Transport in Germany
As a densely populated country in a central location in Europe and with a developed economy, Germany has a dense and modern transport infrastructure. The first highway system to have been built, the extensive German Autobahn network famously has no general speed limit for light vehicles; the country's most important waterway is the river Rhine. The largest port is that of Hamburg. Frankfurt Airport is a major international airport and European transport hub. Air travel is used for greater distances within Germany but faces competition from the state-owned Deutsche Bahn's rail network. High-speed trains called. Many German cities have rapid transit systems and public transport is available in most areas. Buses have only played a marginal role in long distance passenger service, as all routes directly competing with rail services were technically outlawed by a law dating to 1935. Only in 2012 was this law amended and thus. Since German reunification substantial effort has been made to improve and expand transport infrastructure in what was East Germany.
Verkehrsmittel and Verkehrszeichen - Transportation Signs in Germany are available here in German and English. The volume of traffic in Germany goods transportation, is at a high level due to its central location in Europe. In the past few decades, much of the freight traffic shifted from rail to road, which led the Federal Government to introduce a motor toll for trucks in 2005. Individual road usage increased resulting in a high traffic density to other nations. A further increase of traffic is expected in the future. High-speed vehicular traffic has a long tradition in Germany given that the first freeway in the world, the AVUS, the world's first automobile were developed and built in Germany. Germany possesses one of the most dense road systems of the world. German motorways have no blanket speed limit for light vehicles. However, posted limits are in place on many dangerous or congested stretches as well as where traffic noise or pollution poses a problem; the German government has had issues with upkeep of the country's autobahn network, having had to revamp the Eastern portion's transport system since the unification of Germany between the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany.
With that, numerous construction projects have been put on hold in the west, a vigorous reconstruction has been going on for 20 years. However since the European Union formed, an overall streamlining and change of route plans have occurred as faster and more direct links to former Soviet bloc countries now exist and are in the works, with intense co-operation among European countries. Intercity bus service within Germany fell out of favour as post-war prosperity increased, became extinct when legislation was introduced in the 1980s to protect the national railway. After that market was deregulated in 2012, some 150 new intercity bus lines have been established, leading to a significant shift from rail to bus for long journeys; the market has since consolidated with Flixbus controlling over 90% of it and expanding into neighboring countries. Germany has 650,000 km of roads, of which 231,000 km are non-local roads; the road network is extensively used with nearly 2 trillion km travelled by car in 2005, in comparison to just 70 billion km travelled by rail and 35 billion km travelled by plane.
The Autobahn is the German federal highway system. The official German term is Bundesautobahn, which translates as "federal motorway". Where no local speed limit is posted, the advisory limit is 130 km/h; the Autobahn network had a total length of about 12,996 kilometres in 2016, which ranks it among the most dense and longest systems in the world. Only federally built controlled-access highways meeting certain construction standards including at least two lanes per direction are called "Bundesautobahn", they have blue-coloured signs and their own numbering system. All Autobahnen are named by using the capital letter A, followed by a number; the main Autobahnen going all across Germany have single digit numbers. Shorter highways of regional importance have double digit numbers. Short stretches built for heavy local traffic have three digits, where the first digit depends on the region. East-west routes are even-numbered, north-south routes are odd-numbered; the numbers of the north-south Autobahnen increase from west to east.
The east-west routes use increasing numbers from north to south. The autobahns are considered the safest category of German roads: for example, in 2012, while carrying 31% of all motorized road traffic, they only accounted for 11% of Germany's traffic fatalities. German autobahns are still toll-free for light vehicles, but on 1 January 2005, a blanket mandatory toll on heavy trucks was introduced; the national roads in Germany are called Bundesstraßen. Their numbers are well known to local road users, as they appear on direction traffic signs and on street maps. A Bundesstraße is referred to as "B" followed by its number, for example "B1", one of the main east-west routes. More important routes have lower numbers. Odd num
Transport in Albania
Transport in Albania consists of transport by land and air, which are predominantly under the supervision of the Ministry of Infrastructure of Albania. The development and improvement of the transport in the country remains among the most important priorities of the Government of Albania, it has experienced significant changes and major growth and expansion in recent years after the fall of communism in the country. Improvements to the road infrastructure, urban transport, air travel have all led to a vast improvement in transportation; these upgrades have played a key role in supporting Albania's economy, which in the past decade has come to rely on the construction industry. Since antiquity, the area of modern Albania served as a crossroad of important caravan routes such as the Roman Via Egnatia linking the Adriatic with Byzantium; the Italian fascist regime of Mussolini carried out a project of road constructions in Albania in the 1930s, yet auto-mobility was limited at the time. The total length of Albania's roads more than doubled in the first three decades after World War II, by the 1980s all of the country's remote mountain areas were connected, either by dirt or paved roads, with the capital city of Tirana, ports on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea.
