SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transport in Argentina

Transport in Argentina is based on a complex network of routes, crossed by inexpensive long-distance buses and by cargo trucks. The country has a number of national and international airports; the importance of the long-distance train is minor today, though in the past it was used and is now regaining momentum after the re-nationalisation of the country's commuter and freight networks. Fluvial transport is used for cargo. Within the urban areas, the main transportation system is by the colectivo. Buenos Aires additionally has an underground, the only one in the country, Greater Buenos Aires is serviced by a system of suburban trains. A majority of people use public transport rather than personal cars to move around in the cities in common business hours, since parking can be both difficult and expensive. Cycling is becoming common in big cities as a result of a growing network of cycling lanes in cities like Buenos Aires and Rosario; the Colectivo cover the cities with numerous lines. Fares might be fixed for the whole city.

Colectivos cross municipal borders into the corresponding metropolitan areas. In some cases there are diferenciales which are faster, notably more expensive. Bus lines in a given city might be run by different private companies and/or by the municipal state, they might be painted in different colours for easier identification; the city of Buenos Aires has in recent years been expanding its Metrobus BRT system to complement its existing Underground network and it is estimated that, along with other measures, it will increase the city's use of public transport by 30 percent. Taxis are common and accessible price-wise, they have different colours and fares in different cities, though a contrasted black-and-yellow design is common to the largest conurbations. Call-taxi companies are common, while the remisse is another form of hired transport: they are much like call-taxis, but do not share a common design, trip fares are agreed beforehand instead of using the meter. Although, there are fixed prices for common destinations.

Suburban trains connect Buenos Aires city with the Greater Buenos Aires area. Every weekday, more than 1.4 million people commute to the Argentine capital for work and other business. These suburban trains work between 4 AM and 1 AM; the busiest lines are electric, several are diesel powered, while some of these are being electrified, while the rolling stock is being replaced across the city. Until Trenes de Buenos Aires, UGOFE, Ferrovías and Metrovías were some of the private companies which provided suburban passenger services in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. However, with the modernisation and re-nationalisation of these services, many of these companies have had their contracts terminated or have been absorbed into Trenes Argentinos, though as of 2015 some private operators such as Metrovías do remain. Other cities in Argentina with a system of suburban trains include Resistencia, Paraná and Mendoza, home to the Metrotranvía Mendoza - an urban light rail network. A commuter rail network for Córdoba is planned to complement the existing Tren de las Sierras which runs through the city and to nearby towns and villages.

As of 2015, Buenos Aires is the only Argentine city with an underground metro system, nonetheless there is a project to build a system in the city of Córdoba making it the second underground system in Argentina. The Buenos Aires Underground has six lines, each labelled with a letter from A to H, though 3 more lines are planned. A modern tram line line E2 works as a feeder to Underground Line E at their outer terminus as well as the Urquiza Line for Underground Line B in Chacarita. Daily ridership is 1.3 million and on the increase. Most of the lines of the Buenos Aires Undergrounds connect the city centre with areas in the outskirts of the city proper, though none go outside the city limits to Greater Buenos Aires. In recent years, the Underground has seen a gradual expansion, with lines H, B and A seeing extensions; as of 2015, the extension of lines E and H are under construction, with work commenced on the new line F and two additional lines planned. The rolling stock has been replaced in recent years and there are further plans to modernise.

Trams, once common, were retired as a form of public transport in the 1960s but are now in the stages of a slow comeback. In 1987 a modern tram line was opened as a feeder for the underground system. A modern light rail line between the Bartolomé Mitre suburban railway station and Tigre inaugurated in 1996 operates in the northern suburbs. A 2-kilometre tram known as the Tranvía del Este was inaugurated 2007 in the Puerto Madero district of Buenos Aires using loaned French Citadis trams, but plans for its extension never came to fruition, declining patronage led the line's closure in 2012. Trams were once common in Buenos Aires, with the city having a large 875 km tramway network and the largest tramway-to-population ratio the world, which gained it notoriety as "the city of trams" across the world; the first trams began operating in the 1860s, however by the 1960s the network was dismantled and replaced by buses. There is a Heritage Tramway maintained by enthusiasts that operates a large collection of vintage trams on weekends

Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles

Jeanne Dielman, 23, Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles, more known as Jeanne Dielman, is a 1975 arthouse film by Belgian filmmaker Chantal Akerman. Upon its release, critic Louis Marcorelles called it the "first masterpiece of the feminine in the history of the cinema", it has become a cult classic and was the 19th-greatest film of the 20th century in a critics poll conducted by The Village Voice. Jeanne Dielman examines a single mother's regimented schedule of cooking and mothering over three days; the mother, Jeanne Dielman, has sex with male clients in her house daily for her and her son's subsistence. Like her other activities, Jeanne's sex work is part of the routine she performs every day by rote and is uneventful, but on the second and third day, Jeanne's routine begins to unravel subtly, as she overcooks the potatoes that she's preparing for dinner, drops a newly washed spoon. These alterations to Jeanne's existence prepare for the climax on the third day, during which she murders a client.

Delphine Seyrig as Jeanne Dielman Jan Decorte as Sylvain Dielman Henri Storck as the first client Jacques Doniol-Valcroze as the second client Yves Bical as the third client After establishing herself as a major film director with Je, tu, il, Akerman said that she "felt ready to make a feature with more money" and applied for a grant from the Belgian government for financial support, submitting a script that Jane Clarke described as portraying "a rigorous regimen around food... and routine bought sex in the afternoon". This script would only be the rough basis for Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles because after Akerman received the government grant of $120,000 and began production, she threw the script out and began a new film instead. Akerman explained that she was able to make a female-centric film because "at that point everybody was talking about women" and that it was "the right time". Shooting Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles took five weeks and Akerman called it "a love film for my mother.

It gives recognition to that kind of woman". Akerman used an all female crew for the film, which she said "didn't work that well - not because they were women but because I didn't choose them, it was enough just to be a woman to work on my film... so the shooting was awful". Akerman further stated that "a hierarchy of images" that places a car accident or a kiss "higher in the hierarchy than washing up... And it's not by accident, but relates to the place of woman in the social hierarchy... Woman's work comes out of oppression and whatever comes out of oppression is more interesting. You have to be definite. You have to be"; the film depicts the life of Jeanne Dielman in real time, which Akerman said "was the only way to shoot the film - to avoid cutting the action in a hundred places, to look and to be respectful. The framing was meant to respect her space and her gestures within it"; the long static shots ensure that the viewer "always knows where I am." Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles premiered at the Directors Fortnight at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival and was financially successful in Europe.

Writer Peter Handke and filmmaker Alain Tanner have cited it as influential on their work. It was not released in the United States until 1983. Film critic John Coleman said that "the film's time span covers Tuesday and heady Thursday; this orgasm bit is bound to strike the serious-minded as an unfortunate bow of crass commercialism". Jonathan Rosenbaum defended the film and said that it "needs its running time, for its subject is an epic one, the overall sweep... trains one to recognize and respond to fluctuations and nuances. If a radical cinema is something that goes to the roots of experience, this is at the least a film that shows where and how some of these roots are buried". Critic Gary Indiana said that "Akerman's brilliance is her ability to keep the viewer fascinated by everything left out of movies". Ivone Marguilies observed that the film was "fully in tune" with the European women’s movement of the time, that feminist critics welcomed its "rigorous alignment of sexual/gender politics with a formal economy—showing cooking and hiding sex—... as an impressive alternative to well-intentioned but conventional political documentaries and features."

B. Ruby Rich said that "never before was the materiality of woman's time in the home rendered so viscerally... She invents a new language capable of transmitting truths unspoken". Marsha Kidder called it "the best feature that I have seen made by a woman". Akerman was reluctant to be seen as a feminist filmmaker, stating that "I don't think woman's cinema exists". Film director Gus Van Sant named Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles an inspiration for his own similar films Gerry and Elephant; the Criterion Collection includes the film in its Themes section, "Food on Film." Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles on IMDb Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles at Rotten Tomatoes Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles at AllMovie

Ballycastle railway station

Ballycastle railway station was on the Ballycastle Railway which ran from Ballymoney to Ballycastle in Northern Ireland. The station was opened by the Ballycastle Railway on 18 October 1880, it was taken over by the Northern Counties Committee on 4 May 1924. Under the terms of the Transport Act 1947 the London and Scottish Railway, the Northern Counties Committee parent company, was nationalised by the British Government on 1 January 1948; the Northern Counties Committee was thus owned by the British Transport Commission. This was only a temporary measure and in 1949 the NCC was transferred to the Ulster Transport Authority – owned by the Government of Northern Ireland; the station closed to passengers on 3 July 1950. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day.

Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687