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Transport in Cambodia

The system of Transport in Cambodia, rudimentary at the best of times, was damaged in the chaos that engulfed the nation in the latter half of the 20th century. The country's weak transport infrastructure hindered emergency relief efforts, exacerbating the logistical issues of procurement of supplies in general and their distribution. Cambodia received Soviet technical assistance and equipment to support the maintenance of the transportation network. Total - 38,257 km Paved - 2,406 km Unpaved - 35,851 km Of the current total roadway network, only about 50% of the roads and highways are hard surfaced, all-weather, in good condition. About 50 % of the roads were constructed of gravel, or compacted earth. Secondary roads were little more than tracks. In 1981 Cambodia opened a newly repaired section of National Route 1 which runs southeast from Phnom Penh to the Vietnamese border; the road, which suffered damage during the war years, was restored most by Vietnamese army engineers. In the late-1980s, Cambodia's road network was both underutilized and unable to meet the modest demands placed upon it by an preindustrial agrarian society.

Commercial vehicles, such as trucks and buses, were insufficient in number and lacked the spare parts necessary to keep them running. Road construction and maintenance were ignored by a financially hard-pressed governments, while insurgents destroyed bridges and rendered some routes unsafe for travel. Cambodia is upgrading the main highways to international standards and most are vastly improved from 2006. Most main roads are now paved, and now road construction is on going from the Thailand border at Poipet to Siem Reap. Chart of 01/2014 Motorcycles are by far the most common transport medium in Cambodia. "Cyclo" or cycle rickshaws were popular in 1990s but are replaced by remorques and rickshaws imported from India. Cyclos are unique to Cambodia in that the cyclist sits behind the passenger seat, as opposed to cycle rickshaws in neighbouring countries where the cyclist is at the front and "pulls" the carriage. With 78% mobile phone penetration rate, ride-hailing apps have become popular in recent years.

The first locally owned ride-hailing app, ExNet taxi app, was launched in 2016, after which another locally developed PassApp taxi was introduced. The ExNet and PassApp use the same technology and architect for their application, except that ExNet is a taxi-based ride-hailing service while PassApp is more of rickshaw-based one. Uber and Grab joined the market in 2017; the entry and merger of Uber and Grab did not negatively affect the local apps as the locals have the first-mover advantage and could secure a large number of patrons. As of today, PassApp is seen as an able competitor for the Singapore-based Grab in the Cambodian transport market. Aside from the private-hire vehicles and ride-hailing service, public transport is available but only in the capital. Phnom Penh city bus service started in 2015 with only three routes under the assistance of JICA. Today, Phnom Penh City Bus operates 13 routes. Two rail lines exist, both originating in Phnom Penh and totaling about 612 kilometers of 1,000 mm metre gauge single track.

The first line or the northern line, built by The French colonial government, running from Phnom Penh to Poipet on the Thai border, between 1930 and 1940, with Phnom Penh Railway Station opening in 1932. The final connection with Thailand was completed by Royal State Railways in 1942. However, the service from Bangkok to Battambang was suspended when the French Indochinese Government resumed sovereignty over Battambang and the Sisophon area from Thailand on 17 December 1946, as Thailand was seen as a supporter of Khmer Issarak, the anti-French, Khmer nationalist political movement. A third line is planned to connect Phnom Penh with Vietnam, the last missing link of the planned rail corridor between Singapore and the city of Kunming, China. A new north-south line is planned; the lines from Phnom Penh to Sisophon and from Sisophon to Poipet have been rehabilitated. The active part, the southern line, of the network is the Phnom Penh-Sihanoukville line, with stops at Takeo and Kampot; the first line to be re-opened in Cambodia was the 118 km long route from Phnom Penh to Touk Meas and the complete southern line in May 2011.

Toll Royal Railway had been given a 30-year concession from The Royal Government of Cambodia to operate Cambodia's railway network. Phnom Penh - Pursat - Moung Ruessei - Battambang - Sisophon - PoipetPhnom Penh - Takeo - Touk Meas - Damnak Chang'aeur - Veal Renh - Sihanoukville The nation's extensive inland waterways were important in domestic trade; the Mekong and the Tonlé Sap Rivers, their numerous tributaries, the Tonlé Sap provided avenues of considerable length, including 3,700 kilometers navigable all year by craft drawing 0.6 meters and another 282 kilometers navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters. In some areas west of the Mekong River and north of the Tonle Sap River, the villages were dependent on waterways for communications. Launches, junks, or barges transport passengers and other food in the absence of roads and railways. According to the Ministry of Communications and Post, Cambodia's main ferry services crossing the Bassac River and the middle Mekong River were restored in 1985.