After 1947, a significant infrastructure undertaking was the construction of the country's rail network as Albania was considered as the only country in Europe not to have standard rail service. By 1987, 677 km of railway were constructed in total linking the main urban and industrial centers for the first time since the end of World War II. Train transport was the main public transportation method until 1990. After the collapse of Communism, the network fell into disregard, operating with second-hand carriages in a constant precarious state. Central government funding of local road maintenance ended in 1991, the breakdown of repair vehicles because of a lack of spare parts threatened to close access to some remote areas. A group of Greek construction companies signed a protocol with the Albanian government in July 1990 to build a 200 kilometer road across the southern part of the country, extending from the Albanian-Greek border to Durrës; the project was scheduled to cost US$500 million. Despite the poor quality of Albania's roads, most of the country's freight was conveyed over them in a fleet of about 15,000 trucks.
According to official figures, in 1987 Albania's roadways carried about 66 percent of the country's total freight tonnage. Up until 1991, the total number of cars in Albania was between 5000 and 7000. In 1991, the Albanian government lifted the decades-old ban on private-vehicle ownership; as a result, car imports numbered about 1,500 per month. Traffic in the capital remained light, but traffic lights and other control devices were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs imported used Greek buses and started carrying passengers on intercity routes that did not exist or had been poorly serviced during the communist era; the population is known for owning a large fleet of German cars. In particular, Mercedes Benz vehicles are preferred not only for their status symbol, but for their durability on rural roads where half of the population resides, the cheap price for buying used ones. Mercedes Benz cars were owned by Enver Hoxha and favored by his officials, giving the brand a foothold before private ownership of cars was legalized.
Air pollution has become a pressing concern as the number of cars has increased to over 300,000 in the capital Tirana. These are 1990s and early 2000s diesel cars, while it is believed that the fuel used in Albania contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than in the European Union. Albania is one of the few countries in Europe where vehicles imported from the United States, from left hand traffic jurisdictions can be found on the streets without any modifications brought from expats living abroad; the most important and only international airport of the country is the Tirana Nënë Tereza International Airport in Tirana, the country's capital. The total number of passengers for the country rose and reached 1,997,044 million in 2015 and in 2016 serviced 2,200,449 million passengers. From January to October 2017, the airport served 2,224,833 million passengers and handled 1,857 tons of goods. In 2005, TIA was given to an American-German consortium for a 20-year concession period. Despite the considerable modernization of the airport, prices are among the highest in Europe as per the monopoly over Albanian airspace, limited carrier choices.
As a result, low-cost carriers are discouraged from entering the Albanian market, while neighboring countries offer much lower prices from their primary and secondary airports. Following a period of intensive negotiations, the Albanian government managed to reduce the concession period by 5 years until 2020, thus opening up the possibility for low-cost airlines to enter the Albanian market such as the starting of flights between Tirana and Budapest by Wizz Air in 2017. Kukës Airport was opened in 2008, making this the second civilian airport in Albania but has since not been operational; the airport was bought by an Albanian company and is planned to become operational by 2019 offering low cost flights catered to the Kukes diaspora in the UK. In 2018, Air Albania, the country's first flag carrier was introduced by a consortium made up of Turkish Airlines, Albanian Civil Aviation Authority, several Albanian companies with a test flight to Istanbul, it is expected that the airline will offer service to destinations in Italy, Germany, UK, the US with planes named after renown Albanian poets.
Transport in Cyprus
Because Cyprus has no working railway system, various other methods of transport are needed to ensure the proper delivery of any cargo, be it human or freight. Since the last railway was dismantled in 1952, the only remaining modes of transport are by road, by sea, by air. Of the 12,118 km of roads in the areas controlled by the Republic of Cyprus in 2006, 7,850 km were paved, while 4,268 km were unpaved. In 1996, the Turkish Cypriot area showed a close, but smaller ratio of paved to unpaved with about 1,370 km out of 2,350 km paved and 980 km unpaved; as a legacy of British rule, Cyprus is one of only four EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left. A1 Nicosia to Limassol A2 connects A1 near Pera Chorio with A3 by Larnaca A3 Larnaca Airport to Agia Napa serves as a circular road for Larnaca. A5 connects A1 near Kofinou with A3 by Larnaca A6 Pafos to Limassol A7 Pafos to Polis A9 Nicosia to Astromeritis A22 Dali industrial area to Anthoupolis, Lakatamia In 2006 extensive plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank.
