Transport in Burkina Faso consists of road and rail transportation. The World Bank classified country's transportation as underdeveloped but noted that Burkina Faso is a natural geographic transportation hub for West Africa. There are a total of 12,506 kilometres of highway in Burkina Faso, of which 2,001 kilometres are paved. In 2000, the Government of Burkina Faso classified 15,000 kilometers of road as part of the national road network managed under the Ministry of Infrastructures Transport and Housing through the Directorate of Roads; this network includes main inter-city roads and access roads for départments' capital cities. Only ten of the network's main roads are partially paved, the paved roads are plagued by dangerous potholes, missing signage, missing barriers and guardrails near roadside hazards, no pavement markings to separate traffic moving in opposite directions; as of May 2011 the country's road infrastructure was rated by the World Bank to be in good condition and noted that country was regional hub with paved roads linking the country to Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Niger.
"trucking cartels and red tape contribute to high transportation costs and diminished international competitiveness." 58% of firms in Burkina Faso identified roads as major business constraint and rehabilitation needs of the main road network are said to be underfunded. There are international airports at numerous smaller airfields. In 2004, the number of airports totaled 23, only 2 of which had paved runways as of 2005. Air Burkina, which began in 1967, is government-run and has a monopoly on domestic service but flies to neighboring countries. Ouagadougou airport handles about 98% percent of all scheduled commercial air traffic in Burkina Faso. Air Burkina and Air France handle about 60% of all scheduled passenger traffic. Between 2005 and 2011, air passenger traffic at Ouagadougou airport grew at an average annual rate of 7.0 percent per annum reaching about 404,726 passengers in 2011 and was estimated to reach 850,000 by 2025. In 2007 Ouagadougou airport was the fifteenth busiest airport in West Africa in passenger volume, just ahead of Port Harcourt and behind Banjul.
The total air cargo at Ouagadougou airport grew 71% from 4,350 tons in 2005 to about 7,448 tons in 2009. The government plans to close the Ouagadougou airport upon construction of the new Ouagadougou-Donsin Airport 35 km northeast of Ouagadougou; the new airport is expected to be completed around 2018 and the government received an $85 million loan from the World Bank to help finance the construction. The government of Burkino Faso believed. There are 622 kilometres of railway in Burkina Faso, of which 517 km run from Ouagadougou to Abidjan, Ivory Coast; as of June 2014 Sitarail operates a passenger train three times a week along the route from Ouagadougou to Abidjan via Banfora, Bobo-Dioulasso and Koudougou. All of the railways in the country are of 1,000 mm metre gauge. Only Ivory Coast is connected to Burkina Faso by rail. Instability in Ivory Coast in 2003 forced a rerouting of rail freight from the Abidjan corridor to ports in Togo and Ghana via the road network. A proposed rail link between Ouagadougou and Pô in Burkina Faso and Kumasi and Boankra in Ghana, has been discussed with Ghanaian officials, feasibility studies are being undertaken to explore this possibility, which would provide rail access to the inland port of Bonakra.
Burkina Faso and Ghana use different rail gauges and this break-of-gauge can be overcome to a greater or lesser extent with a number of methods. In 2006, an Indian proposal surfaced to link the railways in Benin and Togo with landlocked Niger and Burkina Faso. Additionally, a Czech proposal surfaced to link Ghana railways with Burkina Faso; the manganese deposits near Dori are one source of traffic. Burkina Faso would be a participant in the AfricaRail project. In May, 2011 the World Bank reported that Sitarail had recovered well from the political crisis in Ivory Coast but was experiencing financial distress, needed to re-balance its financial structure and find alternative funding for rehabilitation backlog; the following towns of Burkina Faso are served by the country's railways: Banfora Bobo-Dioulasso Koudougou Ouagadougou - national capital Kaya - terminus West Africa Regional Rail Integration This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
UN Map of Burkina Faso
The Defence of Australia Policy was Australia's dominant defence policy between 1972 and 1997. The policy was focused on the defence of continental Australia against external attack; the Australian Defence Force was tailored to defending Australia rather than developing capabilities to operate outside Australian territory. The Defence of Australia policy was adopted after the previous policy of "forward defence" was discredited in the public eye by Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War; the policy was developed during the 1970s and early 1980s before it was formalised in the 1986 Dibb Report and the 1987 and 1994 Defence White Papers. The focus of Australian defence planning was to protect Australia's northern maritime approaches against enemy attack; the ADF was restructured to increase its ability to strike at enemy forces from Australian bases, by increasing the size and capabilities of the Royal Australian Air Force and Royal Australian Navy, at the expense of the Army and the forces used to project power overseas.
