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Transport in Greenland

The transportation system in Greenland is unusual in that Greenland has no railways, no inland waterways, no roads between towns. The major means of transportation has been by boat around the coast in summer and by dog sled in winter in the north and east. While Germany occupied Denmark during World War II, the United States controlled Greenland and built bases and airports; the airports were codenamed as Bluie West One through to Bluie West Eight on the west of the island and Bluie East One to Bluie East Four on the eastern side. The largest of those airports, Bluie West Eight, now renamed Kangerlussuaq Airport, remains the international hub for travel to Greenland, as it is the only airport that has a long enough runway to service jumbo jets. American authorities at one time entertained the idea of building a road from Kangerlussuaq to the second-largest airport, in Narsarsuaq, several hundred kilometres to the south; the idea was abandoned. These airbases are not located near settlements, so travellers need an air transfer by helicopter to reach settlements.

All civil aviation matters are handled by the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark or the Greenland Airport Authority. Greenland now has 18 airstrips; some are based on US airbases. All domestic flights are operated by Air Greenland; the name was anglicized in 2002 from the Danish Grønlandsfly. International flights are limited to four weekly flights from Copenhagen to Kangerlussuaq, to Reykjavik, Iceland. Air Iceland flies from Reykjavík to Narsarsuaq, it offers "day trips to the wilderness" from Reykjavík to Kulusuk on the east coast. Air Iceland flies to Ittoqqortoormiit over Kulusuk twice a week throughout the year. Flights from Reykjavik are flown throughout the year. Year-round flights from Reykjavik to Ilulissat will be offered after April 2011. From 2012 Air Greenland operates a route from Iqaluit in Canada to Nuuk during summer. Air cargo is important for Greenland. Most perishable foodstuff is imported from Denmark by air, it uses the Air Greenland Copenhagen–Kangerlussuaq passenger aircraft, this is a reason why such a large aircraft is used.

The air containers are transported to the other airports by the small planes that can use the small runways. Some air cargo is transported by boat from Kangerlussuaq, but not in the winter when the Kangerlussuaq Fjord freezes. A state-owned firm called Kalaallit Airports is tasked with operating and updating the airports in Nuuk and Ilulissat; this process has been contentious as Chinese firms bid for the contract, with one Danish PM stating "We don't want a communist dictatorship in our backyard,". There are no roads between settlements, only around them. There are 150 km of roads in the whole country; the roads are primary or local roads, there are no highways in Greenland. Speed limit ranges from 50 kilometres per hour for local roads to 80 kilometres per hour on primary roads; some farms in the south have extensive simple roads for all-terrain vehicles, used for sheep farming and hay collection. There are some other short simple gravel roads, such as leading from the shore to hydropower plants.

There are plans for a 170-kilometre-long road between Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq, discussed for several years. In 2015 the cost of it caused it to be replanned as a one-lane road for terrain capable vehicles, costing a tenth as much, it was decided including financing in 2019, is expected to be built in 2020. There are ports at Ilulissat, Qaqortoq, Nuuk and Sisimiut. Several other towns have small ports; the only two users of the harbors are Arctic Umiaq Line. Royal Arctic Line organises freight ships, for example container ships, with regular sailings from Denmark. Arctic Umiaq Line runs a passenger ship which carries freight; the distance from Denmark to Nuuk by ship is 3,800 kilometres, so more perishable foodstuff is imported by air. There are no car ferries to Greenland, it is possible to transport cars as container freight with Royal Arctic Line. Passengers must travel with another method; this is done when moving or buying a car, not when travelling, as there is no large road network anywhere.

Special-purpose narrow gauge railways, such as the 600 mm gauge Qoornoq X-press in the village of Qoornoq in the Nuuk fjord, have operated. The Qoornoq X-press was used for transporting fish from the harbour to scaffolds for drying; the railway cars were only flatbed wagon cars with no locomotives to move them. Built in 1955, the railway was abandoned shortly before the village around 1971. Besides Qoornoq there are several other railways that existed in Greenland: Malmbjerget Mestersvig - for the local mines that existed in the 1950s and 1960s Julianehaab Ivigtut - for the local mine that once operated in the community Disko Island near Qutdligssat Maamorilik Media related to Transport in Greenland at Wikimedia Commons

Jackson Peak (Fremont County, Wyoming)