In 2010 the new revised and expanded bus network was implemented. The bus system is numbered: 1 - 33 Limassol daytime local routes 40 - 95A Limassol daytime rural routes 100 - 259 Nicosia daytime buses 300s Nicosia night network route 101/102/201/301/ 500s Famagusta/ayia napa district daytime route 400s Larnaca area route 600s Paphos area routes 700s Larnaca - famagusta/ayia napa area routes N Limassol night buses networkSome bus routes are: 30 Le Meridien Hotel 1 - MY MALL up to every 10 minutes 101 Ayia Napa Waterpark - Paralimni up to every 15 minutes 610 Pafos Harbour Station - Market up to every 10 minutes 611 Pafos Harbour Station - Waterpark up to every 10 minutes 615 Pafos Harbour Station - Coral bay up to every 10 minutes 618 Pafos Harbour Station - Pafos karavella bus station Every 30 mins Road transport is the dominant form of transport on the island. Figures released by the International Road Federation in 2007 show that Cyprus holds the highest car ownership rate in the world with 742 cars per 1,000 people.
Public transport in Cyprus is limited to run bus services and interurban'shared' taxi services. Thus, private car ownership in the country is the fifth highest per capita in the world. However, in 2006 extensive plans were announced to expand and improve bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank The ports of Cyprus are operated and maintained by the Cyprus Ports Authority. Major harbours of the island are Limassol harbour, Larnaca harbour, which service cargo and cruise ships. Limassol is the larger of the two, handles a large volume of both cargo and cruise vessels. Larnaca is a cargo port but played a big part in the evacuation of foreign nationals from Lebanon in 2006, in the subsequent humanitarian aid effort. A smaller cargo dock exists at Vasilikos, near Zygi. Smaller vessels and private yachts can dock at Marinas in Cyprus. Larnaca Marina in Larnaca 34°55′05″N 033°38′29″E St Raphael Marina in Limassol 34°42′00″N 033°10′00″E Paphos harbour 34°45′15″N 032°24′30″E List of ports and harbours: Larnaca, Paphos, Vasilikos.
Bike in Action is the latest transportation system for the greater Nicosia area, similar to programs employed in various cities around the world. Bicycles can be found at stations in all participating municipalities and returned after their use at any station. See full article on Cyprus Merchant Marinetotal: 1,414 ships totaling 23,497,776 GT/37,331,506 tonnes deadweight ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 442, cargo ship 495, chemical tanker 22, combination bulk 40, combination ore/oil 8, container ship 144, Liquified Gas Carrier 6, passenger ship 8, petroleum tanker 142, refrigerated cargo 41, roll-on/roll-off 45, short-sea passenger 13, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2 In 1999, Cyprus had 12 airports with paved runways. Of them, seven had runways of lengths between 2,438 and 3,047 metres, one had a length between 1,524 and 2,437 metres, three had lengths between 914 and 1524 metres, one had a length less than 914 metres. Of the three airports with unpaved runways, two had lengths less than 914 metres and one had a length between 914 and 1524 metres.
In 1999, Cyprus had six heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974
Transport in Georgia (country)
For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union. Total: 1,683 km in common carrier service. City with metro system: Tbilisi. In April 2005, an agreement was signed to build a railway from Turkey through Georgia to Azerbaijan; the line under construction is using Standard gauge until Akhalkalaki. There will be axle change station for wagons to proceed with broad gauge to Baku. In August 2007, Georgia handed over the management rights of the state-owned Georgian Railway company to the U. K.-based company Parkfield Investment for 89 years. Russia - yes - 1,520 mm - via the breakaway Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia - closed for political reasons. Azerbaijan - yes - 1,520 mm. Armenia - yes 1,520 mm Turkey - yes - break-of-gauge with through 1,435 mm. February 7 - agreement signed for Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway Poti - port Batumi - port Kutaisi Akhaltsike The road network in Georgia consists of 1,603 kilometers of main or international highways that are considered to be in good condition and some 18,821 kilometers of secondary and local roads that are in poor condition.
