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Transport in Cuba

Transportation in Cuba is the system of railways, airports, waterways and harbours in Cuba: total: 8,285 km standard gauge: 8,125 km 1,435 mm gauge narrow gauge: 160 km of 2 ft 3 1⁄2 in gauge. Cuba built the first railway system in the Spanish empire, before the 1848 start in the Iberian peninsula. While the rail infrastructure dates from colonial and early republican times, passenger service along the principal Havana to Santiago corridor is reliable and popular with tourists who can purchase tickets in Cuban convertible pesos; as with most public transport in Cuba, many of the vehicles used are second hand. With the order of 12 new Chinese locomotives in 2006, built specially for Cuban Railways at China Northern Locomotives and Rolling Stock Works, services have been improving in reliability; those benefiting the most are long distance freight services with the French train Havana-Santiago being the only passenger train using one of the new Chinese locomotives regularly. Various orders are in place for 100 locomotives from China and various freight wagons and passenger coaches.

In 2019, the Cuban railways received the first delivery of new Chinese-built coaches, new services with these began in July 2019. Metro systems are not present in the island. Urban tramways were in operation between 1858 and 1954 as horse drawn systems. In the early 20th century electric trolley or storage battery powered tramways were introduced in seven cities. Of these overhead wire systems were adopted in Havana, Matanzas, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba; the total length of Cuba's highways is 60,858 km, including paved: 29,820 km unpaved: 31,038 km Expressways include: the Autopista Nacional from Havana to Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus, with additional short sections near Santiago and Guantanamo the Autopista Este-Oeste from Havana to Pinar del Río the Autopista del Mediodia from Havana to San Antonio de los Baños an autopista from Havana to Melena del Sur an autopista from Havana to Mariel the Havana ring road, which starts at a tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor the section of the Via Blanca from Matanzas to Varadero an autopista from Nueva Gerona to Santa Fe, in the Isla de la JuventudOlder roads include the Carretera Central, the Via Blanca from Havana to Matanzas.

There are several national bus companies in Cuba. Viazul operate a fleet of modern and comfortable coaches on longer distance routes designed principally for tourists. Schedules and ticket booking can be done on line, at any of the major international airports or National Terminals across Cuba. There are other bus lines operated by tourism companies. AstroBus, a bus service in Cuban National Pesos, designed to bring comfortable air conditioned coaches to Cuban locals at an affordable price; the AstroBus lines operate with modern Chinese YUTONG buses, are accessible to Cuban Residents of Cuba with their ID Card, is payable in Cuba Pesos. Routes that have benefited most so far are those from Havana to each of the 13 provincial capitals of the country. In Havana, urban transportation used to be provided by a colourful selection of buses imported from the Soviet Union or Canada. Many of these vehicles were second hand, such as the 1500 decommissioned Dutch buses that the Netherlands donated to Cuba in the mid-1990s as well as GM fishbowl buses from Montreal.

Despite the United States trade embargo, American-style yellow school buses are increasingly common sights. Since 2008, service on seven key lines in and out of the city is provided by Chinese Zhengzhou Yutong Buses; these replaced the famous camellos trailer buses that hauled as many as two hundred passengers in a passenger carrying trailer. After the upgrading of Seville's public bus fleet to CNG-powered vehicles, many of the decommissioned ones were donated to the city of Havana; these bright orange buses still display the name of Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla, S. A. M, their former owner, Seville's coat of arms as a sign of gratitude. Seville In recent years, urban transport in Havana consists of modern Yutong diesel buses. Seville and Ikarus buses are gone. Since 2009, Cuba has imported sedans from Chinese automaker Geely to serve as police cars and rental vehicles; the Soviet Union supplied Volgas and Ladas, as well as heavy trucks like the ZIL and the KrAZ. In 2004, it was estimated. Most new vehicles came to Cuba from the United States until the 1960 United States embargo against Cuba ended importation of both cars and their parts.