Jackson Peak 13,523 feet is the eighth-highest peak in the U. S. state of Wyoming and the seventh-highest in the Wind River Range. The Bull Lake Glacier is located north and east of the mountain. Situated on the Continental Divide, Jackson Peak is.75 miles southeast of Fremont Peak. Encountering bears is a concern in the Wind River Range. There are other concerns as well, including bugs, adverse snow conditions and nighttime cold temperatures. There have been notable incidents, including accidental deaths, due to falls from steep cliffs and due to falling rocks, over the years, including 1993, 2007, 2015 and 2018. Other incidents include a injured backpacker being airlifted near SquareTop Mountain in 2005, a fatal hiker incident in 2006 that involved state search and rescue; the U. S. Forest Service does not offer updated aggregated records on the official number of fatalities in the Wind River Range. General Information on the Wind River Range Climbing the Wind River Range Glaciers in the Wind River Range Shoshone National Forest Federal website Continental Divide Trail information


The Karnak Temple Complex known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom; the area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes; the Karnak complex gives its name to the nearby, surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. The complex includes the Karnak Open Air Museum, it is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is open to the general public; the term Karnak is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public.

There are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and creation deity, but not yet restored; the original temple was destroyed and restored by Hatshepsut, although another pharaoh built around it in order to change the focus or orientation of the sacred area. Many portions of it may have been carried away for use in other buildings; the key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of temples continued into Ptolemaic times. Thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming; the deities represented range from some of the earliest worshiped to those worshiped much in the history of the Ancient Egyptian culture.

Although destroyed, it contained an early temple built by Amenhotep IV, the pharaoh who would celebrate a near monotheistic religion he established that prompted him to move his court and religious center away from Thebes. It contains evidence of adaptations, where the buildings of the Ancient Egyptians were used by cultures for their own religious purposes. One famous aspect of Karnak is the Hypostyle Hall in the Precinct of Amun-Re, a hall area of 50,000 sq ft with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows. 122 of these columns are 10 meters tall, the other 12 are 21 meters tall with a diameter of over three meters. The architraves on top of these columns are estimated to weigh 70 tons; these architraves may have been lifted to these heights using levers. This would be an time-consuming process and would require great balance to get to such great heights. A common alternative theory regarding how they were moved is that large ramps were constructed of sand, brick or stone and that the stones were towed up the ramps.

If stone had been used for the ramps, they would have been able to use much less material. The top of the ramps would have employed either wooden tracks or cobblestones for towing the megaliths. There is an unfinished pillar in an out-of-the-way location that indicates how it would have been finished. Final carving was executed after the drums were put in place so that it was not damaged while being placed. Several experiments moving megaliths with ancient technology were made at other locations – some of them are listed here. In 2009 UCLA launched a website dedicated to virtual reality digital reconstructions of the Karnak complex and other resources; the sun god's shrine has light focused upon it during the winter solstice. The history of the Karnak complex is the history of Thebes and its changing role in the culture. Religious centers varied by region, when a new capital of the unified culture was established, the religious centers in that area gained prominence; the city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the Eleventh Dynasty and previous temple building there would have been small, with shrines being dedicated to the early deities of Thebes, the Earth goddess Mut and Montu.

Early building was destroyed by invaders. The earliest known artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-sided column from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. Amun was long the local tutelary deity of Thebes, he was identified with the goose. The Egyptian meaning of Amun is, "hidden" or, the "hidden god". Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the Eighteenth Dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt; every pharaoh of that dynasty added something to the temple site. Thutmose I erected an enclosure wall connecting the Fourth and Fifth pylons, which comprise the earliest part of the temple still standing in situ. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed and restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt, ravaged by the foreign rulers during the Hyksos occupation, she had at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple. One still stands, as the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth.


De Held Jozua, Zaandam

De Held Jozua is a paltrok mill in Zaandam, North Holland, Netherlands, restored to working order. As all Dutch paltrok mills it is a windpowered sawmill; the mill is listed as a Rijksmonument, number 40094. De Held Jozua was built in or shortly before 1719; the "windbrief", dated 25 July 1719 was granted to Hendrik Claasz. de Boer. An insurance contract mentions a vicar called Gerardus van Aelst as owner in 1728, who may be the source of the biblical name of the mill. Over the years the windmill changes hands many times, its working life ends with the construction of a mechanical sawmill in 1946. The windmill was at first still being maintained but fell into disrepair by the 1970s; the mill and accompanying drying sheds were restored in 1995. Since it is working while the sheds now house a restaurant. De Held Jozua is a Dutch paltrok mill - a wooden mill supported on a short central post and a ring of wooden rollers on a low brick base and designed for sawing wood; the mill body is boarded, however the sawing floor is open on three sides with only the windward facing side and the side roofs giving protection against the weather.

