This article considers transport in Armenia. For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union. 825 km in common carrier service. City with metro system: Yerevan Azerbaijan - closed - same gauge Georgia - yes - same gauge Iran - via Azerbaijan - closed - break of gauge - 1,520 mm /1,435 mm Turkey - closed - break of gauge -1,520 mm /1,435 mm Most of the cross-border lines are closed due to political problems. However, there are daily outbound trains connecting Tbilisi and Yerevan. Departing from Yerevan railway station trains connect to both Tbilisi and Batumi. From neighboring Georgia, trains depart to Yerevan from Tbilisi railway station. Within Armenia, new electric trains connect passengers from Yerevan to Armenia's second largest city of Gyumri; the new trains run four times a day and the journey takes two hours. There is discussion to establish a rail link between Yerevan and Tehran. Armenia is pursuing funding from the Asian Development Bank to launch construction of this infrastructure project.
The completion of the project could establish a major commodities transit corridor and would serve as the shortest transportation route between Europe and the Persian Gulf. In June 2019, Iranian president Hassan Rouhani backed this project and stated that “we want the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to be connected to the Black Sea, one of the ways to make this happen is through Iran and Georgia.” The capital city of Armenia, Yerevan, is serviced by the Yerevan Metro. The system was launched in 1981 and like most former Soviet Metros, its stations are deep and intricately decorated with national motifs; the metro runs on a 13.4 kilometres line and serves 10 active stations. Trains run every five minutes from 6:30 a.m. until 11 p.m. local AMT time. As of 2017, the annual ridership of the metro is 16.2 million passengers. Free wi-fi is available at some trains. Land borders are open with both Iran. Yerevan Central Bus Station known as Kilikia Bus Station is the main bus terminal in Yerevan with buses connecting to both internal and international destinations.
There are daily bus connections between Yerevan and Tehran. Three times daily, buses depart from Yerevan Central Bus Station to Stepanakert, the capital of the recognized state of Artsakh. There are scheduled bus routes which connect Yerevan with Kiev, Saint Petersburg as well as several other cities across Russia, it is possible to connect to Chișinău Moldova, Minsk Belarus and other cities in Eastern Europe from Yerevan through connecting bus routes via Georgia and Ukraine. In addition, there is a once a week bus service to Istanbul via Georgia. In June 2019, a new bus route from Baghdad to Yerevan via Iran began; the Armenian bus network connects all major cities and towns and many villages throughout the country. In larger cities and towns such as Yerevan, Gyumri and Armavir, bus stations are equipped with a waiting room and a ticket office, in other towns bus stations may not have shelters. Most of the routes are operated by GAZelle minivans with a capacity of 15 passengers, some routes are operated by soviet bus producer LiAZ.
Yerevan itself has a large integrated bus network, with a newly acquired bus fleet, passengers are able to connect from one end of the city to the other. Wi-fi is available on most city buses. Despite this, buses have difficulty meeting the demand for capacity in Yerevan, where vehicles are overcrowded. There are no night services between 6 a.m.. There is no ticket system in the country, passengers pay in cash to drivers. Passengers on the national bus network pay before boarding, passengers on the Yerevan bus network pay after the ride, while leaving the vehicle. Timetables and fares are published on Transport for Armenia. From Yeritasardakan metro station in downtown Yerevan, travelers can take the 201 airport shuttle which goes directly to Zvartnots International Airport, which takes 20 minutes from the city center. Since independence, Armenia has been developing its internal highway network; the "North-South Road Corridor Investment Program" is a major infrastructure project which aims at connecting the southern border of Armenia with its northern by means of a 556 km-long Meghri-Yerevan-Bavra highway.
It is a major US$1.5 billion infrastructure project funded by the Asian Development Bank, European Investment Bank and the Eurasian Development Bank. When completed, the highway will provide access to European countries via the Black Sea, it could eventually interconnect the Black Sea ports of Georgia with the major ports of Iran, thus positioning Armenia in a strategic transport corridor between Europe and Asia. Armenia is pursuing further loans from China as part of the Belt and Road Initiative to complete the north–south highway. Armenia connects to European road networks via the International E-road network through various routes such as. Armenia connects to the Asian Highway Network through routes AH81, AH82 and AH83; the number of insured registered cars in Armenia has grown from 390,457 in 2011 to 457,878 in 2015. 8,140 km World Ranking: 112 7,700 km 0 km Natural gas 3,838 km Cargo shipments to landlocked Armenia are routed through ports in Georgia and Turkey. Air transportation in Armenia is the most convenient and comfortable means of getting into
"Put It There" is a 1990 single from Paul McCartney's 1989 album, Flowers in the Dirt. The song reached number 32 on the UK singles chart; the lyrics were inspired by an expression of friendship and solace that McCartney learned from his father, "Put it there if it weighs a ton." Like other songs from Flowers in the Dirt, despite the song's modest chart success, to date "Put It There" has not been included yet on any McCartney compilation album. The 7" single included "Mama's Little Girl", a Wings song, recorded in 1972 but had been remixed and produced in its current version in 1987 by McCartney and Chris Thomas; the 12" single included "Same Time Next Year", a second Wings song, recorded on 5 and 6 May 1978 at RAK Studios, as a possible theme for the film Same Time, Next Year. It had been remixed and produced in 1987 by McCartney and Thomas; the 12" single was released as limited edition with an art print from the cover illustration. The cover illustration was drawn by McCartney. According to the liner notes from Geoff Baker, the song was issued as single because of the Parisian crowd from the concerts at the Palais Omnisports in October 1989, as the girls were grabbing partners and bobbing to "Put It There".
