The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, lower the ships at the other end; the original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016; the expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate; the United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government, it is now operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal, it takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world; the earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama occurred in 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through the Americas that would ease the voyage for ships traveling between Spain and Peru.
Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese. In 1668, the English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne speculated in his encyclopaedic endeavour Pseudodoxia Epidemica - "some Isthmus have been eat through by the Sea, others cut by the spade: And if policy would permit, that of Panama in America were most worthy the attempt: it being but few miles over, would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and China". In 1788, American Thomas Jefferson Minister to France, suggested that the Spanish should build the canal since it would be a less treacherous route for ships than going around the southern tip of South America, that tropical ocean currents would widen the canal thereafter. During an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other trade links in the area were attempted over the years.
The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort and it was abandoned in April 1700. Numerous canals were built in other countries in the late early 19th centuries; the success of the Erie Canal in the United States in the 1820s and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granada officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. Another effort was made in 1843. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, a contract was entered into by Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal, it was a wholly British endeavor. It was expected to be completed in five years. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan, either. In 1846, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the US and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1848, the discovery of gold in California, on the West Coast of the United States, created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. William H. Aspinwall, the man who won the federal subsidy for the building and operating the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from this discovery. Aspinwall's route included steamship legs from New York City to Panama and from Panama to California, with an overland portage through Panama; the route between California and Panama was soon traveled, as it provided one of the fastest links between San Francisco and the East Coast cities, about 40 days' transit in total.
Nearly all the gold, shipped out of California went by the fast Panama route. Several new and larger paddle steamers were soon plying
A container port or container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime container port. Alternatively the transshipment may be between land vehicles between train and truck, in which case the terminal is described as an inland container port. In November 1932, the first inland container port in the world was opened by the Pennsylvania Railroad company in Enola, Pennsylvania. Port Newark-Elizabeth on the Newark Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey is considered the world's first maritime container port. On April 26, 1956, the Ideal X was rigged for an experiment to use standardized cargo containers that were stacked and unloaded to a compatible truck chassis at Port Newark; the concept had been developed by the McLean Trucking Company. On August 15, 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey opened the world’s first container port, Elizabeth Marine Terminal.
Maritime container ports tend to be part of a larger port, the biggest maritime container ports can be found situated around major harbours. Inland container ports tend to be located in or near major cities, with good rail connections to maritime container ports. It's common for cargo that arrives to a container port in a single ship to be distributed over several modes of transportation for delivery to inland customers. According to a manager from the Port of Rotterdam, it may be typical way for the cargo of a large 18,000 TEU container ship to be distributed over 19 container trains, 32 barges and 1,560 trucks; the further container terminal, in April 2015, such APM Terminal Maasvlakte II, that adapts the advanced technology of remotely-controlled STS gantry cranes and conceptions of sustainability, renewable energy, zero carbon dioxide emission. Both maritime and inland container ports provide storage facilities for both loaded and empty containers. Loaded containers are stored for short periods, whilst waiting for onward transportation, whilst unloaded containers may be stored for longer periods awaiting their next use.
Containers are stacked for storage, the resulting stores are known as container stacks. In recent years methodological advances regarding container port operations have improved, such as container port design process. For a detailed description and a comprehensive list of references see, e.g. the operations research literature. Cargo airline Containerization Dock List of container ports Pick and pack Shipping list Warehouse Container terminal design process Destiny of a Maritime Nation, a 2018 documentary by Channel NewsAsia, discusses Singapore's 1960s shift to container traffic and interviews port workers present at the time
Norman Manley International Airport
Norman Manley International Airport Palisadoes Airport, is an international airport serving Kingston, Jamaica and is located south of the island 19 km away from the centre of New Kingston. It is the second busiest airport in the country after Sangster International Airport, recording 1,502,973 arriving passengers in 2015. There are over 130 international flights a week that depart from Norman Manley International Airport. Named in honour of Jamaican statesman Norman Manley, it is a hub for Caribbean Airlines, it is located on the Palisadoes tombolo in outer Kingston Harbour. Jamaica has always had a vibrant civil aviation industry with the first flight reported in the island on 21 December 1911; this is. Nineteen years on 3 December 1930, the first commercial flight, a Consolidated Commodore twin-engine flying boat operated by Pan American Airways, landed in Kingston Harbour; the year 1934 was another historic period for the nation's aviation industry when Dr. Albert Forsythe and Charles C. Anderson arrived in Jamaica from Cuba.