The major Mekong River navigation routes were cleared for traffic. Seaplane service to all waterways and islands in now offered by Aero Cambodia Airline. Cambodia has two major ports, Phnom Penh Port and Sihanouk

Imghad Tuareg Self-Defense Group and Allies

The Imghad Tuareg Self-Defense Group and Allies is an armed group in Azawad, Mali. Many of its 500 to 1,000 fighters are Imghad Tuaregs, the group supports the Malian government and army. GATIA was founded on 14 August 2014 as a self-defense group of armed locals, in response to the Malian Army's defeat in the 2nd Battle of Kidal on 21 May 2014 by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad. In collaboration with French forces, GATIA and the Movement for the Salvation of Azawad launched a joint-operation on 23 February 2018 to capture or kill Abu Walid al-Sahrawi, the ISIL commander in Mali. Sahrawi managed to evade capture. GATIA-MSA forces clashed with ISIL militants from 2 to 5 June 2018. ISIL commanders Almahmoud Ag Akawkaw was captured, while Amat Ag Assalate was killed during the battle. GATIA is a pro-Malian government group, is opposed to the MNLA and an independent Azawad

EstDomains

EstDomains was a website hosting provider and a Delaware corporation headquartered in downtown Tartu, Estonia. EstDomains was known for hosting websites with malware, child pornography, other illegal content. Brian Krebs of the Washington Post stated that EstDomains "appeared to be the registrar of choice for the infamous Russian Business Network." EstDomains was one of the largest domain registrars in the world. By 2007 EstDomains gained a reputation for hosting illegal content; the CEO, Vladimir Tšaštšin, received a prison sentence for credit card fraud, document forgery, money laundering. His conviction occurred on 6 February 2008. On 28 October 2008, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers announced that it would revoke the accreditation of EstDomains because of the CEO's convictions. On 29 October ICANN said. EstDomains said that Tšaštšin had resigned on June of that year and that his conviction is on appeal, while EstDomains had not notified ICANN of the change. On 12 November 2008 ICANN announced that EstDomains would be shut down on 24 November 2008.

According to ICANN, when the accreditation was terminated, EstDomains had 281,000 domain names. On Tuesday 25 November 2008 web host ResellerClub announced that it is taking over EstDomains's business. Iain Thompson of Australian PC Authority ranked Tšaštšin as the tenth worst technology business chief executive. On November 9, 2011 the FBI announced the arrest of Tšaštšin and his business partners Timur Gerassimenko, Dmitri Jegorov, Valeri Aleksejev, Konstantin Poltev and Anton Ivanov in Operation Ghost Click. At the time, the seventh defendant, Andrey Taame, remained at large. Rove Digital Trojan. Win32. DNSChanger Estdomains

David Patrick (writer)

David Patrick FRSE LLD was a Scottish writer and editor. He edited Chambers's Encyclopaedia from 1888 to 1892, Chambers's Biographical Dictionary in 1897 and Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature with F. H. Groome from 1901 to 1903. David Patrick was born to the Rev. Joseph Patrick in the Free Church manse at Ochiltree on 19 April 1849, his mother was Mary Barbour,He was educated at the Ayr Academy and planning to enter the Free Church of Scotland, attended the New College in Edinburgh, receiving the Cunningham Fellowship at the close of his four-year course. Patrick subsequently studied theology at Tübingen, Leipzig and Göttingen before deciding on a literary career, it was while working under Dr. J M Ross of the Edinburgh High School producing the Globe Encyclopaedia series, that he was introduced to encyclopaedical work. Within a few years, he had attained a position with the publishing house of William & Robert Chambers, he first worked as an assistant to Dr. Andrew Findlater in the Literary Department, became head of the literary staff.

In 1888 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were Robert Cox. John Buchan, Peter Guthrie Tait. Between 1888 and 1892, he edited a revised version of Chambers's Encyclopaedia, he edited Chambers's Biographical Dictionary in 1897 and Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature with F. H. Groome from 1901 to 1903, he wrote the introduction to the 1914 edition of Chambers's Encyclopaedia shortly before his death on 22 March 1914. He had premises at 339 High Street on the Royal Mile and lived at 20 Mansionhouse Road in the Grange. References Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource

James A. Pawelczyk

James Anthony "Jim" Pawelczyk is an American researcher of physiology and Kinesiology who flew aboard the NASA STS-90 Space Shuttle mission as a Payload Specialist. Pawelczyk was born in Buffalo, New York, although he considers Elma, New York, a suburb of Buffalo, as his hometown, he has two children. His hobbies include cycling, woodworking and outdoor activities. Pawelczyk is the first American astronaut of full-blooded Polish descent to go into space. In 1999, Pawelczyk and three other astronauts from the STS-90 crew were guests of State of the Republic of Poland, he presented the president with the Polish flag that flew with him aboard Columbia. His parents and Rita, along with representatives of the Polish American Congress from Buffalo and Chicago accompanied the crew on their visit, he has two children and Brad and elder siblings Joe and Janet and younger sibling, John. Pawelczyk graduated from Iroquois Central High School, New York, in 1978, he went on to earn a BA degree in biology and a BA degree in psychology from the University of Rochester, New York in 1982.

