A rail trail is the conversion of a disused railway track into a multi-use path for walking and sometimes horse riding and snowmobiling. The characteristics of abandoned railways—flat, long running through historical areas—are appealing for various developments; the term sometimes covers trails running alongside working railways. Some shared trails are segregated, with the segregation achieved without separation. Many rail trails are long-distance trails. A rail trail may still include rails, such as light streetcar. By virtue of their characteristic shape, some shorter rail trails are known as greenways and linear parks; the only carrier to exist in Bermuda folded in 1948 and was converted to a rail trail in 1984. Some of the former right of way has been converted for automobile traffic, but 18 miles are reserved for pedestrian use and bicycles on paved portions; the rail bed spans the length of the island, connected Hamilton to St. George's and several villages, though several bridges are derelict, causing the trail to be fragmented.
The Kettle Valley Rail Trail in British Columbia uses a rail corridor, built for the now-abandoned Kettle Valley Railway. The trail was developed during the 1990s after the Canadian Pacific Railway abandoned train service; the longest rail trail in Canada is the Newfoundland T'Railway that covers a distance of 883 km ). Protected as a linear park under the provincial park system, the T'Railway consists of the railbed of the historic Newfoundland Railway as transferred from its most recent owner, Canadian National Railway, to the provincial government after rail service was abandoned on the island of Newfoundland in 1988; the rail corridor stretches from Channel-Port aux Basques in the west to St. John's in the east with branches to Stephenville, Bonavista and Carbonear. Following the abandonment of the Prince Edward Island Railway in 1989, the government of Prince Edward Island purchased the right-of-way to the entire railway system; the Confederation Trail was developed as a tip-to-tip walking/cycling gravel rail trail which doubles as a monitored and groomed snowmobile trail during the winter months, operated by the PEI Snowmobile Association.
In Quebec, Le P'tit Train du Nord runs 200 km from Saint-Jérôme to Mont-Laurier. In Toronto, there are the Beltline Trail and the West Toronto Railpath. In central Ontario, the former Victoria Railway line, which runs 89 kilometres from the town of Lindsay, north to the village of Haliburton, in Haliburton County, serves as a public recreation trail, it can be used for cross country skiing and snowmobiling in the winter months, walking and horse riding from spring to autumn. The majority of the rail trail passes through sparsely populated areas of the Canadian Shield, with historic trestle bridges crossing several rivers; the old Sarnia Bridge in St. Marys, was re-purposed as part of the Grand Trunk Trail; the former Grand Trunk Railway viaduct was purchased from Canadian National Railway in 1995. The Grand Trunk Trail was opened in 1998 with over 3 km of paved, accessible trail. In 2012, The re-purposing of the Sarnia Bridge was inducted into the North America Railway Hall of Fame. A railroad between Gateway Road and Raleigh Street in Winnipeg, was turned into a 7 km asphalt trail in 2007.
It is called the Northeast Pioneers Greenway, has plans for expansion into East St. Paul, to Birds Hill Park. A considerable part of the Trans Canada Trail are repurposed defunct rail lines donated to provincial governments by CP and CN rail rebuilt as walking trails; the main section runs along the southern areas of Canada connecting most of Canada's major cities and most populous areas. There is a long northern arm which runs through Alberta to Edmonton and up through northern British Columbia to Yukon; the trail is multi-use and depending on the section may allow hikers, horseback riders, cross country skiers and snowmobilers. In North America, the decades-long consolidation of the rail industry led to the closure of a number of uneconomical branch lines and redundant mainlines; some were maintained as short line railways. The first abandoned rail corridor in the United States converted into a recreational trail was the Elroy-Sparta State Trail in Wisconsin, which opened in 1967; the following year the Illinois Prairie Path opened.
