920, 1924, 1928 and 1932 Olympics and won a medal each time, including a gold in 1924. Leino started as a association football goalkeeper before changing to wrestling. In late 1914 he immigrated to the United States, therefore did not compete at Finnish and world championships until 1930s, when he returned to Finland, he won the American AAU Championships in 1920 and 1923 and placed second in Finnish championships in 1936. Leino was a carpenter by profession, in 1949–52 worked as a sports functionary in Finland. Eino Leino at International Olympic Committee Eino Leino at Olympics at Eino Leino at United World Wrestling

Deula railway station

Deula railway station is Kolkata Suburban Railway Station on the Sealdah–Diamond Harbour line of Sealdah railway division. It is under the jurisdiction of Eastern Railway zone of Indian Railways. Deula railway station is situated beside Station Road road at Nazra, South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal. Number of EMU trains passing through Deula railway station; the Eastern Bengal Railway constructed a 1,676 mm wide Broad Gauge Railway from Sealdah to Diamond Harbour in 1883. The electrification of the Sealdah railway station to Diamond Harbour including Deula railway station was completed with 25 kV AC overhead system in 1965–67

2013–14 All-Ireland Junior Club Hurling Championship

The 2013–14 All-Ireland Junior Club Hurling Championship was the 11th staging of the All-Ireland Junior Club Hurling Championship since its establishment by the Gaelic Athletic Association. On 15 February 2014, Creggan Kickhams won the championship following a 1–11 to 1–7 defeat of Ballysaggart in a replay of the final. Quarter-final Semi-finals Final Finals Following their All-Ireland final replay defeat, Ballysaggart lodged on objection claiming that Creggan Kickhams fielded an illegal player. Ballysaggart believed that Conor Small shouldn’t have played in either final game or in the Creggan Kickhams semi-final win over Fullen Gaels as he was underage. According to rule 6.16, a player must be over 16 years to play an adult game. It states to be “over” 16 the player’s 16th birthday must fall prior to January 1 of the championship year; the Central Competitions Control Committee subsequently rejected Ballysaggart's appeal, however, no explanation was given


KWMZ-FM is a radio station licensed to serve Empire, Louisiana. The station is owned by Michael A. Costello through licensee M. A. C. Broadcasting, LLC; this station received its original construction permit from the Federal Communications Commission on May 15, 1998. The new station, intended for Grand Isle, was assigned the call letters KBIL by the FCC on July 17, 1998; the station signed on the air as a Rhythmic Contemporary Hit music formatted station branded as "U104.5" on June 5, 2001 using the call sign KNOU. KNOU had evolved to an urban contemporary/hip hop music format by December 2001. JP Broadcasting, LLC agreed in July 2002 to sell KNOU to On Top Communications of Louisiana, LLC for a reported $8.5 million. The deal was approved by the FCC on September 6, 2002, the transfer was completed on December 6, 2002. On January 6, 2003, the station changed its branding to "Hot 104.5" and brought in Russ Parr's syndicated morning show and veteran programmer Lamonda Williams. In September 2005, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, KNOU applied to the FCC for permission to temporarily broadcast from another site and tower.

They noted in their application that the current city of license and the broadcast tower were "destroyed" and that it would be "many months" before a new tower could be constructed. The FCC twice denied their request to continue operations at the temporary site. In January 2006, On Top Communications of Louisiana's filed for bankruptcy, the license was transferred to the debtor in possession handling the bankruptcy proceedings. On February 6, 2006, the FCC granted KNOU a special temporary authority to broadcast from a facility near Diamond, Louisiana. On March 23, 2006, the station fell silent again. Although no longer broadcasting, Hot 104.5 maintained an internet radio stream in order to "keep New Orleans' hip-hop community united." On August 29, 2008, KNOU went off the air due to the approach of Hurricane Gustav. When Gustav made landfall on September 1, 2008, KNOU's temporary site at Buras, was hit with storm surge and rain which damaged the facilities and flooded the studio facilities trailer with five feet of water.