Only 7,854 km out of over 20,000 km of Georgian roads are paved. Georgia has a small motorway system, under development when the motorway will be finished will link Tbilisi, the capital, Batumi, Georgia's second largest city; the multilane road is part of the S1 highway, which runs from Mukhatgverdi until Agarebi, a village near Khashuri, has a length of 110 km, bypassing Mtskheta and Gori. Crude oil 370 km. Tbilisi - Shota Rustaveli Airport Batumi - Alexander Kartveli Airport Kutaisi - David The Builder Airport Mestia - Queen Tamar Airport Ambrolauri - Ambrolauri Airport Poti - Poti International Airport total: 14 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 total: 14 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 6 Georgia List of Tbilisi metro stations Roads Department of Georgia United Transport Administration
Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district; the city has about 400,000 inhabitants. Brno is the seat of judicial authority of the Czech Republic – it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office; the city is a significant administrative centre. It is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, the Office for the Protection of Competition. Brno is an important centre of higher education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning and about 89,000 students. Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe; the complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno. Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, a tradition established in 1930, in which the Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is one of the most prestigious races.
Another cultural tradition is an international fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis, that attracts tens of thousands of daily visitors. The most visited sights of the city include the Špilberk castle and fortress and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul on Petrov hill, two medieval buildings that dominate the cityscape and are depicted as its traditional symbols; the other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by Brno Reservoir. This castle is the site of a number of legends. Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat, included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. One of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst; the city is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and has been designated as a "City of Music" in 2017. The etymology of the name Brno is disputed, it might be derived from the Old Czech brnie'muddy, swampy.' Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples and Slavic peoples.
Throughout its history, Brno's locals referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was referred to as Brunn in English, but this usage is not common today; the Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun, one of the most famous weapons of World War II. The Brno basin has been inhabited since prehistoric times, but the town's direct predecessor was a fortified settlement of the Great Moravia Empire known as Staré Zámky, inhabited from the Neolithic Age to the early 11th century. In the early 11th century Brno was established as a castle of a non-ruling prince from the House of Přemyslid, Brno became one of the centres of Moravia along with Olomouc and Znojmo. Brno was first mentioned in Cosmas' Chronica Boëmorum dated to year 1091, when Bohemian king Vratislav II besieged his brother Conrad at Brno castle. In the mid 11th century, Moravia was divided into three separate territories. Seats of these rulers and thus "capitals" of these territories were castles and towns of Brno and Znojmo.
In the late 12th century, Moravia began forming the Margraviate of Moravia. Since until the mid of the 17th century, it was not clear which town should be the capital of Moravia. Political power was therefore "evenly" divided between Brno and Olomouc, but Znojmo played an important role; the Moravian Diet, the Moravian Land Tables, the Moravian Land Court were all seated in both cities at once. However, Brno was the official seat of the Moravian Margraves, its geographical position closer to Vienna became important. Otherwise, until 1642 Olomouc was larger than Brno by population, it was the seat of the only Roman Catholic diocese in Moravia. In 1243 Brno was granted the large and small city privileges by the King, thus it was recognized as a royal city. In 1324 Queen Elisabeth Richeza of Poland founded the current Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady, now her final resting place. In the 14th century, Brno became one of the centres for the Moravian regional assemblies, whose meetings alternated between Brno and Olomouc.
These assemblies made political and financial decisions. Brno and Olomouc were the seats of the Land Court and the Land Tables, thus they were the two most important cities in Moravia. From the mid 14th century to the early 15th century the Špilberk Castle had served as the permanent seat of the Margraves of Moravia. In the 15th century Brno was besieged in 1428 and again in 1430 by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. Both attempts to conquer the city failed. In 1641, in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, the Holy Roman Emperor and Margrave of Moravia Ferdinand III commanded permanent relocation of the diet and the land
Aeroput was an airline and flag carrier of Yugoslavia from 1927 until 1948. Society for Air traffic AD Aeroput was the first Serbian company for civil air traffic, founded on 17 June 1927 as Društvo za Vazdušni Saobraćaj "Aeroput", in the palace of the Adriatic-Danube Bank in Belgrade. Aeroput was the national carrier of the Kingdom of SHS, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Aeroput was among the first civilian aircraft carriers, being the 10th airline company founded in Europe and the 21st in the world; the airline ceased to exist during World War II in Yugoslavia, but was renewed after the war under the new name Jugoslovenski Aerotransport and still flies today as the Serbian national air carrier under the name Air Serbia. On 13 February 1913, king Peter I of Serbia adopted the Regulation of the transportation system of devices which run in the air, which made Kingdom of Serbia joining the modern air traffic, it was the fifth country in the world. For the Kingdom of Serbia, it was a defense mechanism from Austro-Hungarian planes, flying over Serbian territory, without any permission, since November 1912, as Austro-Hungarian Empire was putting pressure on Serbia to withdraw from the coast of the Adriatic Sea, where Serb units were stationed after the victory over the Turks in the First Balkan War.
