Jõhvi is a town in north-eastern Estonia, the capital of Ida-Viru County. The town is an administrative centre of Jõhvi Parish, it is situated 50 km from the Russian border. Ethnic Estonians are a minority in Jõhvi. Jõhvi was first mentioned as a village in 1241 in Liber Census Daniae. Historical names of Jõhvi were Jewi. In the 13th century a church was built here and Jõhvi became the centre of the local church parish. On 1 May 1938 Konstantin Päts renamed the Jõhvi borough a town along with nearly all Estonian boroughs. Up to 1991, Jõhvi was a district of Kohtla-Järve. In 2005 the town of Jõhvi was united with the parish of Jõhvi. Jõhvi Parish
European route E20
The European route E 20 is part of the United Nations International E-road network. It runs west–east through Ireland, the United Kingdom, Sweden and Russia; the length is 1,880 km. The road is not continuous. Roll-on/roll-off ferries make the crossings from Dublin from Stockholm to Tallinn. No vehicle-carrying vessels traverse the North Sea from Kingston-upon-Hull to Esbjerg; the initial section of the E 20 from Shannon Airport to Dublin via Limerick is 228 km long and is only signed, along the M7/N7. The section from Shannon Airport to east of Limerick is dual carriageway, with a short section of motorway as part of the Limerick Southern Ring Road; the Shannon Tunnel, opened on 16 July 2010, completed the bypass of Limerick. The section from Limerick to Naas is motorway, the final section from Naas to Dublin is dual carriageway. A ferry must be used from Dublin to Liverpool. E 20 follows the A5080 from Liverpool to Huyton, the M62 from Huyton to South Cave, the A63 from South Cave to Kingston upon Hull.
The route length across the UK is 205 km in total, it is not signposted in the UK. There is no ferry between Kingston upon Hull and Esbjerg, but Immingham is 48.3 km/30 mi from Kingston upon Hull which had ferries to Esbjerg with DFDS Seaways. Alternative ferries used to be available from Harwich but, 350 km/220 mi from Kingston upon Hull. There are no longer any passenger routes operating between Scandinavia. In Denmark E 20 is a motorway from Esbjerg to the Oresund Bridge; the length of the Danish part is 315 km. It passes along the Great Belt Bridge; the Great Belt Bridge and Oresund Bridge are tolled, both with more than €30. The Oresund Bridge is 8 km and there is a 4 km tunnel on the Danish side of the Sund; the road crosses the border between DK/S on the bridge. Between Køge and Copenhagen the road has three E-road numbers. In Sweden, E 20 is a motorway from the Øresund Bridge in Malmö to Nääs 30 km east of Gothenburg, a 320 km long motorway. Furthermore, it is a motorway most of the route from Vretstorp to Stockholm.
The Swedish part of E 20 is 770 km long. Its extent is shared with E 6 along a 280 km long stretch, with E 18 along 50 km and with E 4 along 35 km; the part through Stockholm has heavy traffic, including the most trafficked road in Scandinavia, Essingeleden. There is congestion on this stretch. A new tunnel for route E20, "Norra länken", was built north of the inner city, opened 30 November 2014; the planned Förbifart Stockholm bypass will divert traffic from Essingeleden. Between Stockholm and Tallinn a car ferry departs daily; the port in Stockholm is located at Lilla Värtan, about 4 km northeast of the central core of the city. In Estonia, E20 follows the route of national main road nr. 1. In Tallinn to relieve traffic a bridge has been built on the intersection of the E263 and the E20; the E20 across Estonia is an unsigned expressway, for 80.7 km east of Tallinn to Aaspere along with a section near Haljala and a section between Kohtla-Järve and Jõhvi. The remainder being single carriageway; the distance from Tallinn to the Russian border at the Narva River is 218 km.