The conversion of rails to trails hastened with the federal government passing legislation promoting the use of railbanking for abandoned railroad corridors in 1983, upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court in 1990; this process preserves rail corridors for possible future rail use with interim use as a trail. By the 1970s main lines were being sold or abandoned; this was true when regional rail lines merged and streamlined their operations. As both the supply of potential trails increased and awareness of the possibilities rose, state governments, conservation authorities, private organizations bought the rail corridors to create, expand or link green spaces; the longest developed rail trail is the 240 miles Katy Trail in Missouri. When complete, the Cowboy Trail in Nebraska will become the longest; the Beltline, in Atlanta, Georgia, is under construction. In 2030, its anticipated year of completion, it will be one of the longest continuous trails; the Atlanta BeltLine is a sustainable redevelopment project that will provide a network of public parks, multi-use trails and transit along a historic 22-mile railroad corridor circling downtown and connecting many neigh
Saint Brélade is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey. Its population was 10,568 as of 2011, it occupies the southwestern part of the island, it is the only parish to border St. Peter; the parish is the second-largest parish by surface area, covering 7,103 vergées, 11% of the total land surface of the island. Its name is derived from a 6th-century Celtic or Welsh "wandering saint" named Branwalator or Saint Brelade, said to have been the son of the Cornish king, Kenen, he is said to have been a disciple of Samson of Dol, worked with this churchman in Cornwall and the Channel Islands. A large section of the Jersey Railway linking La Corbière with Saint Helier ran through the parish between 1870 and 1936. St Brelade's Church is situated at the end of St. Brélade's Bay, an unusual situation being comparatively distant from historic centres of population; the small Fisherman's Chapel alongside contains mediaeval frescoes which survived the iconoclasm of the Reformation. According to folklore, the reason for the siting of the parish church is that the St. Bréladais intended to build the church inland, much nearer to the homes of the congregation.
However les p'tits faîtchieaux who had their temple in a nearby dolmen were disturbed by the construction of the foundations and, every night, would undo the construction work and magically transport all the tools and materials down to the shoreline. The humans gave up and built the church where the fairies had indicated. Another church is located close to the Parish Hall in Saint Aubin. St Aubin on the Hill is an Anglican church in the Parish of Saint Brelade dedicated to Saint Aubin of Angers; the church that stands today was built in the 19th century and is a fine example of Victorian Gothic style, with beautiful stained glass windows. When this was built the appointed minister of the Anglican church supported the building of a local primary school just a short walk from the church. St Brelade's School served the whole parish until it closed in 1984 and became St Brelade's College, a school that teaches English to foreign pupils. St. Brélade has some of the most popular bays in Jersey, with St. Brélade's Bay, Ouaisné, Portelet and parts of both St. Ouen's Bay and St. Aubin's Bay falling within the parish boundaries.
The village of Saint Aubin was a fishing port facing St. Helier on the opposite side of St. Aubin's Bay. St Aubin was the main centre of population in the parish, but residential development at Les Quennevais has shifted that centre of population. Jersey's prison is situated at La Moye, the island's desalination plant is sited in the parish; the lighthouse at La Corbière features on the Jersey £5 note and the Jersey 20-pence piece The traditional nickname for St. Bréladais is carpéleuses; the parish is divided into vingtaines for administrative purposes as follows: La Vingtaine de Noirmont La Vingtaine du Coin La Vingtaine des Quennevais La Vingtaine de la MoyeSt. Brélade is divided into two electoral districts: St. Brélade No. 1 district elects one Deputy St. Brélade No. 2 district elects two Deputies. St Brelade is twinned with: Granville, France Isaac LeVesconte, Nova Scotia businessman and political figure. Steve Pallett was elected Connétable of the Parish of St Brélade in 2011. Charles Robin Robert Pipon Marett, of La Haule Manor Claude Cahun André Gide Simon Laurens Derek Warwick, former British Formula One driver Ronald Price Hickman, car designer and inventor who designed the original Lotus Elan, the Lotus Elan +2 and the Lotus Europa, as well as the Black & Decker Workmate.