The first civilian aircraft to fly over Serbia before the end of World War I postal service flights carrying mail. In cooperation with the Postal and Telegraphic Department several flights were organized in Thessaloniki, where pilots of the First Serbian Squadron, AP 521, carried mail between Skopje and Thessaloniki; when the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes was established in December 1918, two-seaters Breguet 14 flew a regular route from Novi Sad through Belgrade and Niš to Skopje daily. After that, a postal air service from Novi Sad and Belgrade to Sarajevo and Zagreb was established. Passenger transport began in 1919. Before an airport in Bežanija suburb of Belgrade was built, a temporary solution was found in an airfield in the village of Jabuka near Pančevo; the airfield included a 500 by 500 meters grass field by the side of the road, used for grazing livestock, except for the brief periods when the airplanes were landing or taking off, as was the case in Prague and other cities. First flight landed at this impromptu airport on 25 March 1919, operating a Blériot-SPAD S.46 Berline biplane.
The location of this airfield was not convenient for passengers, since, in absence of a bridge over the Danube, the travel by ship to Belgrade lasted longer than the air travel from Budapest or Bucharest. The first international route that passed through the territory of the Kingdom of SHS was opened by Compagnie Franco-Roumaine. In order to compete with the Orient Express train line, for a long time the fastest link between Western Europe and the Middle East, this company introduced world's first regular night flights on the Belgrade-Bucharest route. A three-engine Caudron C.61 took off from Bucharest at 4.00 am and landed in Pančevo at 9.00 am, on 9 September 1923. That same year, the construction of the airport along the road to Bežanija began. In a conference held on 6 February 1926 by the initiative of Serbian Aero-Club the rules of air traffic were created, all participants become the founders of the new airline company, Aeroput; the rules were approved on 13 March by the Ministry of Industry.
The company was registered in Belgrade stock market. However, the registration of shares went below expectations and it became clear that the company needed assistance in cash and goods from the state; this agreement was signed on 25 January 1927. The planned and required 24,000 shares by the end of March 1927, there were subscribed and paid only about 10% of the shares, which, in accordance with the law of joint stock companies, threatened Aeroput to be abolished; the aeronautical engineer Tadija Sondermajer, a member of Aeroput, reserve captain and pilot during WW1, suggested that along with pilot Leonid Bajdak, they will perform a flight from Paris to Bombay. This was put forward in order to both prove the value and ability of Serbian pilots and, generate publicity in order to promote the uptake of Aeroput shares. After a short preparation and Bajdak commenced their transcontinental from Paris on 20 April 1927. After covering 14,800 kilometers with 14 stages and 11 days of travel, on 2 May 1927 they landed in Belgrade.
The welcome was magnificent and more than 30,000 Belgrade citizens gave the two a heroes welcome at the Bežanijska Kosa airport. The journey achieved. From that point onwards, Aeroput was established with a capital of six million dinars, collected by 412 shareholders; the holders of the shares were: Vračarska Zadruga, Economic Bank, Postal Savings Bank, Serbian bank of Zagreb, American-Serbian bank in Sarajevo, Velauto, Technical Society Voks and others. A total of 412 shareholders paid the 14,000 shares at a price of 250 dinars, totalling 3.5 million dinars. Aeroput began its service by purchasing four planes. For the next three months 30,000 shares were sold and this capital enabled the new company to overcome initial financial hurdles. On 17 June 1927, Aeroput presented themselves to Belgrade Commercial Court and from that day onwards, the Company for became a legal entity; the new Belgrade international airport was official
Transport in Azerbaijan
The transport in Azerbaijan involves air traffic and railroads. All transportation services in Azerbaijan except for oil and gas pipelines are regulated by the Ministry of Transportation of Azerbaijan Republic. For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union. There are 2,932 km of rail tracks out of which only 2,117 km are in common carrier service and 810 km are industrial lines. Total: 2,932 km Country comparison to the world: 59 Broad gauge: 1,520 mm gauge Currently the only metro system in Azerbaijan is the Baku Metro, located in Baku, the country's capital. New plans to open metro systems in the most populated and developed cities of Azerbaijan were unveiled. Sumgayit and Ganja all plan to have subway systems in the future. There are about 25,000 kilometers of roads in Azerbaijan, serving domestic cargo traffic and giving access to international main highways. Highways are in fair condition and need an upgrade to international standards in a view to accommodate growing transit traffic.