In Russia, the route takes the Narva Highway listed in the Russian road numbering system as the A180 route running from Ivangorod to Saint Petersburg as a dual-line highway. The distance from Ivangorod to Saint Petersburg is 142 km; the border control facilities at the Estonia-Russia crossing are equipped and being operated for a limited amount of traffic on both sides of the border. The border crossing requires a reservation, but waiting lines still can extend for many hours and days. Ireland Shannon - Limerick Limerick - Borris-in-Ossory - Portlaoise - Naas Naas - Dublin Dublin Gap: Dublin - Liverpool United Kingdom: Bootle: Liverpool Outer Ring Road: Huyton - Manchester: Manchester Outer Ring Road: Manchester -: - Hull: Hull Gap Hull - Esbjerg Denmark Esbjerg - Kolding - Køge - København Sweden Malmö - Helsingborg - Gothenburg - Örebro - Arboga - Eskilstuna - Södertälje - Stockholm Gap: Stockholm - Tallinn Estonia Jõe, Narva maantee, Tartu maantee: Tallinn Tallinn - Jõhvi - Narva Russia Ivangorod - Saint Petersburg
Moscow–Saint Petersburg motorway
The Moscow–Saint Petersburg motorway, designated as the М11, is a Russian federal highway under construction in the European part of Russia, running parallel to the M10 highway, serving from the federal cities of Moscow to St. Petersburg; the M11 would go through the Moscow, Tver and Leningrad Oblasts, running pass the cities of Khimki, Solnechnogorsk, Tver, Vyshny Volochyok, Veliky Novgorod and Tosno. The M11 is a category 1A highway, defined as a motorway, which will have two to five lanes on each side and a calculated speed limit of around 150 kilometres per hour; the M11 is one of the most recent federal highways. It was planned that the highway will be put into operation in 2018, before the start of Russia FIFA World Cup, but some speculated that it would be finished by the autumn of 2018. On 4 September 2018, the Russian Ministry of Transport announced that the entire M11 would be completed and opened in September 2019; when the M11 finishes completion, St. Petersburg would become the second city in Russia after Ufa that has a connection to Moscow with two federal highways.
The M11's total length is 684 kilometres. The cost of the project is ₽ 152.8 billion. As of 10 September 2018, sections from the 15 to 97 kilometer mark, the 208 to 543 kilometer mark were put into operation; the plans and construction for the motorway has been met with strong protest from environmentalist groups and nearby residents due to the fact that the motorway would go through Khimki forest. The M11 is parallel to the M10 highway, it will start in Moscow, will run via Moscow Oblast, Tver Oblast, Novgorod Oblast, Leningrad Oblast to its destination in Saint Petersburg. The project provides the following main characteristics of the highway under construction: Total length: 684 km Technical Category: Motorway Number of lanes: 4–10 Lane width: 3.75 m Width of dividing strip: 5 m Curb width: 3.5 m Estimated speed limit: 150 km/h Number of interchanges = 32 Number of overpasses = 167 Number of bridges = 85 Shoulder width = 3.5 metres The minimum radius of the curve: 1,200 m The minimum radius of the curve in the longitudinal profile: Concave: 8,000 m Convex: 30,000 m Maximum longitudinal slope: 30 ‰ Natural and climatic conditions: The route of the projected road passes through four regions of Russia, the climate of which varies from moderately continental to transitional from continental to maritime, which affects the requirements for the design of the route.
The project received the necessary permits and approvals, including a positive response from the state environment review at the stage of investment basis and the FAU "Glavgos Expertiza of Russia" at the stage of approval of the engineering project. Public hearings were held in May 2005. A centralized automated traffic management system would be installed at the head section of the Moscow–St. Petersburg motorway. Modern communication is provided using the latest advances in information technology, evacuation services, emergency communication points. Separation barriers and lighting will be installed for the entire main sections of the motorway. In order to reduce noise pollution, the project would implement the construction of noise barriers along the route; the concessionaires of the Moscow–Solnechnogorsk section from 15 to 58 km planned that the average weighted toll fare for the main section of the road would be ₽3.62/km, excluding VAT at 2007 prices. The tariff will vary depending on the vehicle category, time of day, frequency of use of the route, etc.