As many as 60,000 American vehicles are in nearly all in private hands. Of Cuba's vintage American cars, many have been modified with newer engines, disc brakes and other parts scavenged from Soviet cars, most bear the marks of decades of use. Pre-1960 vehicles remain the property of their original owners and descendants, can be sold to other Cubans providing the proper traspaso certificate is in place. However, the old American cars on the road today have "relatively high inefficiencies" due in large part to the lack of modern technology; this resulted in increased fuel consumption as well as adding to the economic plight of its owners. With these inefficiencies, noticeable drop in travel occurred from an "average of nearly 3000 km/year in the mid-1980s to less than 800 km/year in 2000–2001"; as the Cuban people try to save as much money as possible, when traveling is done, the cars are usual


Ghindari is a commune in Mureș County, Romania. It lies in an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania; the commune is composed of five villages: Trei Sate village, in its turn, is composed of three hamlets: Cioc, Hotești and Ștefănești. Until 1918, the villages belonged to the Maros-Torda County of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, the area became part of Romania. In 2004, Chibed broke away to form an independent commune; the commune has an absolute Székely Hungarian majority. According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 3250, of which 91.9% are Hungarian, 7.4% Roma and 0.7% Romanian. List of Hungarian exonyms

International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society

The International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society is an economics association aimed at furthering research in the spirit of Joseph Schumpeter. Wolfgang F. Stolper and Horst Hanusch initiated the foundation of the society in 1986; the primary objective of the International Joseph Alois Schumpeter Society is the advancement of knowledge in the broad research area of the dynamics of structural change, its origins, its effects. These topics include studies addressing the role of the dynamic entrepreneur, the political and social problems of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial history as well as research question concerning income distribution, technical change, employment; the society welcomes scientifically sound and non-ideological research by scholars of all scholarly traditions. Following Joseph Schumpeter, research should respect "facts as they are and behave and not as one wishes them to be or behave."The ISS organizes a biannual conference on topics that mirror Schumpeterian ideas, helps financing international conferences, promotes the dissemination of research through conference proceedings and other publications.

Recent scholarly contributions related to Schumpeter are awarded with academic prizes by the ISS. In 1993 the Society adopted the Journal of Evolutionary Economics, founded in 1991, as its house journal. Massimo Egidi, Italy Keun Lee, South Korea Jorge Niosi, Canada. Mueller, Austria; the following researchers have been awarded with the Schumpeter Prize: International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society

Auburn Township, Tuscarawas County, Ohio

Auburn Township is one of the twenty-two townships of Tuscarawas County, United States. The 2000 census found 1,078 people in the township. Located in the western part of the county, it borders the following townships: Sugar Creek Township - north Dover Township - northeast York Township - east Jefferson Township - southeast Bucks Township - southwest Clark Township, Holmes County - northwestNo municipalities are located in Auburn Township. Statewide, other Auburn Townships are located in Geauga counties; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees.

The current trustees are Bruce Hanna, Dale Krebs, Ralph Sundheimer, Jr. and the fiscal officer is Alan Youngen. County website

Melnik, Bulgaria

Melnik is a town in Blagoevgrad Province, Southwestern Bulgaria, in the Southwestern Pirin Mountains, about 440 m above sea level. The town is an architectural reserve and 96 of its buildings are cultural monuments. With a population of 385, it is the smallest town in Bulgaria, retaining its town status today for historical reasons, it is situated on the foothills of the Pirin mountain range and is overlooked by the Melnik Earth Pyramids. According to archaeological evidence, the first to settle in the area were the Thracian tribe Medi to which the famous rebel Spartacus belonged. Centuries the presence of the Romans left the town one of its landmarks — the Ancient Roman bridge, still preserved; the Slavs who came in these parts named the settlement Melnik after the sand formations surrounding it on all sides. Melnik became a part of the First Bulgarian Empire under the rule of Khan Presian I and prospered in the period. Melnik became the capital of an independent feudal principality ruled by Despot Alexius Slav, a descendant of the Asen dynasty, in 1209, passed through an economic and cultural upsurge during his reign.

The town continued to flourish under Tsar Ivan Asen II because of the duty-free trade with Venetian-ruled Dubrovnik. The Ottoman conquest of the Balkans in the 14th-15th century resulted in a long period of decline, but Melnik was once again a thriving town in the 17th and 18th century, the time of the Bulgarian National Revival, due to the tobacco and wine production, with wine being exported abroad to England and Austria. In that time Melnik was a centre of craftsmanship church decoration and woodcarving. Many Bulgarian schools and churches were built in Melnik in that period. Melnik was taken by the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, but was given back to the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Berlin; the town was the centre of a kaza in the Sanjak of Siroz as Menlik until 1912. During the First Balkan War, Melnik was liberated and became once again part of Bulgaria. In the late 18th century, the town had 1300 houses, seventy churches and a population of some 20,000 people, but a fire destroyed it.