Subsequently, he obtained a MS degree in physiology in 1985, a PhD degree in biology from the University of North Texas in 1989. He conducted a post-doctoral fellowship in cardiovascular neurophysiology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center between 1989–1992. Pawelczyk was a visiting scientist at the Department of Anaesthesia of the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1990. Next, he became an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center from 1992 to 1995. Between 1992 and 1995, he was director of the Autonomic and Exercise Physiology Laboratories at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine of the Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas. Pawelczyk took leave from Penn State University to fly as a payload specialist on STS-90. Pawelczyk is co-editor of Blood Loss and Shock, published in 1994, he has been a principal investigator or co-investigator on 11 federal and state grants and contracts, has over 20 refereed journal articles and 3 invited book chapters in the areas of cardiovascular regulation and cardiovascular physiology.

User design group, GASMAP. He received a NASA Young Investigator Award in 1994 for his work in the area of autonomic neurophysiology. Pawelczyk was a co-investigator for experiments flown on the Neurolab mission, two Shuttle-Mir flights. Pawelczyk served as a Payload Specialist on STS-90 Neurolab. During the 16-day Spacelab flight the seven person crew aboard Space Shuttle Columbia served as both experiment subjects and operators for 26 individual life science experiments focusing on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system; the STS-90 flight orbited the Earth 256 times, covered 6.3 million miles, logged over 381 hours in space. Pawelczyk testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation in 2003, his testimony advocated strengthening research on board the International Space Station. He is a standing member of NASA's Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee, served as a member of the Research Maximization and Prioritization Taskforce in 2002. Research Scientist, United States Olympic Swimming Trials, 1984.

Pawelczyk's NASA Bio

Faithless – Renaissance 3D

Renaissance 3D by Faithless is a 3-compact disc box set, of which each CD has a different theme. The first CD, includes remixes of both songs by Faithless and others; the second CD, a mix CD called Club contains uptempo dance songs. Both the first and second CDs are compiled by Faithless member Sister Bliss; the third CD, Home, is compiled by Maxi Jazz and contains less uplifting songs, from genres such as reggae and trip hop. It is the second Renaissance 3D collection released by the Renaissance club's record label known as Renaissance Recordings, following one by Satoshi Tomiie. Faithless - "Salva Mea" Donna Summer - "I Feel Love" Living Joy - "Dreamer" Faithless - "Woozy" Faithless - "Crazy English Summer" Tricky - "For Real" Faithless - "Blissy's Groove" Faithless - "Miss U Less, See U More" Faithless - "Reasons" Faithless - "Addictive" Black Grape - "Higher" 1 Giant Leap featuring Maxi Jazz & Robbie Williams - "My Culture" BBE - "7 Days and 1 Week" Dido - "Worthless" Maxence Cyrin - "Don't You Want Me" Re-Touch - "Running Up That Hill" Mark Flash - "Soul Power" Wonderland Avenue - "White Horse" Christopher & Raphael Just - "Popper" Silver 66 - "Carnaval" Kid Creme - "The Game" Trulz & Robin featuring Baseman - "She's Dancing" Kato - "Hundred Million Light Years" Oxia - "Change Works" Deep Dish featuring Stevie Nicks - "Dreams" D-Nox - "Seven Hours" Pastaboys Inspiration Manacolda - "Body Resonance" Jody Wisternoff - "Cold Drink Hot Girl" Iba - "Live On The Mainstage" Coldcut featuring Robert Owens - "Walk a Mile in My Shoes" Audiofly featuring Priscilla - "Circles" Balazko - "Breakfast" DJ Tarkan - "Ha Pardon" Coburn - "Give Me Love" LSK - "The Take Over" Ian Brown - "F.

E. A. R." Scritti Politti - "Wood Beez" Grace Jones - "Private Life Drama" Ward 21 - "Petrol" Horace Andy - "Money Money" Frankie Paul - "Worries in the Dance" Jungle Brothers - "Straight Out the Jungle" Joe Cocker - "Woman to Woman" Kool DJ Maxi Jazz - "Grab the Mic" The Real Thing - "Children of the Ghetto" Roots Manuva - "Next Type of Motion" John Martyn - "Go Down Easy" Dwele - "Twuneanunda" Jason Rebello featuring Maxi Jazz - "Summertime" Cassandra Wilson - "Time After Time" Todd Rundgren - "Remember Me"