Bob Murray businessman and former chairman of Sunderland A. F. C. An accountant by trade, he made his fortune through the growth and sale of the Spring Ram kitchen manufacturing company. Jack Higgins, pseudonym of British novelist Harry Patterson, author of The Eagle Has Landed Jamie Lovatt, The Voice UK 2014 contestant In 2009 the parish won a Britain in Bloom award in the small coastal resort category. Britain in Bloom awards too in 2012, 2014 & 2015. Jersey Folk Lore, John H. L'Amy, Jersey 1927 Saint Brélade Official Parish website Saint Brélade at Les Pages Jèrriaises Saint Brélade’s Church St Aubin-on-the-Hill Church St Brelade's College
Jersey the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney. Jersey was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England from 1066. After Normandy was lost by the kings of England in the 13th century, the ducal title surrendered to France and the other Channel Islands remained attached to the English crown; the bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq, other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial and judicial systems, the power of self-determination. The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not part of the United Kingdom, has an international identity separate from that of the UK, but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey; the definition of United Kingdom in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. The European Commission have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003 that Jersey is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey is not part of the European Union but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency if some people still speak the Norman language.
Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, the popularity of British sports, including cricket. The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Barsa and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified because none corresponds directly to the present names; the name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey since William Camden's Britannia, is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was applied to the colony of New Jersey as Nova Caesarea. Andium and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey and Jèrri derive from jarð or jarl, or a personal name, Geirr; the ending -ey denotes an island. Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey into an island.
Jersey was a centre of Neolithic activity. Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship. Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands and the Cotentin peninsula came under the control of the duke of Brittany during the Viking invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands; when William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.
The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey and the other Channel Islands. In the Treaty of Paris, the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy and ducal title, since the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown. On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin's Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island. In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries. In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, King Charles II of England gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey.
It is now a state in the Unit
Saint John, Jersey
Saint John is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey and is situated on the north coast of the island. St. John shares borders with St Mary on its west, Trinity to the east, St Lawrence and Saint Helier on its south. A rural community, the parish has a small shopping area, village pub, around its parish church and parish hall; the cliffs of the north coast afford some of the best views in Jersey. After Trinity, it has the second highest point in Jersey at Mont Mado; the parish covers territory of 4,846 vergées. Mont Mado granite was quarried historically; the largest quarry is now that of Ronez on the north coast. La Route du Nord was constructed during the German occupation of the Channel Islands as a scheme to provide work; the road is now dedicated to the men and women of Jersey who suffered 1939-1945. The parish is divided into vingtaines for administrative purposes as follows: La Vingtaine du Nord La Vingtaine de Hérupe La Vingtaine du DouetThe parish is one electoral district and elects one Deputy.
St John is twinned with: Le Teilleul in France The symbol for St John has links to the Crusades and the Maltese cross is used within Jersey to depict the Parish of St John. Saint John is the second least populated parish of Jersey, having only 2,911 residents as of 2011. St Jean at Les Pages Jèrriaises
Condor Ferries is an operator of passenger and freight ferry services between The United Kingdom, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey and France. Condor Ferries established the first high-speed car ferry service to the Channel Islands from Weymouth in 1993 using the 74m Incat catamaran Condor 10. In the winter of 1993/1994, Condor's parent company, Commodore Shipping, took over British Channel Island Ferries which operated conventional ferry services to the Channel Islands from Poole. Upon taking over BCIF, Condor moved all passenger services to Weymouth and the BCIF freight service was transferred to Commodore Shipping; the BCIF vessel Havelet ran a conventional ferry service from Weymouth from 1994 alongside the Condor 10. In March 1997, Condor moved its UK port to Poole; the Condor Express suffered technical problems. As a result, the Channel Island governments put the licence to operate ferry services to the UK out to tender. P&O European Ferries and Hoverspeed submitted bids to run the service but Condor retained the licence but was forced to purchase the Havelet to act as an all-weather back-up until the delivery of a new conventional vessel in 1999.
