Transhumanism is a philosophical movement that advocates for the transformation of the human condition by developing and making available sophisticated technologies to enhance human intellect and physiology. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations as well as the ethical limitations of using such technologies; the most common transhumanist thesis is that human beings may be able to transform themselves into different beings with abilities so expanded from the current condition as to merit the label of posthuman beings. The contemporary meaning of the term "transhumanism" was foreshadowed by one of the first professors of futurology, FM-2030, who taught "new concepts of the human" at The New School in the 1960s, when he began to identify people who adopt technologies and worldviews "transitional" to posthumanity as "transhuman"; the assertion would lay the intellectual groundwork for the British philosopher Max More to begin articulating the principles of transhumanism as a futurist philosophy in 1990, organizing in California an intelligentsia that has since grown into the worldwide transhumanist movement.
Influenced by seminal works of science fiction, the transhumanist vision of a transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters and detractors from a wide range of perspectives, including philosophy and religion. In 2017, Penn State University Press in cooperation with Stefan Lorenz Sorgner and James Hughes established the Journal of Posthuman Studies, the first academic journal explicitly dedicated to the posthuman which has the goal of clarifying the notions of posthumanism and transhumanism, as well as comparing and contrasting both. According to Nick Bostrom, transcendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as well as in historical quests for the Fountain of Youth, the Elixir of Life, other efforts to stave off aging and death. In his first edition of Political Justice, William Godwin included arguments favoring the possibility of "earthly immortality". Godwin explored the themes of life extension and immortality in his gothic novel St. Leon, which became popular at the time of its publication in 1799, but is now forgotten.
St. Leon may have provided inspiration for his daughter Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. There is debate about whether the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be considered an influence on transhumanism, despite its exaltation of the "Übermensch", due to its emphasis on self-actualization rather than technological transformation; the transhumanist philosophies of Max More and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner have been influenced by Nietzschean thinking. By way of contrast, The Transhumanist Declaration "...advocates the well-being of all sentience". The late 19th to early 20th century movement known as Russian cosmism incorporated some ideas which developed into the core of the transhumanist movement in particular by early protagonist Russian philosopher N. F. Fyodorov. Fundamental ideas of transhumanism were first advanced in 1923 by the British geneticist J. B. S. Haldane in his essay Daedalus: Science and the Future, which predicted that great benefits would come from the application of advanced sciences to human biology—and that every such advance would first appear to someone as blasphemy or perversion, "indecent and unnatural".
In particular, he was interested in the development of the science of eugenics and the application of genetics to improve human characteristics, such as health and intelligence. His article inspired popular interest. J. D. Bernal, a crystallographer at Cambridge, wrote The World, the Flesh and the Devil in 1929, in which he speculated on the prospects of space colonization and radical changes to human bodies and intelligence through bionic implants and cognitive enhancement; these ideas have been common transhumanist themes since. The biologist Julian Huxley is regarded as the founder of transhumanism after using the term for the title of an influential 1957 article; the term itself, derives from an earlier 1940 paper by the Canadian philosopher W. D. Lighthall. Huxley describes transhumanism in these terms: Up till now human life has been, as Hobbes described it,'nasty and short'. Huxley's definition differs, albeit not from the one in use since the 1980s; the ideas raised by these thinkers were explored in the science fiction of the 1960s, notably in Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey, in which an alien artifact grants transcendent power to its wielder.
Japanese Metabolist architects produced a manifesto in 1960 which outlined goals to "encourage active metabolic development of our society" through design and technology. In the Material and Man section of the manifesto, Noboru Kawazoe suggests that:After several decades, with the rapid progress of communication technology, every one will have a "brain wave receiver" in his ear, which conveys directly and what
Polavaram mandal is one of the 48 mandals in West Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is under the administration of Jangareddigudem revenue division and the headquarters are located at Polavaram; the mandal lies on the banks of Godavari River which separates it from East Godavari district and is bounded by Gopalapuram and Buttayagudem mandals. As of 2011 census of India, the mandal had a population of 45,392 with 13,677 households; the total population constitute, 22,345 males and 23,047 females —a sex ratio of 983 females per 1031 males. 4,846 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 2,514 are boys and 2,332 are girls. The literacy rate stands at 23.12 with 9,497 literates. Polavaram mandal is one of the 4 mandals under Polavaram, which in turn represents Eluru of Andhra Pradesh; as of 2011 census of India, the mandal has 23 settlements and all are villages. The settlements in the mandal are listed below: List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh
The granite night lizard is a species of xantusiid lizard endemic to North America. The specific name, henshawi, is in honor of American naturalist Henry Wetherbee Henshaw. X. henshawi is found in Mexico in the Mexican state of Baja California, in the United States in adjacent southern California. X. henshawi is flat-bodied with a soft skin. It has dark dorsal spots on a pale yellow or cream background, its scales are granular on its dorsum, but squarish on the ventral surface. These lizards have large eyes with vertical pupils, they lack eyelids. Granite night lizards are found on rocky slopes with large exfoliating boulders and abundant crevices, but are found in coastal sage scrub and chaparral without boulders, they move on the surface at night. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr. Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3.. Stebbins RC. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition.
The Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 533 pp. ISBN 978-0-395-98272-3.. Stejneger L. "Diagnosis of a new California lizard". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 16: 467