Specific force structure changes introduced under the DOA policy included: Increasing the number of units based in northern Australia Raising three Regional Force Surveillance Units Developing RAAF Base Tindal as an operational fighter base Developing three'bare bases' for the RAAF in northern Queensland and Western Australia Development of the Jindalee over-the-horizon radar network Development of the Collins class submarinesNevertheless, the adoption of the DOA policy did not involve Australia adopting a policy of neutrality or disbanding its ability to deploy forces overseas. During the DOA era, Australia maintained its alliances with the United States and New Zealand and sought to develop stronger defence relationships with South East Asian countries. In addition, the ADF maintained a sizeable force of transport aircraft and amphibious ships and an infantry brigade capable of deploying overseas. Furthermore, Australian forces continued to be deployed overseas for exercises and peace keeping operations, a small Australian military base was permanently maintained at Butterworth in Malaysia.
Most criticisms of the DOA policy focus on the policy's inflexibility. In particular, it is argued that Australia's foreign relations and defence interests require a force capable of deploying outside Australia, it is argued that the DOA force structure was not capable of adequately responding to threats other than a direct attack on Australian soil. Furthermore, it is argued that the DOA policy is unsuitable for coping with the less stable geopolitical conditions since the end of the Cold War, which has seen the Australian Army deployed more than anticipated under DOA. To a large extent, the Liberal Party government elected in 1996 embraced the criticisms and re-oriented Australian defence policy by placing greater emphasis on the ADF's ability to deploy overseas; this did not, represent a return to "forward defence" as it involved Australian expeditionary forces deploying from bases in Australia, not the permanent stationing of Australian military units overseas. Furthermore, defending Australia from external attack remained the Australian Defence Force's primary responsibility.
The Australian-led intervention in East Timor in 1999 highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of the policy. While the enhanced defence infrastructure in northern Australia and high-tech naval and air units played a critical role in the operation, the limited availability of deployable logistic units and infantry constrained the operation in its early days. While the Australian government has expanded the ADF's logistic capability in light of experience, the ADF's force structure remains unchanged from that developed during the DOA era. A key reason is that given the long distances which need to be covered to protect northern Australia, the units developed for the Defence of Australia are inherently capable of deploying outside Australia; this has created an emphasis upon a mobile land contingent. Foreign relations of Australia Australian Department of Defence; the Defence of Australia 1987. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-05655-X. Dibb, Paul. Review of Australia's Defence Capabilities.
Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-04923-5. Evans, Michael; the Tyranny of Dissonance: Australia's Strategic Culture and Way of War, 1901–2005. Land Warfare Studies Centre Study Paper No. 306. Canberra: Land Warfare Studies Centre. ISBN 0-642-29607-3. Tewes, Alex. "Australia's Maritime Strategy in the 21st century". Australian Parliamentary Library. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008. "Publications". Department of Defence Strategy Executive
Purna is a town with a municipal council in Parbhani district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Purna is located at 20.91°N 73.75°E / 20.91. It has an average elevation of 384 metres. Purna is situated in the Maharashtra state of India; as of 2011 India census, Purna had total 6,663 houses and population of 36,433. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Purna has an average literacy rate of 71.95, lower than the national average of 75%: male literacy is 79% and female literacy is 65.11%. In Purna, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Purna Junction railway station is on the Kachiguda-Manmad section of Nanded Division of South Central Railway. In the meter gauge era Purna was the most important Junction. Hundreds of railway employees were stationed at Purna. Nearly 50% of the population of the Purna city was constituted with railway employees and their families. Purna has massive land occupied by the Railway Department for staff quarters, filling point, washing area, etc.