Since it has been restored and rebuilt, still, the current population of 400 is nowhere near the one from the beginning of the 20th century, when it consisted of Greeks, but of Bulgarians, Turks and Romani. Melnik is the subject of Yuri Trifonov's short story "The Smallest Town on Earth". According to the statistics of Vasil Kanchov, Melnik used to have 2.650 Greek Christian, 950 Turkish, 500 Bulgarian Christian, 200 Romani and 30 Vlach inhabitants in 1900. At the end of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the Greeks left Melnik and moved to Greece by the express orders of the Greek government. According to Bulgarian claims submitted to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, some Bulgarian shops and houses were looted by retreating Greeks; the Greek population moved to Sidirokastro and fewer settled in Serres and Thessaloniki. Melnik has a Mediterranean climate with cold winters. Climate table: The unique architecture of Melnik and the nearby Rozhen Monastery make it a popular tourist destination.

In addition, the town has been famous for producing strong wine since at least 1346. The local wine from the varietal Broad Leave Melnik Vine was a favourite of Winston Churchill's; the area of Melnik is enjoying a revival of vine growing and wine making. Several new, modern wineries have been built and operate, producing high quality wine from local and international varieties. Interesting architectural landmarks include the Byzantine House, one of the oldest civilian buildings in the Balkans, the Kordopulov House, which has one of the largest wine cellars in Melnik, the Pashov House, which houses the Historical Museum of Melnik and the Pasha's House, built by Ibrahim Bey, one of the richest beys in the region, during Ottoman rule; some of the old churches in the town worth visiting are St Nicholas, SS Peter and Paul, St Nicholas the Thaumaturge and St Anthony. The area around Melnik is strikingly eroded the enormous area of cliff that serves as a backdrop to the town; this area, covering some 17 km² near Melnik and Rozhen, has been called the Melnik Earth Pyramids or Melnik Badlands.

The hills in this area can rise up to 100 metres high. The unique formations, which can resemble giant mushrooms, ancient towers, obelisks, were formed when heavy rain eroded the sand and clay the hills are composed of. Anastasios Polyzoidis judicial official. Emanuil Vaskidovich a Bulgarian National Revival enlightener of Greek descent. Ivan Anastasov an IMRO revolutionary of Greek descent. Melnik Ridge and its summit Melnik Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica are named for Melnik. D. M. Brancoff. La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne. Paris, 1905, 192–193 Popovic, M. Die Siedlungsstruktur der Region Melnik in spätbyzantinischer und osmanischer Zeit. – Зборник радова Византолошког института, Т. 47, 247-276 Todic, B. The Symbolical Investiture of the Archbishop Basil of Bulgaria at Melnik. – Zograf, 32, 59-68

Simon Pullman

Simon Pullman was a violinist, music teacher and founder and Director of the Pullman Ensemble and Orchestra, a seminal figure in the evolution of chamber music performance. Born in Warsaw, he was a nephew of the famous Yiddish actress Ester Rachel Kamińska and cousin of Ida Kaminska and Josef Kaminsky, he studied with Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. 1913 he continued his studies with Martin Pierre Marsick at the Conservatoire de Paris. Back in Warsaw, he led a chamber orchestra specialised on music of the Vienna Classic. In the 1920s and 1930s he taught violin and chamber music at the New Vienna Conservatory, where he coached several groups including the Galimir String Quartet. In 1930 he founded the Pullman Ensemble, consisting of 17 string players, of which the specialty was their performance of Beethoven's Große Fuge Op. 133 and String Quartet in C# minor Op. 131. 10 windplayers were added to form the Pullman Orchestra, which performed in Vienna and throughout Europe until 1938, when Pullman was able to escape to Paris.

According to his students and colleagues, Pullman was a visionary musician. Rehearsals were intense and long — however, they functioned as rolling all-day affairs where members came and went as their schedules permitted. Through his pupils Felix Galimir, Richard Goldner, others, his ideas influenced the training of generations of chamber music performers in the U. S. Australia, elsewhere. In August 1939, he visited Warsaw, Poland, in an attempt to sell a house belonging to his wife, was trapped there by the German invasion. Imprisoned in the Warsaw Ghetto, he directed the Warsaw Ghetto Symphony Orchestra, which included among notable musicians, Ludwik Holcman; the band performed from 1940-1942. Pullman was transported to Treblinka extermination camp in early August 1942, like him all of the members of the orchestra were presumed to have been killed. Article for Simon Pullman in: Lexikon verfolgter Musiker und Musikerinnen der NS-Zeit