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Transport in Kyrgyzstan

Transport in Kyrgyzstan is constrained by the country's alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of 3,000 m altitude and more, are subject to frequent mud slides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more high-altitude regions. Additional problems are because many roads and railway lines built during the Soviet period are today intersected by international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities to cross where they are not closed; the horse is still a much used transport option in rural and inaccessible areas, as it does not depend on imported fuel. For transport in the Soviet Union, see Transport in the Soviet Union; the Kyrgyz Railway is responsible for railway development and maintenance in the country. The Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the south were endpoints of the Soviet Union's rail system in Central Asia. Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, traffic is therefore curtailed.

The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km of 1,520 mm broad gauge in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centers as Tashkent and the cities of Russia. There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchy in the north and/or from Osh in the south into the People's Republic of China, but the cost of construction would be enormous. Kazakhstan - yes - Bishkek branch - same gauge Uzbekistan - yes - Osh branch - same gauge Tajikistan - no - same gauge China - no - Break of gauge 1,520 mm /1,435 mm UN Map With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkek to Osh has been completed; this eases communication between the two major population centers of the country—the Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the People's Republic of China.

The total length of the road network in Kyrgyzstan is 34,000 km. Of them, 18,810 km are public roads directly subordinated to the Ministry of Transport and Communications, 15,190 km - other roads. By their status the roads of the Ministry of Transport and Communications are classified as: international roads: 4,163 km state roads: 5,678 km local roads: 8,969 kmBy nature of surface there can be distinguished: hard-surfaced roads: 7,228 km gravel roads: 9,961 km earth roads: 1,621 km Frequent bus and, more minibus, service connects country's major cities. Minibuses provide public transit between cities to neighboring villages; the limitations of Kyrgyzstan's pipeline system are a major impediment to fuel distribution. In 2006 the country had 367 kilometers of natural gas pipeline and 16 kilometers of oil pipeline, after adding 167 kilometers of natural gas pipeline in 2003. Water transport exists only on Issyk Kul Lake, has drastically shrunk since the end of the Soviet Union. Kyrgyzstan's only port is a fishing town on Issyk Kul Lake.

None of Kyrgyzstan's rivers is navigable, the country has no canals. At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today. There are four airports with international flights, namely in Bishkek, Osh and Karakol. Manas International Airport near Bishkek is the main international terminal, with flights to Moscow, Dushanbe, Istanbul and London. Osh Airport is the main air terminal in the south, with daily connections to Bishkek and beyond. Jalal-Abad Airport is linked to Bishkek by daily flights operated by Kyrgyzstan Air Company, Avia Traffic Company, Air Bishkek and Sky Bishkek on BAe-146 and Saab-340 as well as weekly flights to Aksy District and Toguz-Toro District. Issyk-Kul International Airport is linked to Almaty in summers by flights operated by SCAT on Yakovlev YAK-42 Bishkek, Jalal-Abad and Osh. Karakol International Airport is linked to Almaty in winters by flights operated by SCAT on Antonov AN-24.

Kazarman Airport is linked to Jalal-Abad and Bishkek by flights operated by Sky Bishkek on Saab-340. Kerben Airport is linked to Jalal-Abad and Bishkek by flights operated by Sky Bishkek on Saab-340. Other airports and landing strips are located in Toktogul, Kanysh-Kiya, Ala-Buka, Sakaldy in Nooken District, Isfana, Kyzyl-Kiya, Talas, Cholpon-Ata, Tokmok and many other places. Other facilities built during the Soviet era are either closed down, used only or restricted to military use. Airports - with paved runways: total: 21 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 under 914 m: 6 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 15 See also: List of airports in Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Tur

Paddy Webb

Patrick Charles Webb was a New Zealand trade unionist and politician. Webb was born in a small town in the Australian state of Victoria, his father, George Webb, was a miner, Paddy Webb worked in the mines himself. He became active in the mining unions, becoming head of the local Amalgamated Miners' Association branch by 1904. During this time, he met Michael Joseph Savage, who would become the first Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand; as a result of his involvement in strike action, Webb was blacklisted, in 1905, he moved to New Zealand to seek work. After living in Dunedin, he moved to the West Coast, working in mines first on the Denniston plateau and at Runanga. Webb became involved with the New Zealand Socialist Party, was an advocate for socialist ideals. Working in the Runanga mine, Webb was somewhat sheltered from repercussions he would otherwise have suffered — the Runanga mine was state-owned, the governing Liberal Party was more tolerant of his agitation than private interests were.