Railway Department has its own schools in Marathi and English, community cultural hall, sports complexes, fields. The economy of the city was dependent of the railway population. All the trains would halt here for 20 minutes to 90 minutes; the crew would change here and fueling/watering to the trains would be done here. The engines of the majority trains would be changed here then; the railway population had enriched the sports culture of the city. After creation of the Nanded division, all major major operations of railways were diverted from Purna junction to Nanded. Since the city lost its prosperity and the economy of the city had an enormous adverse effect on it. After Divisional adjustments in 2003, Purna now comes under the Nanded Division of SCR. Purna has rail connectivity with Manmad, Nanded, Parli Vaijnath, Osmanabad, Mudkhed, Nagpur, Nizamabad, Mumbai, Pune, Mahbubnagar, Kadapa, Tirupati, Erode and Kachiguda. Ajanta Express between Secunderabad and Manmad is the most prestigious train passing through this station.
There are a number of trains running toward Mumbai and Telangana. Purna is connected to Ajmer and Jaipur by train as passengers from nearby cities have to catch this train from Purna. Purna is an important junction in Nanded Division, it has a line branching further to Khandwa. The Purna name is given by Purna River. Purna's historical name is "Lasina". Chudawa
Marasmus is Leng Tch'e's fourth full-length album and their second on Relapse Records. A video was made for the song "1-800-Apathy". "Lucid Denial" – 1:05 "1-800-Apathy" – 3:42 "Tightrope Propaganda" – 2:33 "Nonsense Status" – 2:25 "Tainted Righteousness" – 1:43 "Marasmus" – 2:08 "Confluence of Consumers" – 2:40 "The White Noise" – 2:02 "Obsession Defined" – 3:49 "Abstained" – 3:11 "The Sycophant" – 2:32 "Social Disgust" – 1:49 "The Divine Collapse" – 2:51 Submissive Manifesto – 2:00 "Pattern" – 1:50 "Trauma and Scourge" – 4:14 Boris Cornelissen – vocals Jan Hallaert – guitar Geert Devenster – guitar Nicolas Malfeyt – bass Sven de Caluwé – drums, vocalsProduction Fredrik Nordström – engineer, mixing Alan Douches – mastering
Fredrik Stensøe Ulvestad is a Norwegian footballer who plays for the Swedish club Djurgården. On 10 May 2018 he played. Ulvestad started his career in the youth team of SK Herd before signing for hometown club Aalesunds FK in 2008, he made his first team debut for the club in May 2010 at the age of 17, replacing Jonathan Parr as a substitute in a 1–0 win over Volda TI in the Norwegian Football Cup. In April 2011, he scored his first goal for the club in a 1–0 win over Sogndal IL, he made his breakthrough to the first team during the 2011 season where he established himself as a regular in the side winning the 2011 Norwegian Football Cup in the 2–1 win over SK Brann. During his time with the club he featured in UEFA Europa League qualifiers in 2011 and 2012, Aalesund failed to make it to the tournament proper. At the end of the 2014 season, Ulvestad decided not to renew his contract, became a free agent, his final game for Aalesund was in November 2014, in the 2–1 win over Sandnes Ulf. In total he made 132 appearances for Aalesund in all competitions scoring 20 goals.
Following his departure from Aalesund, Ulvestad attracted interest from German Bundesliga side Hannover 96, before training with Premier League side Burnley in February 2015. In March 2015, he made the move permanent signing a three-year contract with the club. On 31 August 2016, Ulvestad joined Charlton Athletic on a season long loan. Ulvestad scored his first goal for the club in a 1–1 draw against Port Vale on 18 October 2016. Ulvestad was first called up for international duty for the under-23 side in November 2011, playing in the 1–1 draw with Turkey, he made one cap for the under-20 side a year in October 2012 in a friendly against the Netherlands. He made his debut for the under-21 side in February 2012, replacing Jonas Svensson in a 2–2 friendly draw with Slovenia, his competitive debut came in the 2013 UEFA European Under-21 Championship qualifier against Azerbaijan. He played in two further qualifiers against England and Belgium, but failed to make it into the 23-man squad that qualified for the final tournament.