"Put It There" is the name of an hour-long documentary on the making of Flowers in the Dirt, produced by Chips Chipperfield and directed by Geoff Wonfor released in September 1989 and included on the 2017 remastered version of the album. This song was released on 5 February 1990 as a cassette single, a 7" single, a 12" maxi-single, a CD single. Cassette single"Put It There" "Mama's Little Girl"7" single"Put It There" "Mama's Little Girl"12" single"Put It There" "Mama's Little Girl" "Same Time Next Year"CD single"Put It There" "Mama's Little Girl" "Same Time Next Year"
The Great Recoinage of 1816 was an attempt by the British Government to re-stabilise the currency of Great Britain following economic difficulties precipitated by the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars led to financial instability in Britain; this was due to direct military and economic warfare against France as well as Britain's financing of a series of coalitions opposed to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic regimes. In exchange for large cash subsidies from Britain, nations such as Austria and Russia, with armies larger than Britain's, were paid to fight against France; the economic conflicts of that era disrupted trade and the availability of markets in Europe for the products of Britain's growing mercantile and colonial empires. A shortage of silver and copper led to a shortage of coins. Paper money became legal in 1797 and local tokens were produced by companies and banks all over the country. Despite an increase in trade, the national debt had increased by 100% by the start of the 19th century.
A series of bad harvests pushed up food prices and this culminated in riots in 1801–2. Corn prices halved at the end of the wars; the Corn Laws of 1815 were intended to protect the price of domestic grain, but this only served to keep prices high and depressed the domestic market for manufactured goods, because people had to use all their money to buy food. European countries which relied on exporting corn to Britain in order to buy British manufactured goods were no longer able to do so; the government needed to find a way to stabilise the currency, the Great Recoinage was the first step in this process. The main aims were the reintroduction of a silver coinage and a change in the gold coinage from the guinea valued at 21 shillings to the lighter sovereign worth 20 shillings; the value of the shilling remained unchanged at twelve pence. This massive recoinage programme by the Royal Mint created standard gold sovereigns and circulating crowns and half-crowns containing the now famous image of St. George & the Dragon by the Italian engraver Benedetto Pistrucci and copper farthings in 1821.
Pistrucci's initial portrait of the King has become known to collectors as the "bull-head George". The weight of the new gold sovereigns was calculated on the basis that the value of one troy pound of standard gold was £46 14s 6d. Sovereigns therefore in theory weighed 123.2744783 grains or 7.988030269 grams, although this implies much more precision than it was possible to achieve with the technology of the time. This standard persists to the present day, more than two centuries later. To put a gold standard into effect, avoid the pitfalls of bimetallism, silver coins were declared legal tender only for sums of money up to £2; the recoinage of silver in England after a long drought produced a burst of coins: the mint struck nearly 40 million shillings between 1816 and 1820, 17 million half-crowns and 1.3 million silver crowns. The value of one troy pound of standard silver was fixed by coining it into 66 shillings; this established the weight of all silver coins, their decimal new pence replacements, from 1816 until the 1990s, when new smaller coins were introduced.
The silver coins produced were shillings weighing 87.2727 grains, half-crowns of 218.1818 grains and crowns of 436.3636 grains. Over the many reigns until decimalisation other denominations came and went, such as the threepence, sixpence and double florin, always weighing one troy pound per 66 shillings; this made 5 sterling silver shillings, about the weight of.9091 troy ounce of sterling silver. Coinage Act of 1816
Protean Electric is an automotive technology company specializing in in-wheel motor technology. The company has developed an in-wheel, electric-drive system for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery electric vehicles, their technology creates a permanent magnet e-machine with high torque and power density with the power electronics and controls packaged within the motor itself. Their in-wheel motor product is intended to be produced in low volume by Protean Electric and licensed in high volume to global automotive and Tier 1 automotive supply companies. Protean Electric is a held company with 114 employees. Protean Electric has operations in the United States, United Kingdom, China. Protean Electric's in-wheel motor is intended to save space on board the vehicle by allowing the drive system to be mounted behind a conventional road wheel and apply torque directly to the wheel and tire; each of Protean's in-wheel motors can weigh 34 kg. They are sized to fit within the space of larger road wheel; the electric motors are designed for use in both front and rear-wheel drive vehicle applications and can be adapted to existing internal combustion engine powered cars and trucks to turn them into hybrids.