This was the first time. The significant growth in the aviation sector led to the establishment of the Civil Aviation Department in 1947. One year in 1948, the Kingston Air Traffic Control Centre was established. In the same year the Palisadoes Airport and the Montego Bay Airport now Sangster International Airport were established; the airport was featured in Dr. No; the contract relating to additions and alterations to the departure concourse has been awarded to Kier Construction Limited and is valued at $161.5M. The work will include construction of a new canopy, north of the existing check-in concourse and departure lounge; the architect / engineer for the designs are Llewelyn Davies, Jabobs Consultancy & Leading Edge Aviation Planning Professionals Limited, in conjunction with Peter Jervis and Associates Limited and Grace Ashley and Associates. The project seeks to increase the airport's capacity to cater for projected air and passenger traffic at an acceptable level of service to the year 2023.
The project is part of a 20-year masterplan which will be implemented in three phases and will cost about $130M. By 2022 it will have involved a virtual reconstruction of the entire airport; the first phase of construction and renovation was completed in 2007. Construction started in June 2006; the European Investment Bank is providing $40M project and the Caribbean Development Bank has approved a loan of $11m for the new project. Phase 1A commenced planning in 2004 and was completed in 2007, at an estimated cost of $80M; this phase comprises a new departures building at the eastern end of the present terminal to accommodate expansion to the present departure concourse, security screening station with space to accommodate explosives detection equipment, out-going immigration, retail concessions and departure lounge. Additionally a new multi-level passenger finger that enables the separation of arriving and departing passengers, as required by security regulations, was included. Other items in this phase included: Nine passenger loading bridges at the new finger.
Upgraded roadway system and expanded public car park Major rehabilitation of the existing departures concourse and related underground services infrastructure Major rehabilitation and upgrading of the terminal arrivals area, including immigration hall, customs hall, arrivals arcade, arrivals duty-free shops and offices Replacement and upgrading of airport systems – public address, access control, flight information, baggage information, security control and other airport IT systems Cargo warehouse complex Phase 1B was completed in 2010 and costed $23M. Works under this phase included: Further upgrading of existing buildings Construction of a new arrivals area Installation of new baggage handling facilities Movement of the General Aviation Centre, the fire station and other support facilities Airside works including the expansion of aircraft parking stands Extension of the cargo and maintenance taxiway Phase 2, the final phase of the project, commenced in 2013 and is to end in 2022; this phase will involve additional improvement and maintenance works to the terminal, landside and support areas of the facility at a cost of $9M.
On 10 April 1953 a Lockheed Lodestar piloted by Captain Owen Roberts lost an engine on takeoff, climbed to 100–200 feet entering a slight banking turn and crashed into the sea. The failure of the left engine, proven to be due to the cracking of the accessory drive gear. 13 on board, including the pilot, were killed. There was only one known survivor. On 17 July 1960, the captain of a Vickers Viscount of Cubana de Aviación hijacked the aircraft on a flight from José Martí International Airport, Havana to Miami International Airport, Florida; the aircraft landed at Palisadoes Airport where the
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a high aluminium content. It is the world's main source of aluminium. Bauxite consists of the aluminium minerals gibbsite and diaspore, mixed with the two iron oxides goethite and haematite, the aluminium clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase and ilmenite. In 1821 the French geologist Pierre Berthier discovered bauxite near the village of Les Baux in Provence, southern France. Numerous classification schemes have been proposed for bauxite but, as of 1982, there was no consensus. Vadász distinguished lateritic bauxites from karst bauxite ores: The carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks, where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clay layers – dispersed clays which were concentrated as the enclosing limestones dissolved during chemical weathering; the lateritic bauxites are found in the countries of the tropics. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite, basalt and shale.