He played in five qualifiers for the 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Championship, however Norway failed to qualify. In total he gained 14 caps for the under-21 side, he made his debut for the senior side in August 2014, replacing Fredrik Gulbrandsen at half time in an international friendly against United Arab Emirates, finishing 0–0 in Stavanger. His father Rune Ulvestad played for Molde FK and Aalesunds FK during the 1980s, whilst his two other brothers Pål Erik Ulvestad and Dan Peter Ulvestad play for Norwegian Eliteserien side Kristiansund BK; as of match played 2 November 2019 As of match played 18 November 2019. AalesundNorwegian Football Cup: 2011Djurgårdens IFAllsvenskan: 2019 Svenska Cupen: 2017–18 Norway international stats at Fotball.no Fredrik Ulvestad at Soccerbase
Igor Torkar was the pen name of Boris Fakin, a Slovenian writer and poet best known for his literary descriptions of Communist repression in Yugoslavia after World War II. Torkar was born in a Slovene family in the village of Kostanjevica na Krasu part of the Austro-Hungarian County of Gorizia and Gradisca, now in Slovenia, he attended the Poljane Grammar School in Ljubljana. His teachers included the literary historian France Koblar, the writer Juš Kozak, the painter Božidar Jakac. In 1932, he enrolled in the University of Ljubljana, he studied chemistry and graduated as chemistry engineer in 1942. He was a member of several left-wing student groups that advocated the autonomy of Slovenia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the democratization of the country. Among other things, he led a student association that advocated the construction of a new university library building in Ljubljana. During this time, he published his first short stories and essays under the pseudonym Igor Torkar in the literary journal Sodobnost.
He wrote political satires in the satirical magazine Pavliha, some of which were censored by the authorities of the Drava Banovina. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he became an activist of the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People, he never joined the partisan resistance, but organized the collection of supplies for the fighting units of the Communist resistance. In 1942, he was arrested by the Italian occupation authorities, but was released after two months in prison. In 1943, he was arrested by the Nazi German occupation forces and sent to Dachau concentration camp, where he remained until the end of World War II. After the war, Torkar returned to Yugoslavia, where he worked as a technical manager in a chemical industry complex in Slovenia. In April 1948, he was arrested by the Yugoslav Communist authorities on false charges of pro-Nazi activity during World War II, he was put on trial at the Dachau trials together with another 33 survivors from Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps who were accused of collaboration with the German Gestapo because, according to the prosecution, only collaboration could explain their survival.
In 1949, he was sentenced to six years in prison, increased to 12 after the appeal. Torkar spent four years in prison, including two years in solitary confinement, he was released in 1952, was prohibited from publishing for two more years. After two years of unemployment, Torkar became a lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana. In 1976, he rose to the position of professor of graphic technology. In 1971, the High Court of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia nullified the sentence from 1949, Torkar was acquitted of all charges. From the 1990s onward, Torkar became a critical commentator and observer of the democratization of Slovenia, with regular columns in the newspapers Delo and Dnevnik. In October 2003, on the occasion of the author's 90th birthday, Slovenian National Television broadcast a documentary with the title'Dying in Installments,' dedicated to Torkar's life story, he died on January 2004 in Ljubljana. Torkar's literary opus is framed by poetry, he published his first volume of poetry, The Crazy Chronos in 1940, with his last collection of poems, Songs of Solitude, written in the last years of his life and published in 2003.
He has written over 10 collections of poetry, over 20 plays which were played on renewed theatre stages in Slovenia and in former Yugoslavia, numerous TV and radio scenarios and novels. Between his most prominent works are the poetry collection Sonnets from Jail, stage plays Colorful ball and Golden youth and the novel Tenth brothers, his best-known work, in which he publicly revealed the taboo theme of the Dachau trails under the communist regime in the former Yugoslavia, is the novel Dying in Installments, published in 1984. The work was recognized as courageous political act and triggered an extraordinary public response and awareness of the communist repression. In a moving novel we meet with memory material and literary fiction. More than 30000 copies were published. In all his texts, Torkar expressed an outward humanistic vision of the world. Together with his lifelong friend, the poet Matej Bor, Torkar was the foremost representative of the neo-humanist trend in Slovenian literature. Boris Fakin at Find a Grave