The entire mill is winded by a winch. On the front is a stage, 3.0 metres above ground for setting the sails. The sails are common sails with a span of 20.5 metres. They are carried on a cast iron windshaft cast by foundry Koninklijke Nederlandse Grofsmederij in 1904; the brake wheel with 72 cogs on the wind shaft drives the crank wheel with 27 cast iron radial cogs on the horizontal crank shaft. There is no upright shaft; the crank shaft has three crank pins. Connecting rods from the crank pins drive the three frame saws. Reciprocating lever bars drive the pawl and ratchet mechanisms which in turn drive the winches and the feeding mechanism of the log carriages through rack and pinion mechanisms; the winches can be used with the log hoist to lift logs from the water onto the sawing platform and to pull the log carriages back to their starting position. The windmill is open to visitors when it is turning

Brighton Beach Race Course

The Brighton Beach Race Course was an American Thoroughbred horse racing facility in Brighton Beach, New York, opened on June 28, 1879 by the Brighton Beach Racing Association. Headed by real estate developer William A. Engeman, who owned the Brighton Beach Hotel, the one-mile race track was located in back of the hotel and bounded by Ocean Parkway on the west, Neptune Avenue on the north, Coney Island Avenue on the east, Brighton Beach Avenue on the south. An instant success, the race track drew wealthy patrons from New York City, harness racing was introduced there in 1901. Among its most important Thoroughbred horse racing events were the Brighton Derby for three-year-olds and the Brighton Handicap, open to older horses. On July 17, 1900, James R. Keene's horse Voter set a new World Record of 1:38.00 for a mile on dirt at the Brighton Beach Race Course. The track prospered until 1908 when the New York Legislature passed the Hart-Agnew Law banning gambling in New York State. Motor racing events were held at the facility in an attempt to keep the track from closing but after horse racing returned to New York it was too late to save the track.

At the time it ceased horse racing operations, the Brighton Beach Race Course was the oldest horse track in steady use in the New York City area. The racetrack was used for automobile racing for a time and after other measures failed to make it viable, the facility was torn down and by the 1920s replaced by residential housing. History of the Brighton Beach Race Course at

30th Indiana Infantry Regiment

The 30th Regiment Indiana Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 30th Indiana Infantry was organized at Fort Wayne and mustered in for a three-year enlistment on September 24, 1861, under the command of Colonel Sion S. Bass; the regiment was attached to Wood's 2nd Brigade, McCook's Command, at Nolin, Kentucky, to November 1861. 5th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December 1861. 5th Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of the Ohio, to September 1862. 5th Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Right Wing, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, to August 1865. Department of Texas to November 1865; the 30th Indiana Infantry mustered out of service on November 25, 1865. Ordered to Camp Nevin and reported to General Rousseau October 9.

Camp at Nolin River, until February 1862. March to Bowling Green, Kentucky to Nashville, February 14-March 3. March to Savannah, March 16-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 6. Buell's middle Tennessee June to August. March to Louisville, Kentucky, in pursuit of Bragg, August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1–22. Near Clay Village October 4. Battle of Perryville, October 8. March to Nashville, October 22-November 7, duty there until December 26. Reconnaissance toward Lavergne November 19. Reconnaissance to Lavergne November 26–27. Lavergne, Scrougesville November 27. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26–30. Battle of Stones River December 30–31, 1862 and January 1–3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Liberty Gap June 24–27. Occupation of middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga Campaign August 16-September 22.

Battle of Chickamauga September 19–20. Duty at Whiteside, Tyner's Station, Blue Springs, until April 1864. Demonstration on Dalton, February 22–27, 1864. Near Dalton February 23. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23–25. Atlanta Campaign May 1-September 3. Tunnel Hill May 6–7. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge and Dalton May 8–13. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8–9. Battle of Resaca May 14–15. Near Kingston May 18–19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22–25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church, Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11–14. Lost Mountain June 15–17. Assault on Kennesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground, July 4. Chattahoochee River July 5–17. Peachtree Creek July 19–20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25–30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy's Station September 2–6. Operations against Hood in northern Georgia and northern Alabama September 20-November 3.

Consolidated to a battalion of 7 companies October 3. Nashville Campaign November–December. Columbia, Duck River, November 24–27. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15–16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17–28. Moved to Huntsville and duty there until March 1865. Operations in eastern Tennessee March 15-April 22. Duty at Nashville until June. Moved to New Orleans, June 16 to Texas in July, duty at various points until November; the regiment lost a total of 412 men during service. Colonel Sion S. Bass Colonel Joseph B. Dodge - commanded at the battle of Stones River Lieutenant Colonel Orrin D. Hurd - commanded at the battles of Stones River and Chickamauga Captain Henry Ware Lawton - commanded at the battle of Nashville Captain Oliver McMahan - commanded at the Battle of Shiloh Captain Henry Ware Lawton, Company A - Medal of Honor recipient for action during the siege of Atlanta. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Likens, Jeremiah Doran. A Civil War Diary and Letters, 1978.

Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. 30th Indiana Infantry living history organization