Webb scored a considerable victory when he organised a successful strike at a mine in Blackball, became prominent in the labour movement nationally. Webb was one of the more radical figures in the unions. Many of the older leaders continued to support the loose alliance between the labour movement and the Liberal Party, but Webb believed that only independent action could advance workers' interests. Webb was involved in founding the radical New Zealand Federation of Labour, in the 1911 election, he stood unsuccessfully in the Grey electorate in Parliament, he played a major role in the 1913 "unity conference", in which the Socialist Party and the more moderate United Labour Party merged to form the Social Democratic Party. The Grey electorate became vacant in 1913, he was nominated as the Social Democrat candidate. In the by-election he was elected on the second ballot with Liberal Party support, in the 1914 general election, he was re-elected. In 1916, the Social Democrats merged with the remnants of the United Labour Party that had resisted the previous merger, forming the modern Labour Party.

In World War I, Webb became a prominent critic of conscription, in April 1917, he was jailed on charges of sedition. In October that year, Webb refused to comply. In order to seek a public mandate for his decision, he resigned from his seat in Parliament, challenged the government to fight the by-election on the issue; the government refused, Webb was returned to Parliament unopposed. Webb was subsequently offered a non-combat role, but again refused, he was sentenced to two years hard labour, was barred from political office for ten years. In 1918, his vacant seat in Parliament was won in a by-election by Harry Holland a member of the Labour Party. After completing his sentence, Webb returned to mining, he established a cooperative coal depot in Christchurch. This brought him into conflict with certain radical members of the labour movement, who believed that the cooperative structure undermined unionism, since in a cooperative corporation, there is no need for workers to organise against the owners.

In the 1932 Motueka by-election, Webb attempted to return to Parliament, but was defeated by Keith Holyoake. The following year, the death of Harry Holland resulted in another by-election. Although Webb's nomination was opposed by radical members of the union movement, Webb was re-elected to Parliament, for Buller. In 1935, he was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal; when the Labour Party won the 1935 general election, Webb was appointed to Cabinet by Michael Joseph Savage, his old friend from the mines in Australia. He was given the position of Minister of Mines, a role in which he pressed for the nationalisation of the mining industry. Assisted by the heightened demand for coal during World War II, Webb oversaw the purchase of many major operations. During this slow process, Webb had to contend not only with opponents of nationalisation but with radicals who demanded the immediate nationalisation of the entire industry. Webb had a reputation as Parliament’s Lothario, in mid-1939 he was being pursued by a woman for breach of promise to marry.

In 1946, Webb retired from politics. He died in Christchurch on 23 March 1950, was buried at Bromley Cemetery

Quindío River

Quindío River is the principal river of the department of Quindío, Colombia. It combines with the Barragán River at the Valle de Maravelez to form La Vieja River, in turn a tributary of the Cauca River. Quindío River Is 69 kilometres long, it forms in the mountains east of Salento and flows in a south-westerly direction, passing by the township of Salento and forming the eastern limit of the city of Armenia. Its major tributaries are the Navarco River; the total watershed including these tributaries is 691 square kilometres. The average flow at the mouth is 29 cubic metres per second; the river is the source of drinking water for the majority of the inhabitants of the department. The continued increase in demand is placing significant pressure on this resource. Additionally, there are contamination problems due to inadequate waste water treatment facilities in the municipalities along the river. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Quindío, Proyecto Ordenacion y Manejo de la Cuenca del Río La Vieja