In comparison with the iron-rich laterites, the formation of bauxites depends more on intense weathering conditions in a location with good drainage. This enables the precipitation of the gibbsite. Zones with highest aluminium content are located below a ferruginous surface layer; the aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is exclusively gibbsite. In the case of Jamaica, recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium, suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ash deposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. Australia is the largest producer of bauxite, followed by China. In 2017, China was the top producer of aluminium with half of the world's production, followed by Russia and India. Although aluminium demand is increasing, known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many centuries. Increased aluminium recycling, which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium, will extend the world's bauxite reserves.
In November 2010, Nguyen Tan Dung, the prime minister of Vietnam, announced that Vietnam's bauxite reserves might total 11,000 Mt. Bauxite is strip mined because it is always found near the surface of the terrain, with little or no overburden; as of 2010 70% to 80% of the world's dry bauxite production is processed first into alumina and into aluminium by electrolysis. Bauxite rocks are classified according to their intended commercial application: metallurgical, cement and refractory. Bauxite ore is heated in a pressure vessel along with a sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 150 to 200 °C. At these temperatures, the aluminium is dissolved as sodium aluminate; the aluminium compounds in the bauxite may be present as boehmite or diaspore. The undissolved waste, bauxite tailings, after the aluminium compounds are extracted contains iron oxides, calcia and some un-reacted alumina. After separation of the residue by filtering, pure gibbsite is precipitated when the liquid is cooled, seeded with fine-grained aluminium hydroxide.
The gibbsite is converted into aluminium oxide, Al2O3, by heating in rotary kilns or fluid flash calciners to a temperature in excess of 1,000 °C. This aluminium oxide is dissolved at a temperature of about 960 °C in molten cryolite. Next, this molten substance can yield metallic aluminium by passing an electric current through it in the process of electrolysis, called the Hall–Héroult process, named after its American and French discoverers. Prior to the invention of this process, prior to the Deville process, aluminium ore was refined by heating ore along with elemental sodium or potassium in a vacuum; the method was consumed materials that were themselves expensive at that time. This made early elemental aluminium more expensive than gold. Bauxite is the main source of the rare metal gallium. During the processing of bauxite to alumina in the Bayer process, gallium accumulates in the sodium hydroxide liquor. From this it can be extracted by a variety of methods; the most recent is the use of ion-exchange resin.
Achievable extraction efficiencies critically depend on the original concentration in the feed bauxite. At a typical feed concentration of 50 ppm, about 15 percent of the contained gallium is extractable; the remainder reports to the red mud and aluminium hydroxide streams. Bauxite, Arkansas Rio Tinto Alcan United Company RUSAL MS Bulk Jupiter Bárdossy, G.: Karst Bauxites: Bauxite deposits on carbonate rocks. Elsevier Sci. Publ. 441 p. Bárdossy, G. and Aleva, G. J. J.: Lateritic Bauxites. Developments in Economic Geology 27, Elsevier Sci. Publ. 624 p. ISBN 0-444-98811-4 Grant, C.. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry p. 385–388 Vol.266, No.3 Hanilçi, N.. Geological and geochemical evolution of the Bolkardaği bauxite deposits, Turkey: Transformation from shale to bauxite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration USGS Minerals Information: Bauxite Mineral Information Institute "Bauxite". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Negril is a small but dispersed beach resort town located across parts of two Jamaican parishes and Hanover. Negril is about an hour and fifteen minute drive on the coastal highway from Sir Donald Sangster International Airport, in Montego Bay. Westmoreland is the westernmost parish in Jamaica, located on the south side of the island. Downtown Negril, the West End cliff resorts to the south of downtown, the southern portion of the so-called "seven mile beach" are in Westmoreland; the northernmost resorts on the beach are in Hanover Parish. The nearest large town is the capital of Westmoreland Parish; the name Negril is a shortened version of Negrillo, as it was named by the Spanish in 1494. A theory holds that because there was a vast population of black eels along Negril's coast, the Spaniards called the area Anguila Negra, shortened to Negrillo and to Negril. Although Negril has a long history, it did not become well known until the second half of the twentieth century. Negril's development as a resort location began during the late 1950s, though access to the area proved difficult as ferries were required to drop off passengers in Negril Bay, forcing them to wade to shore.