Since Protean Electric’s motors fit behind the wheels of a vehicle, they can be used as part of a drive system that does not require a gearbox, differential, or drive shafts. This creates an energy-efficient drivetrain that saves cost, reduces weight and frees up space on board the vehicle, dedicated to drivetrain components. According to Protean Electric, its in-wheel motors can increase fuel economy by over 30 percent depending on the battery size and driving cycle in a hybrid or plug-in hybrid vehicle, it is capable of enabling torque vectoring by applying individual torque at optimal levels to each wheel to improve vehicle safety and handling. Protean has been awarded over 120 patents for its technology and design, more than 100 additional patent applications have been filed and are pending internationally and with specific countries in North America and Asia. In-wheel motors offer the benefits of drastically improved vehicle packaging, simplified two-wheel or all-wheel-drive layouts, the option of through-the-road hybridization, more efficient regenerative braking, the most direct wheel control possible.
The downside is added unsprung weight. Protean has been developing in-wheel electric motors for several years. Protean Electric was founded in 2009 after PML Flightlink was put into administration in 2008. Protean Electric began to focus on the in-wheel technology for automotive applications. Protean is funded by Oak Investment Partners, GSR Ventures and Jiangsu New Times Holding Group Co. Ltd; the suppliers and partners are: SKF, FEV, AB Mikroelektronik GmbH, Alcon, ATS Automation Tooling Systems, Trelleborg Sealing Solutions. Protean Electric’s in-wheel motor technology was recognized by the World Economic Forum, which named Protean a 2012 Technology Pioneer and received recognition from Car and Driver magazine as one of the ten most promising technologies for 2013. Brabus Official website
Michael John Wooldridge is a professor of computer science at the University of Oxford. His main research interests is in multi-agent systems, in particular, in the computational theory aspects of rational action in systems composed of multiple self-interested agents, his work is characterised by the use of techniques from computational logic, game theory, social choice theory. Wooldridge was educated at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology where he was awarded a PhD in 1991. Wooldridge as appointed a lecturer in Computer Science at the Manchester Metropolitan University in 1992. In 1996, he moved to London, where he became senior lecturer at Queen Mary and Westfield College in 1998, his appointment as full professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Liverpool followed in 1999. In Liverpool he served as head of department from 2001 to 2005 and as head of the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from 2008 to 2011. In 2012 the European Research Council awarded him a five-year ERC Advanced Grant for the project Reasoning about Computational Economies.
In the same year he left Liverpool to become professor of computer science at the University of Oxford, served as head of the Department of Computer Science from 2014 - 2018. In Oxford he is a senior research fellow of Oxford. Michael Wooldridge is author of more than 300 academic publications. Wooldridge, Michael. Reasoning about Rational Agents. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262515566. Wooldridge, Michael. An Introduction to Multi-agent Systems. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471496915. Bussmann, Stefan. Multiagent Systems for Manufacturing Control. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3540209249. Bordini, Rafael H.. Programming Multi-agent Systems in AgentSpeak Using Jason. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0470029008. Wooldridge, Michael. An Introduction to Multi-agent Systems. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0470519462. Chalkiadakis, Georgios. Computational Aspects of Cooperative Game Theory. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. ISBN 978-1608456529. Shaheen, Fatima. Principles of Automated Negotiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107002548.
Wooldridge, Michael. Artificial Intelligence. Illus. Stephen Player. London: Ladybird Books. ISBN 978-0-7181-8875-7. 2003–2009 co-editor-in-chief of the Journal Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 2006–2009 associate editor of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 2009–2012 associate editor of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research Other editorships: Journal of Applied Logic, Journal of Logic and Computation, Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence, Computational Intelligence. He is a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, a European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence Fellow, a Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour Fellow, a British Computer Society Fellow. In 2015, he was made Association for Computing Machinery Fellow for his contributions to multi-agent systems and the formalisation of rational action in multi-agent environments. 2015 Elected an Association for Computing Machinery Fellow.