Main and rural roads are in urgent need of rehabilitation and maintenance. The total vehicle fleet in Azerbaijan was about 517,000 in 2004, with about 49 private passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants, quite low compared to European benchmarks but increasing due to the fast economic growth. Road transport accounted for 54% of all freight in 2003, up from about 48% in 1999. Main highways carrying international traffic are the Baku-Alat-Ganja-Qazakh-Georgian Border corridor with a length of 503 km and the so-called North-South Transport Corridor that stretches out from the Russian to the Iranian border along 521 km. Road connections are disrupted with Armenia because of the unresolved conflict regarding the possession of the Nagorno-Karabakh. Travel between mainland and the detached exclave of Nakhichevan is made by air or by road through Iran. Nakhichevan has a 9-kilometre strategic border with Turkey. Total: 59,142 km Country comparison to the world: 74 Paved: 29,210 km Unpaved: 29,931 km Baku is the centre of a major oil- and gas-producing region, major long-distance pipelines radiate from the region's oil fields to all neighboring areas.
Pipelines are high capacity lines and have diameters of either 1,020 or 1,220 millimeters. The main petroleum pipeline was completed in 2005 under American pressure to limit Russian and Iranian influence in the area, it runs from Baku via Tbilisi to Ceyhan in Turkey, therefore the acronym BTC pipeline. It made obsolete the old Soviet pipeline pumping crude oil from the onshore and offshore Caspian fields near Baku west across Azerbaijan and Georgia to the port of Batumi, where the oil is either exported in its crude form or processed at Batumi's refinery. Two natural gas lines parallel the old petroleum line as far as Tbilisi, where they turn north across the Caucasus Mountains to join the grid of natural gas pipelines that supply cities throughout Russia and Eastern Europe. Condensate 89 km. Azerbaijan has direct maritime connections only with other Caspian littoral states. However, the Volga-Don canal provides a maritime access to the high seas; the main activity is transport of cargo of oil and oil products.
Shipping regions are Caspian, Black and Marmara Seas. The main shipping company owes 72 ships. Baku International Marine Trade Port is the largest port on the Caspian Sea, its ferry terminal underwent a major reconstruction supported by a US$16.2 million loan from EBRD. It is now able to handle 30 million tons of freight a year; the Caspian Sea provides vital transport links with other countries and is being used to ship oil until various pipeline projects are completed. In 2014 Azberbaijan stated it would seek to ease transportation on the Caspian Sea due increased demand by its neighboring states. On June 4, 2004 the Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Azerbaijan established the Maritime Administration; as the regulatory authority in maritime transport, its functions include participating in the formulation of state policy, regulating transport demand of goods and passengers and for other types of maritime transport services, as well as implementing state programs and projects for the development of maritime transport.
Ports and harbors: Baku, Dubandi Total: 90 ships Country comparison to the world: 53 Ships by type: cargo 37, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2 Registered in other countries: 2 There are regular flights between Azerbaijan and former Soviet countries, UK, France, Italy, Iran, Turkey, UAE, United States, China and has a cargo flights in UAE, Luxembourg, China, Kyrgyzstan and Iraq. The national airline is Azerbaijan Airlines. There are 5 international airports located in Baku, Nakhchivan, Zaqatala. Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku reopened in 1999 after a US$64 million upgrading and extension financed by Turkish company Enka; the airport can now handle 1,600 passengers an hour. The new runways are able to serve jumbojets; the complete overhaul of the international airport in Nakhchivan has been completed in May 2004. The US$32 million reconstruction project of Ganja Airport has been launched by the Government and was completed by mid-2006.
In 2008, two more airports were opened