Most vacationers would rent rooms inside the homes of Jamaican families, or would pitch tents in their yards. Daniel Connell was the first person to create more traditional vacation lodging for these "flower children" when he set up the first guest house in Negril - Palm Grove; the area's welcoming and hospitable reputation grew over time and the first of many resorts was constructed in the mid to late 1960s. The first hotel in Negril was the Yacht Club by Mary's Bay on the West End; when the road between Montego Bay and Negril was improved in the early 1970s, it helped to increase Negril's status as a new resort location. It was a two-lane paved road that ran 100 yards inland from two white coral sand beaches, at the southern end of, a small village; the long paved road from the village ran north to Green Island, home to many of the Jamaican workers in Negril, was straight enough to double as a runway for small airplanes, why there were lengths of railroad track standing on end along the side of the road - to discourage drug smugglers from landing on the road to pick up cheap cargos of marijuana.
After Negril's infrastructure was expanded—anticipating the growth of resorts and an expanding population, a small airport, the Negril Aerodrome, was built in 1976 near Rutland Point, alongside several small hotels catering to the North American winter tourists. Europeans came to Negril, several hotels were built to cater directly to those guests; the geography of Jamaica is diverse. The western coastline contains the island's finest beaches, stretching for more than 6 km along a sandbar at Negril, it is sometimes known among tourists as the "7-Mile Beach" although it is only more than 4 mi in length, from the Negril River on the south to Rutland Point on the north. On the inland side of Negril's main road, to the east of the shore, lies a swamp called the Great Morass, through which runs the Negril River. Within the Great Morass is the Royal Palm Reserve, with protected forest. In 1990, the Negril Coral Reef Preservation Society was formed as a non-profit, non-governmental organization to address ongoing degradation of the coral reef ecosystem.
The Negril Marine Park was declared on 4 March 1998 covering a total area of 160 km2 and extending from the Davis Cove River in the Parish of Hanover to St. John’s Point in Westmoreland. Scuba diving and snorkeling are good in the protected reef areas; the West End Road is known as Lighthouse Road as there is a Belgian engineered lighthouse protecting seafarers from the cliffs. There are views from this western tip near Negril Lighthouse. For years, Negril's beach was rated as one of the top ten beaches in the world by several travel magazines; the beach's length is significant — the two bays comprise the Seven Mile Beach. The beach is a little less than 7 miles in length, with Bloody Bay being around 2 miles, Long Bay being just under 5 miles. Bloody Bay is home to the large, all-inclusive resorts, Long Bay has all-inclusives and smaller, family-run hotels. South of downtown Negril is West End Road, known as the West End, lined with resorts that offer more privacy; these areas have access to waters used for snorkelling and diving, with jumping points reaching more than 40 feet high.
Many vendors and shops are located around the beach resorts. A new highway from Montego Bay and an improved infrastructure may bring more tourists; as a result, more hotels and tour operators continue to develop new attractions and excursions in Negril. Since the 1980s, it has become a popular location for U. S. college students to visit during spring break, or just a regular vacation in Jamaica. The last few years have seen major development along the beach; the resorts include Couples Swept Away, Couples Negril, Beaches, Samsara Hotel, Legends Resort, the Grand Lido, Riu Palace Tropical Bay, Riu Club Hotel and Hedonism II. The Hedonism II resort is one enduring hotel/resort, saved from bankruptcy and remains an adult destination. A franchise of Jimmy Buffett's chain restaurant and bar, Jimmy Buffett's Margaritaville, a duty-free zone have been added. In recent years, a large development has been constructed consisting of ocean front villas, 2 or 3 bed townhouse developments and studio apartme
Sangster International Airport
Sangster International Airport is an international airport located 3 mi east of Montego Bay, Jamaica. The airport is capable of handling nine million passengers per year, it serves as the most popular airport for tourists visiting the north coast of Jamaica. The airport is named after former Jamaican Prime Minister Sir Donald Sangster. Sangster is run by a consortium called MBJ Airports Limited; the leading partner of the consortium is Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacífico while another partner is Vancouver Airport Services with a 2% stake. Sangster was privatised and turned over by Airports Authority of Jamaica to the consortium in 2003. Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay, St. James, was first conceived in 1936 when the site now housing the Sangster International Airport was identified as one suitable for the construction of an airport in the town of Montego Bay. Named the Montego Bay Airport, a decision was made to build the runway in 1940, the actual construction of the facility was completed on 18 February 1947.