The equipment and transmitter were deemed a total loss so on September 24, 2008, KNOU filed for a new "remain silent" authority from the FCC. On October 6, 2008, the Debtor-In-Possession reached an agreement to transfer the license and equipment leases for KNOU to Power Broadcasting, LLC. According to the Asset Purchase agreement filed with the FCC, Power Broadcasting had a secured loan for $8 million that it presented to the bankruptcy court and was awarded the station's assets, subject to FCC approval; the transfer was completed on December 1, 2008.. On June 30, 2011, KNOU returned to the air with a classic rock format. Effective August 15, 2012, KNOU was sold to Michael A. Costello's M. A. C. Broadcasting, LLC for $350,000. Coincident with the consummation of the sale, the station's call sign was changed to the current KWMZ-FM. On September 10, 2012 KWMZ-FM went silent. On February 5, 2013 KWMZ-FM returned to the air with an 80's hits format as "Z104.5". The station uses the correct call letters in its legal ID, but otherwise drops the K in its calls, referring to itself as "WMZ-FM".

Query the FCC's FM station database for KWMZ Radio-Locator information on KWMZ Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KWMZ


Abashiri is a city located in Okhotsk Subprefecture, Japan. Abashiri is known as the site of the Abashiri Prison, a Meiji-era facility used for the incarceration of political prisoners; the old prison has been turned into a museum, but the city's new maximum-security prison is still in use. As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 40,333 and a density of 85.6 persons per km². The total area is 470.94 km2. March 1872: Abashiri Village founded, being given the name of Abashiri District in Kitami Province. 1875: The village name is rewritten in kanji. 1902: Abashiri Village, Kitami Town, Isani Village, Nikuribake Village, all in Abashiri District, merged to form Abashiri Town. 1915: Notoro Village, Mokoto Village merged. 1921: Memanbetsu Village split. 1931: Boundary with Memanbetsu Town modified. February 11, 1947: Higashimokoto Village split. Abashiri Town becomes Abashiri City. All of the territories of Ōzora used to be a part of Abashiri. Abashiri is located in the eastern part of Okhotsk Subprefecture, about 50 kilometers east of Kitami.

There are no tall mountains. The Abashiri River flows through the city and there are three lakes in the city as well; these lakes and Mount Tento belong to Abashiri Quasi-National Park. The climate is humid continental with warm summer as much of Hokkaido, similar to the south coast of New England. Despite its reputation for extreme cold, Abashiri is not the coldest major town in Japan, being less cold in the winter than Obihiro and warmer in summer than Nemuro or Kushiro. Abashiri receives less precipitation than any other city in Japan because its location on the drift ice-affected Sea of Okhotsk, however, causes Abashiri to receive less sunshine than the northeast coast since winter snowfall is heavier and fog less confined to the summer months when the Oyashio Current is strongest. During the winter, when Lake Abashiri freezes over, fog becomes a common occurrence; the harbor closes when it ices over. Because of its short 130-day growing season, the crops in the region, such as oats and beans, are required to be hardy.

Hay is grown for local cows and sheep. The sea is an important part of the community as well as the economy, as fishing and seaweed are important means of livelihood. Memanbetsu Airport is located in nearby Ōzora. Abashiri is an important local port railroad terminal. Sekihoku Main Line: Yobito - Abashiri Senmō Main Line: Abashiri - Katsuradai - Masuura - Mokoto - Kitahama Tokyo University of Agriculture, Okhotsk campus Hokkaido Abashiri Minamigaoka High School Hokkaido Abashiri Keiyo High School Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada - Each year many students participate in student exchange programs between the two cities. Hokkaido has a brewery called Abashiri which sells a range of beers, including Bilk, a blend of beer and milk. Abashiri is home to a flower garden with a wide range of flowers. In the winter, tourists visit the city to watch the drift ice. Okhost Ryuhyo Museum Official Website Abashiri Prison Museum Official Website Abashiri Tourist Information