For contributions to multi-agent systems and the formalisation of rational action in multi-agent environments. 2012–17 ERC Advanced Investigator Grant "Reasoning about Computational Economies" 2009 British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour Fellow 2008 American Association for Artificial Intelligence Fellow 2008 Influential Paper Award, Special Recognition from the International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, for the paper Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice 2007 European Association for Artificial Intelligence Fellow 2006 ACM/SIGART Autonomous Agents Research Award. For significant and sustained contributions to the research on autonomous agents and multi agent systems. In particular, Dr. Wooldridge has made seminal contributions to the logical foundations of multi-agent systems to formal theories of co-operation and communication, computational complexity in multi-agent systems, agent-oriented software engineering.
Michael Wooldridge was born in Wakefield in 1966 as the second son to Jean Wooldridge. He is married with two children
Robert Booker Baer is an American author and a former CIA case officer, assigned to the Middle East. He is Time's intelligence columnist and has contributed to Vanity Fair, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post. Baer speaks 8 languages, won the CIA career intelligence medal and is a frequent commentator and author about issues related to international relations, espionage and U. S. foreign policy. He is a reality television host on the History program Hunting Hitler, he is an Intelligence and Security Analyst for CNN. His book "See no evil" was adapted by the director Stephen Gaghan and used as the basis for the film Syriana, with George Clooney playing Baer's character. Baer was born in Los Angeles. At the age of 9, his parents divorced and he moved to Aspen, Colorado where he aspired to become a professional skier. After a poor academic performance during his first year at high school, his mother, a wealthy heiress, took him to Europe where they traveled throughout Europe including Paris during the 1968 riots, Prague during the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Russia.
When he returned to the US, his mother sent him to Indiana's Culver Military Academy. In 1976 he graduated from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. While a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley, he applied to the CIA's Directorate of Operations as a prank. Upon admittance to the CIA after graduating, Baer engaged in a year's training, which included a four-month paramilitary course, parachute training, several foreign language courses, he is fluent in Arabic, Persian and his native English. He is conversant in Russian and Baluch. Baer worked field assignments, starting in India. During the mid-1990s, Baer was sent to Iraq with the mission of organizing opposition to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein but was recalled and investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for conspiring to assassinate the Iraqi leader. While in Salah al-Din, Baer unsuccessfully urged the Clinton administration to back an internal Iraqi attempt to overthrow Hussein in March 1995 with covert CIA assistance.
Baer quit the Agency in 1997 and received the CIA's Career Intelligence Medal on March 11, 1998. Baer wrote the book See No Evil documenting his experiences while working for the Agency; the C. I. Desk: FBI and CIA Counterintelligence As Seen From My Cubicle, by Christopher Lynch, describes parts of the contentious CIA pre-publication review process for Baer's first book. In a blurb for See No Evil, Seymour Hersh said Baer "was considered the best on-the-ground field officer in the Middle East." In the book, Baer offers an analysis of the Middle East through the lens of his experiences as a CIA operative. Through his years as a clandestine officer, he gained a thorough knowledge of the Middle East, Arab world and former Republics of the Soviet Union. Over the years, Baer has become a strong advocate of the Agency's need to increase Human Intelligence through the recruitment of agents. In 2004, he told a reporter of the British political weekly New Statesman, regarding the way the CIA deals with terrorism suspects, "If you want a serious interrogation, you send a prisoner to Jordan.
If you want them to be tortured, you send them to Syria. If you want someone to disappear - never to see them again - you send them to Egypt."He retired to Silverton, Colorado. Baer has been married twice, he has a son from his first marriage to a State Department secretary. His second wife is fellow CIA operative Dayna Williamson. Baer wrote about the events of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in The Guardian "id bin Laden act alone, through his own al-Qaida network, in launching the attacks? About that I'm far more certain and emphatic: no." He stated, "For the record, I don't believe that the World Trade Center was brought down by our own explosives, or that a rocket, rather than an airliner, hit the Pentagon. I spent a career in the CIA trying to orchestrate plots, wasn't all that good at it, couldn't carry off 9/11. Nor could the real pros I had the pleasure to work with." In June 2009, Baer commented on the disputed election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as Iranian President and the protests that accompanied it.
"For too many years now, the Western media have looked at Iran through the narrow prism of Iran's liberal middle class—an intelligentsia, addicted to the Internet and American music and is more ready to talk to the Western press, including people with money to buy tickets to Paris or Los Angeles. Baer has long been a supporter of the theory that the PFLP-GC brought down Pan Am Flight 103, he began to promote the theory that Iran was behind the bombing. On August 23, 2009, Baer claimed that the CIA had known from the start that the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 had been orchestrated by Iran, that a secret dossier proving this was to be presented as evidence in the final appeal by convicted Libyan bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi. According to Baer, this suggests that Megrahi's withdrawal of the appeal in return for a release on compassionate grounds was encouraged to prevent this information from being presented in court. Following reports of an attempt by Ira