SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transport in Australia

There are many forms of transport in Australia. Australia is dependent on road transport. There are more than 300 airports with paved runways. Passenger rail transport includes widespread commuter networks in the major capital cities with more limited intercity and interstate networks; the Australian mining sector is reliant upon rail to transport its product to Australia's ports for export. Road transport is an essential element of the Australian transport network, an enabler of the Australian economy. There is a heavy reliance on road transport due to Australia's large area and low population density in considerable parts of the country. Another reason for the reliance upon roads is that the Australian rail network has not been sufficiently developed for a lot of the freight and passenger requirements in most areas of Australia; this has meant that goods that would otherwise be transported by rail are moved across Australia via road trains. Every household owns at least one car, uses it most days.

Australia has the second highest level of car ownership in the world. It has three to four times more road per seven to nine times more than Asia. Australia has the third highest per capita rate of fuel consumption in the world. Melbourne is the most car-dependent city in Australia, according to a data survey in the 2010s. Having over 110,000 more cars driving to and from the city each day than Sydney. Perth and Brisbane are rated as being close behind. All these capital cities are rated among the highest in this category in the world; the distance travelled by car in Australia is among the highest in the world, being exceeded by USA and Canada. There are 3 different categories of Australian roads, they are state highways and local roads. The road network comprises a total of 913,000 km broken down into: paved: 353,331 km unpaved: 559,669 km Victoria has the largest network, with thousands of arterial roads to add; the majority of road tunnels in Australia have been constructed since the 1990s to relieve traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, or to cross significant watercourses.

Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide have extensive commuter rail networks which have grown and expanded over time. Australian commuter rail operates with bidirectional all day services with Sydney, to a lesser extent Perth’s systems operating with much higher frequencies in their underground cores. Sydney Trains operates the busiest system in the country with 1 million trips per day. Metro Trains Melbourne operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips. Trams have operated in many Australian towns and cities, with the majority of these being shut down before the 1970s in the belief that more widespread car ownership would render them unnecessary. Melbourne is a major today has the largest tram network of any city in the world. Adelaide retained one tram service - the Glenelg tram, since extended from 2008 onwards to Hindmarsh and the East End. Trams had operated in a number of major regional cities including Ballarat, Brisbane, Broken Hill, Geelong, Kalgoorlie, Maitland, Perth, Sorrento, Sydney and St Kilda.

A modern light rail system opened in Sydney in 1997 with the conversion of a disused section of a freight railway line into what is now part of the Dulwich Hill Line. A second CBD and South East Light Rail line in Sydney is under construction and is due to open in 2019. A light rail system opened on the Gold Coast in 2014. A line opened in Newcastle in February 2019 and a line in Canberra opened in April 2019. Sydney is the only city in Australia with a rapid transit system; the Sydney Metro network consists of one 36 km driverless line, connecting Tallawong and Chatswood. The line will connect with the Sydney Metro City & Southwest to form a 66 km network with 31 metro stations; the Sydney Metro West is currently in planning stages. Sydney, Melbourne and Perth's commuter systems are all underground and reflect some aspects of typical rapid transit systems in the city centres; the following table presents an overview of multi-modal intra-city public transport networks in Australia's larger cities.

The only Australian capital cities without multi-modal networks is Darwin, which relies on buses, Hobart, which has sections of derelict railway. The table does not include heritage transport modes; the railway network is large, comprising a total of 33,819 km of track: 3,719 km broad gauge, 15,422 km standard gauge, 14,506 km narrow gauge and 172 km dual gauge. Rail transport started in the various colonies at different dates. Owned railways started the first lines, struggled to succeed on a remote and sparsely populated continent, government railways dominated. Although the various colonies had been advised by London to choose a common gauge, the colonies ended up with different gauges; the Great Southern Rail, operates four trains: the Indian Pacific, The Ghan, The Overland, The Great Southern. NSW Government owned NSW TrainLink services link Brisbane, Melbourne, Broken Hill, Armidale and Griffith to Sydney. Since the extension of the Ghan from Alice Springs to Darwin was completed in 2004, all mainland Australian capital cities are linked by standard gauge rail, for the firs

Jesse Carmichael

Jesse Royal Carmichael is an American musician and songwriter. He is best known as the keyboardist and rhythm guitarist for the pop rock band Maroon 5. Carmichael has a solo project called 1863. Carmichael was born in Boulder, United States, his father, Bob Carmichael, is a photographer, who takes pictures during Maroon 5's tours. Jesse has Annie, he first started playing the guitar in junior high, rather than the keyboards. Some time Carmichael, along with Adam Levine, Mickey Madden and Ryan Dusick, started a band called Kara's Flowers and signed a recording contract with Reprise Records. In 1997, they released The Fourth World; the album found little success and, after the demise of the group and Levine attended Five Towns College. While in college, Carmichael began to play the keyboards. However, two years Levine and Carmichael dropped out and headed back to California. All of the Kara's Flowers members met up and formed Maroon 5, with the addition of guitarist, James Valentine. On March 9, 2012, Carmichael was announced to take a break from playing in Maroon 5, for an undetermined amount of time to focus more on his studies of "music and the healing arts".

However, on October 10, 2012, he confirmed that he would be returning to the band after they complete their Overexposed Tour. He will rejoin in time for the band to record their fifth studio album V. Carmichael’s dad, Bob Carmichael is a professional photographer, he joined several tours of Maroon 5 for photography. Carmichael is living with their son. EP Four Songs Sara Bareilles.

Obligatory Villagers

Obligatory Villagers is the third studio album by American singer-songwriter Nellie McKay. It was released on September 25, 2007; the album is brief compared to both of her past releases, which both had total times of around an hour. However, the total time of Villagers is equivalent to that of the individual discs on both of her double-disc releases. Bob Dorough appears as a guest vocalist on several tracks. Many of the musicians on the album reside in the Poconos the Delaware Water Gap area. Having been a COTA Cat, Nellie got to know the musicians. Nancy Reed, a voice teacher in Stroudsburg, sings with her on "Politan." Nellie McKay was Nancy Reed's first student. "Mother of Pearl" - 2:10 "Oversure" - 3:20 "Gin Rummy" - 2:59 "Livin'" - 0:24 "Identity Theft" - 3:28 "Galleon" - 3:22 "Politan" - 4:18 "Testify" - 5:41 "Zombie" - 5:56 "Doko Demo Doa" - 2:05 Critical response to the album was positive. Pitchfork Media and Allmusic both commented that the album was "difficult to understand", though they agreed that McKay is a talented songwriter and arranger