The average fare on the tollway will be ₽2–₽2.5 per kilometer. Passage through the site at the entrance to St. Petersburg of 37 kilometres length will cost ₽2.2/km. On the other toll sections of the route the journey will cost about ₽1/km for the driver of the car. Thus, the entire travel would cost around ₽600. In June 2013, Sergey Kelbakh, chairman of the State Company "Russian Highways", stated that the price of travel on the road can be about ₽1100–₽1200 in the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. On January 25, 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin criticized the fare, set on Moscow–Solnechnogorsk section stating that nobody would use the motorway when the tolls are inflated to high prices; the development of a replacement for the existing Moscow–Saint Petersburg M10 highway was conducted over a long period of time, with the original concept being included in the general plan of Moscow Federal City and the Moscow Oblast in the early 1970s. The load of the federal highway M10 now exceeds at least three times of the maximum.
With a standard throughput of 40,000 cars per day to date, the traffic intensity reaches 130,000–170,000 cars. As a result of exceeding the maximum permissible load, the average speed along the M10 highway at the entrance to Moscow is 10 km/h, falling at a peak time of up to 5–7 km/h; the accident rate on the M10 track exceeds three times the national average. The level of air pollution in the territory around the highway exceeds in 3 to 5 times than the norm; the decision to build the highway was taken by the Ministry of Transport, the initiative came fro
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918, the city was known as Reval. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 and has a population of 440,776. Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years; the initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League. Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tallinn is the major political, financial and educational center of Estonia. Dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe, it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype.
The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, it has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial center in Northern Europe and ranks 52nd internationally; the city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland. In 1154, a town called قلون was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of'Astlanda', it was suggested. The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan, known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev. However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous. Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa.
This name may have been derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg, who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill. It has been suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city. Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish; the Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German and Danish languages as Reval. Reval was in use until 1918; the name Tallinn is Estonian. It is thought to be derived from Taani-linn, after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could have come from tali-linna, or talu-linna.
The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod meant'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names. The previously-used official names in German Reval and Russian Revel were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first, both forms Tallinn were used; the United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam. In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, this spelling is still sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence; the form Таллин is used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications.
Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian. The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old; the comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea; as an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, the city known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe; the Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northe
Paide is the capital of Järva County, Estonia. Paide's German name Weissenstein means "white stone"; this name was derived from the limestone used for the construction of Paide Castle. A Latin translation of that, Albus Lapis, has been used; the Estonian name Paide was first recorded in 1564 as Paida, is thought to derive from the word paas, pae "limestone". A castle was built in Paide by order of Konrad von Mandern, master of the Livonian Order, sometime in 1265 or 1266, it was from the beginning constructed around the central tower or keep, locally known as Tall Hermann tower or Vallitorn. With its six storeys, the tower has always been the core of the castle complex; the fortress was strengthened during the 14th and 15th centuries, when the surrounding walls were enlarged and towers added. It was modernised to be able to meet the new threat of firearms. During the 16th century, the castle was again modified through the addition of outer bastions. During the Livonian War, the castle was besieged by Russian troops, in 1573 it was occupied by troops loyal to Ivan the Terrible.
After that, the castle changed hands several times. It was involved in the fighting during the 1600-1611 Polish-Swedish War, in the so-called Siege of Weissenstein. In 1895-1897 restoration work was carried out on the central tower and some other parts of the castle. However, in 1941, during World War II, retreating Soviet troops blew up the central tower and it was not repaired until after Estonia regained its independence, in 1990-1993. Today the restored central tower houses a part of Järva County museum. Paide Church dates from the 16th century. Mühlhausen. Paide is home to Paide linnastaadion, the home ground of Meistriliiga football team Paide Linnameeskond. Ita Ever and film actress Johannes Hesse, father of author Hermann Hesse Tullio Ilomets, chemist Carmen Kass, model Kalle Kiik, chess International Master Arvo Pärt, classical music composer Toomas Raudam, writer Paide is twinned with: Annaberg-Buchholz, Germany Fredensborg-Humlebæk, Denmark Håbo, Sweden Hamina, Finland Havířov, Czech Republic Mažeikiai, Lithuania Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Saldus, Latvia Westminster, United States Siege of Weissenstein Official website Ühendus Weissenstein Webcam from Paide keskväljak