It purchased the Condor Vitesse for a new service to St Malo via Guernsey and made Weymouth its primary UK port, though retaining summer sailings from Poole. Commodore Shipping became sole owner of the company around this time; as part of the Condor Liberation purchase, the Condor Vitesse has been sold to a Greek ferry company, along with her sister Condor Express. Condor 10 returned to the fleet in March 2002 to replace the Condor 9 on the St Malo - Channel Island service and to compete with the existing fast car ferry service of Emeraude Lines; that year, the Commodore Group, which included Condor Ferries, Commodore Ferries and Commodore Express, was sold to a management buy-out team for a reported £150 million. The deal was backed by ABN AMRO. Shortly after, the Condor Ferries logo was redesigned for the start of the 2003 season using the same font as the logo Brittany Ferries had adopted in 2002. In 2004, the group was rebranded with Commodore Ferries coming under the Condor Ferries name and Commodore Express becoming Condor Logistics.
The group was sold once again in 2004 to the Royal Bank of Scotland's venture capital arm for £240 million. In 2008, with the approval of the Jersey Competition Regulatory Authority, the Macquarie European Infrastructure Fund II acquired Admiral Holdings Ltd, which owns the Condor Group, it was announced on 4 October 2012 that Condor Logistics would close its operations with the loss of about 180 jobs. The move was blamed on changes to low-value consignment relief affecting the Channel Islands. Condor Ferries operate the following routes: Poole - Guernsey - Jersey - operated from 27 March 2015, with the HSC Condor Liberation Portsmouth - Guernsey - Jersey Portsmouth - Cherbourg Jersey and Guernsey - St Malo The fleet is as follows. In 1999, Commodore Clipper was delivered to Commodore Ferries and replaced a freight ferry Island Commodore; the new Commodore Clipper was able to replace Havelet as all-weather back-up for the fast craft as she had space for 500 passengers. In May 2010, Condor Rapide, Incat Hull 045, IMO9161560, was added to the fleet to replace Condor 10.
This is not the same vessel that covered Condor services in the late 1990s, but a sister ship to Condor Express and Vitesse. Condor Rapide was an Australian warship prior to becoming Speed One of the defunct SpeedFerries company. HSC Condor Liberation entered service between Poole and the Channel Islands on Friday 27 March 2015. On 30 April 2015 the Jersey-born film star Henry Cavill was allowed to steer Condor Liberation. Condor Liberation had a number of cancelled sailings in her first weeks of service due to technical problems and adverse weather conditions: On 28 March 2015, the ferry's second day in service, while attempting to turn in St Peter Port harbour, the ship struck the quay, sustaining minor damage; the ship remained out of service for a week. On its return to service the ship developed an electrical fault in its engines, was forced to run at reduced speed, resulting in service cancellations. On 11 April 2015 the ferry was unable to load 24 cars and 60 passengers at Jersey due to a combination of late running and an issue with a section of hoistable deck.
On 9 May 2015, the Channel Island's Liberation Day the ship did not sail in the morning due to the failure of one of her bow thrusters. In May 2015, Condor admitted that 10% of ferry crossings had not run at all, only 60% of those that had had run to schedule. A review into the suitability of the ship was commissioned. On 24 August 2015 the ferry was unable to dock in St Peter Port. Condor stated that another vessel was impeding safe access, the ship continued to Poole. On 19 and 22 September 2015 the ferry's sailings were cancelled due to repairs being carried out to her exhaust system. On 29 and 30 October 2015 the ferry's sailings were cancelled due to repair work. On 23 November 2015 the ferry's sailing was cancelled due to an electrical fault. On 31 December 2015 the ferry was damaged whilst moored in Poole Harbour and sailings were cancelled; the ferry was taken out of service for two monthsOn its blog set up to promote the new ferry in the months before it entered service, Condor said that they expected the new ship's'more stable design' would enable it to sail in higher seas and to reduce the number of weather-related cancella
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Vingtaine de la Rocque
Vingtaine de la Rocque is one of the four vingtaines of Grouville Parish on the Channel Island of Jersey. The Jersey Eastern Railway opened a station, at La Rocque, on 7 August 1873; the station was subsequently closed on 21 June 1929, the station no longer exists. La Rocque harbour lies within the vingtaine. Waders and seabirds make regular use of nearby fields for feeding. St Peter la Rocque