At the time of its completion, the town of Montego Bay was more like a playground for the rich and famous, was considered one of the premier vacation spots within the Caribbean, just as it is today. The first international airline to fly into the Montego Bay Airport was Pan American Airways, the airport, which in comparison to today's standards, was more like a small aerodrome, was operated by Pan American until 30 September 1949, when the Jamaican government took control of the facility. However, the Sangster International Airport, as known today, is nothing like it was in the early days. One of the most noticeable differences was that the terminal building was on the northern side of the runway but was shifted to the southern side of the runway during one of the several upgrading exercises that took place at that facility, necessitated by the growth in air traffic over the years. Plans for the construction of a new terminal at its present location, on the southern side of the runway, were announced in July 1955.
The plans for the new terminal building was part of what turned out to be a continued upgrading and restructuring of the facility, to enable it to cope with the growth in traffic. The original terminal was built and opened on 7 July 1959, with a capacity to accommodate 500 passengers per hour, parking for seven aircraft at a time. Over the years, the upgrading process was a continuous one the facility had grown into the larger of the three international airports in Jamaica, handling 3.7 million passengers per annum in 2007, had seen an increase in passenger and aircraft movement in 2009. The management and partners of the airport have been trying to seek with passengers from Asia, but the project stalled in 2010; the airport is trying receive more non-stop service from Brazil, but it has been stopped, this time in 2013. Since January 2001, plans have been executed to expand the airport to the status of a world-class airport; the new eastern concourse of the Sangster International Airport was opened in December 2005.
Phase two was due to begin towards the end of 2006. MBJ still faces some challenges such as the restructuring of Air Jamaica. A planned expansion of the main runway was in a preparation phase but due to the poor economic conditions,the runway expansion project was stopped in 2012 indefinitely; this expansion would have afforded the airport a functioning 10,000-foot runway to accommodate large aircraft traffic. MBJ Airports Limited commissioned a new customs hall, arrivals lobby and transportation center in March 2007. Since further expansion and renovation projects such as the relocation of the immigrations hall and duty-free mall have been launched and was completed in September 2008; this facility has increased the handling capacity to nine million passengers per annum. Plans are in place for the relocation of the tower, domestic terminal and others. In 2006, there was a change in management at the airport following the change in the consortium that operates this facility. Relations between the new management and unions have been difficult, with a strike in November 2007 and in November 2009.
The airport won the World Travel Awards "Caribbean's Leading Airport" for the years 2005, 2009 to 2017. Due to recent surges in passenger numbers and new routes being added, the airport consortium has taken on a number of project to rehabilitate the airport in order to cope with the added demand; the airport will be renovating its check-in area, left untouched since 2008, as well as re-paving the aprons and runway. The airport revamped its duty-free offerings and, in March 2018, welcomed three Starbucks outlets, complementing the well-appointed airside offerings like Auntie Anne's, Nathan's, Dairy Queen, Moe's Southwest Grill and Wendy's to name a few. In March 2018, the airport announced its plan to revamp the airport's retail area to enhance the customer experience and optimize profits on retailing activities in the airport. ^1 Orbest flights from Lisbon to Montego Bay make a stop at Samaná. However, the airline does not have rights to carry passengers between Montego Bay and Samaná. On 21 January 1960, Avianca Flight 671, a Lockheed L-1049E, crashed and burned on landing, killing 37 aboard.