Sunny Nwachukwu

Sunny Nwachukwu is a Nigerian retired professional footballer, last known to have trained with HSV Hoek in the Netherlands in 2003. Earning minimum wage without inking a contract with Genk and Tielen, Nwachukwu turned out for KSK Beveren in the preseason of 1998–99, bagging a brace in a friendly with Nieuwkerken-Waas which ended 3–1, before going on to appear in 6 league and cup games for Beveren and departing in 1999. Starting for the first time with Montreal Impact when they hosted the Vancouver 86ers in 2000, the Nigerian was regarded as a palpable threat in the league for the Impact and had his contract extended in 2001 despite suffering an injury the previous season. Impressed at Dagenham & Redbridge with two friendly goals in 2002

Nikkō Tōshō-gū

Nikkō Tōshō-gū is a Tōshō-gū Shinto shrine located in Nikkō, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Together with Futarasan Shrine and Rinnō-ji, it forms the Shrines and Temples of Nikkō UNESCO World Heritage Site, with 42 structures of the shrine included in the nomination. Five of them are designated as National Treasures of Japan, three more as Important Cultural Properties. Tōshō-gū is dedicated to the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, it was built in 1617, during the Edo period, while Ieyasu's son Hidetada was shōgun. It was enlarged during the time of Iemitsu. Ieyasu is enshrined there, where his remains are entombed; this shrine was built by Tokugawa retainer Tōdō Takatora. During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate carried out stately processions from Edo to the Nikkō Tōshō-gū along the Nikkō Kaidō; the shrine's annual spring and autumn festivals reenact these occasions, are known as "processions of a thousand warriors". Part of the beauty is the row of majestic trees lining the roadway, termed the Cedar Avenue of Nikkō.

Five structures at Nikkō Tōshō-gū are categorized as National Treasures of Japan, three more as Important Cultural Properties. Additionally, two swords in the possession of the shrine are National Treasures, lots other objects are Important Cultural Properties. Famous buildings at the Tōshō-gū include the richly decorated Yōmeimon, a gate, known as "higurashi-no-mon"; the latter name means that one could look at it until sundown, not tire of seeing it. Carvings in deep relief, painted in rich colors, decorate the surface of the structure; the next gate is the karamon decorated with white ornaments. Located nearby is a woodcarving of a sleepy cat, "Nemuri-neko", attributed to Hidari Jingorō; the stable of the shrine's sacred horses bears a carving of the three wise monkeys, who hear and see no evil, a traditional symbol in Chinese and Japanese culture. The original five-storey pagoda was donated by a daimyō in 1650, but it was burned down during a fire, was rebuilt in 1818; each storey represents an element–earth, fire and aether –in ascending order.

Inside the pagoda, a central shinbashira pillar hangs from chains to minimize damage from earthquakes. Hundreds of stone steps lead through the cryptomeria forest up to the grave of Ieyasu. A torii at the top bears calligraphy attributed to Emperor Go-Mizunoo. A bronze urn contains the remains of Tokugawa Ieyasu. In 2008 Yuri Kawasaki became the first female Shinto priest to serve at Nikkō Tōshō-gū. List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Shinbashira, the central wooden column freely suspended Official website Official website UNESCO website - Shrines and Temples of Nikko Accessibility of Nikkō Tōshō-gū

Frederik of Egmont

Frederik of Egmont was count of Buren and Leerdam, Lord of IJsselstein and councilor of Charles the Bold en Maximilian I. Frederik was the second son of William II of Walburga of Meurs. Together with his brothers, he participated in his father's campaign in the Duchy of Guelders; when Burgundy had conquered the Duchy, Frederik received some important functions there. In the 1480s he supported the policies of Maximilian I of Austria, he was present at Maximilian's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1486, led in 1488 an army against the city of Bruges that held Emperor Maximilian hostage. In 1492, Maximilian gave him the titles of Count of Count of Leerdam. In 1499, he became a sworn member of the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady in's-Hertogenbosch. In 1464 Frederik married Aleida of Lady of Sint-Maartensdijk, they had: Floris, his successor Wemmer van Egmont van Buren In 1502, he remarried with Walburga of Manderscheid. Frederik had several illegitimate children: Christoffel van IJsselstein, bailiff of Sint Maartensdijk and Scherpenisse Willem van Egmond Katharina van Egmond, married Lodewijk van Praet van Moerkerken in 1497