On 19 April 2009, a Boeing 737-800, was hijacked. The hijacker, armed with a semi-automatic pistol is reported as having asked to be taken to Cuba
A resort is a self-contained commercial establishment that tries to provide most of a vacationer's wants, such as food, lodging, sports and shopping, on the premises. The term resort may be used for a hotel property that provides an array of amenities including entertainment and recreational activities. A hotel is a central feature of a resort, such as the Grand Hotel at Mackinac Island, Michigan; some resorts are condominium complexes that are timeshares or owed fractionally or wholly owned condominium. A resort is not always a commercial establishment operated by a single company, but in the late 20th century, that sort of facility became more common. In British English "resort" means a town which people visit for holidays and days out which contains hotels at which such holidaymakers stay. Examples would include Brighton. A destination resort is a resort that itself contains the necessary guest attraction capabilities so it does not need to be near a destination to attract its patrons. A commercial establishment at a resort destination such as a recreational area, a scenic or historic site, a theme park, a gaming facility, or other tourist attraction may compete with other businesses at a destination.
Another quality of a destination resort is that it offers food, lodging, sports and shopping within the facility so that guests have no need to leave the facility throughout their stay. The facilities are of higher quality than would be expected if one were to stay at a hotel or eat in a town's restaurants; some examples are Atlantis in the Bahamas. Related to resorts are convention and large meeting sites, they occur in cities, where special meeting halls, together with ample accommodations and varied dining and entertainment, are provided. An all-inclusive resort charges a fixed price that includes all items. At a minimum, most inclusive resorts include lodging, unlimited food, sports activities, entertainment for the fixed price. In recent years, the number of resorts in the United States offering "all-inclusive" amenities has decreased dramatically. In 1961, over half offered such plans. All-inclusive resorts are found in the Caribbean in Dominican Republic. Notable examples are Club Med, Sandals Resorts, Beaches Resorts An all-inclusive resort includes three meals daily, soft drinks, most alcoholic drinks and other services in the price.
Many offer sports and other activities included in the price as well. They are located in warmer regions; the all-inclusive model originated in the Club Med resorts, which were founded by the Belgian Gérard Blitz. Some all-inclusive resorts are designed for specific vacation interests. For example, certain resorts cater to adults, more-specialized properties accept couples only. Other all-inclusive resorts are geared toward families, with facilities like craft centers, game rooms, water parks to keep children of all ages entertained. All-inclusive resorts are very popular locations for destination weddings. A spa resort is a short l-term residential/lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spagoers to develop healthy habits. Many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or sources of mineral waters. Over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, special interest programming.
Golf resorts are resorts that cater to the sport of golf, they include access to one or more golfcourses and/or clubhouses. Golf resorts provide golf packages that provide visitors with all greens and cart fees, range balls and meals. In North America, a ski resort is a destination resort in a ski area; the term is less to refer to a town or village. A megaresort is a type of destination resort of an exceptionally-large size, such as those along the Las Vegas Strip. In Singapore, integrated resort is a euphemism for a casino-based destination resort. A holiday village is a type of self-contained resort in Europe whose accommodation is in villas. A holiday camp, in the United Kingdom, refers to a resort whose accommodation is in chalets or static caravans. There are more than 1500 timeshare resorts in the United States that are operated by major hospitality, timeshare-specific, or independent companies, they represent 198,000 residences and nearly 9 million owners, who pay an average $880 per year in maintenance fees.
A reported 16% of the residences became vacation rentals. Baiae, Italy, a famous historic resort of the ancient world, popular over 2000 years ago. Capri, an island near Naples, has attracted visitors since Roman times. Monte Ne, near Rogers, Arkansas, a famous historic resort, active in the early 20th century. At its peak, more than 10,000 people a year visited its hotels. Two of its hotels, Missouri Row and Oklahoma Row, were the largest log buildings in the world. Monte Ne closed in the 1930s and was submerged under Beaver Lake in the 1960s. Tawawa House known as Tawawa Springs or Xenia Springs, inspired Dolen Perkins-Valdez to write her debut novel, when she read about it in an autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois; the book mentioned in passing that t