Transport in Lithuania relies on road and rail networks.: total: 21,328.09 kilometres paved: 12,912.22 km unpaved: 8,415.87 km There are two categories of controlled-access highways in Lithuania: expressways with maximum speed 120 km/h and motorways with maximum speed 130 km/h. A1 Kaunas - Klaipėda. Total length of the stretch: 195 km; the motorway ends for a short section near Sujainiai as the junction here is one-level and it is used by non-motorway vehicles. A2 Vilnius - Panevėžys. Total length of the stretch: 114 km. A5 Mauručiai - Marijampolė. Total length of the stretch: 33 km. A1 Kaunas - Vilnius. There are two expressway sections: 16 km. Planned to be upgraded to motorway. A9 Radviliškis - Šiauliai. Total length of the stretch: 10 km; the A roads total 1,748.84 km. A1 Vilnius – Kaunas – Klaipėda, 311.40 km. Most important east to west corridor in Lithuania. Connects three largest Lithuanian cities: Vilnius and Klaipėda. A2 Vilnius – Panevėžys, 135.92 km. Most of length is a motorway with maximum speed 130 km/h A3 Vilnius – Medininkai, 33.99 km A4 Vilnius – Varėna – Druskininkai, 134.46 km A5 Kaunas – Marijampolė – Kalvarija, 97.06 km.
Planned as motorway in whole length. A6 Kaunas – Utena – Zarasai, 185.40 km A7 Marijampolė – Vilkaviškis – Kybartai, 42.21 km * A8 Panevėžys – Aristava – Sitkūnai, 87.86 km. Planned as 2+1 road. A9 Panevėžys – Šiauliai, 78.94 km. Short 10 km expressway section. A10 Panevėžys – Pasvalys – Saločiai, 66.10 km. Planned as 2+1 road. A11 Šiauliai – Palanga, 146.85 km A12 Joniškis – Šiauliai – Tauragė – Panemunė, 186.09 km A13 Klaipėda – Palanga, 45.15 km A14 Vilnius – Utena, 95.60 km A15 Vilnius – Šalčininkai, 49.28 km A16 Vilnius – Prienai – Marijampolė, 137.51 km A17 Panevėžys bypass, 22.28 km. 2+1 road under construction. A18 Šiauliai bypass, 17.08 km A19 Vilnius southern bypass, 7.9 km A20 Ukmergė northern bypass, 7.7 km There were some isolated routes built before World War I, e.g. present-day A12, connecting Riga with Kaliningrad. First long-distance highways built by Lithuanian Government were opened in late 1930s: Samogitian highway - old highway built in 1930s, connecting Kaunas and Klaipėda.
As for today, road section between Kaunas and Ariogala is refurbished to motorway. From Ariogala to Klaipėda, it serves as alternative road for a parallel-built motorway A1 and connects local towns such as Ariogala, Rietavas. Aukštaitian Highway - old highway built in the 1930s, it connects Kėdainiai, Panevėžys and Biržai. Road is a part of land road 229, Via Baltica and land road 125 Lithuanian Road Museum There is a total of 1,998 route km of railways, of which: 1,807 km are broad gauge of 1,520 mm – 122 km of which are electrified 169 km are narrow gauge of 750 mm – as of 2001 22 km are standard gauge of 1,435 mm Latvia - yes Belarus - yes Russia - yes Poland - yes - break-of-gauge 1,520 mm / 1,435 mm There are 600 kilometres that are perennially navigable. In 1992, there were 105 km of crude oil pipelines, 760 km of natural gas pipelines. Būtingė, Klaipėda, Šventoji Kaunas Rumšiškės Nida Juodkrantė The merchant marine consists of 47 ships of 1,000 GT or over, together totaling 279,743 GT/304,156 tonnes deadweight.
Ships by type: Cargo 25, Combination bulk 8, Petroleum tanker 2, Railcar carrier 1, Refrigerated cargo 6, Roll on/roll off 2, Short-sea passenger 3. Note: These totals include some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 13 In Lithuania, there are four international airports: Vilnius International Airport Kaunas Airport Palanga International Airport Šiauliai International Airport Paved Runways: 9 in total over 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 under 914 m: 3 Unpaved runways: 63 in total 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 55 The public transport guide
Cynthia Rhodes is a retired American actress and dancer. Her film roles include Jackie in Staying Alive and Penny in Dirty Dancing. Born in Nashville, Rhodes began her show-business career working at Opryland USA as a singer and dancer while attending Glencliff High School during the 1970s. Raised in a Baptist family, Rhodes tried to maintain a clean-cut image in her acting roles and in the media, turning down scripts that required nudity and refusing offers to pose for pictorials in Playboy magazine. Sylvester Stallone, the director of Staying Alive, reinforced these facts by stating that Rhodes "would sooner quit the business before doing anything to embarrass her parents."Rhodes played a small role in the fantasy musical Xanadu. Her next role was as Tina Tech in the musical film Flashdance. After Flashdance, Rhodes was cast opposite John Travolta in Sylvester Stallone's 1983 film Staying Alive, a sequel to the 1977 hit film Saturday Night Fever. Rhodes' character, was an ensemble dancer, bar band singer, sometime love interest of Travolta's character, Tony Manero.
While poorly reviewed, the film was commercially successful. Rhodes garnered her first non-dance related role in Michael Crichton's 1984 science fiction thriller Runaway with Tom Selleck, Kirstie Alley and Gene Simmons, her most notable role was as dance instructor Penny Johnson in the hit 1987 motion picture Dirty Dancing with Jennifer Grey and Patrick Swayze. Rhodes' final motion picture role was the character of Vickie Phillips, playing opposite Jameson Parker, in the sleeper action-adventure movie Curse of the Crystal Eye. Rhodes appeared as a dancer in a number of music videos, including "Rosanna" by the band Toto, "The Woman in You" by the Bee Gees, "Don't Mean Nothing" by Richard Marx, she was a dancer for the glam rock band The Tubes. Rhodes joined the pop group Animotion, replacing their lead singer Astrid Plane, for the recording of their third album of original material. Though the group's single "Room to Move" rose to No. 9 on the Billboard charts, the album failed to match the group's earlier success, peaking at only No. 110 on the pop charts.
In 2002, Rhodes co-wrote the smooth jazz track "Perfect Day" with then-husband Richard Marx for December, trumpeter Chris Botti's holiday album. Rhodes was married to singer-songwriter Richard Marx, they met in 1983. Rhodes, seven years his senior, thought. Marx and Rhodes did not start their relationship until two years when they were reacquainted at a party. After a four-year courtship, the couple married on January 8, 1989. After marrying Marx and giving birth to three boys, Rhodes retired from her performing career to raise her family. In an Us Weekly article dated April 4, 2014, Marx's representative confirmed that he and Rhodes were divorcing after 25 years of marriage. Animotion "Finding Out the Hard Way", "I'm Never Gonna Give You Up" with Frank Stallone Xanadu – Ensemble dancer Flashdance – Tina Tech Staying Alive – Jackie Runaway – Officer Karen Thompson Dirty Dancing – Penny Johnson Cynthia Rhodes on IMDb Cynthia Rhodes at AllMovie Cynthia Rhodes: Actress, Dancer, & Singer
The Constitution of Uruguay is the supreme law of Uruguay. Its first version was written in 1830 and its last amendment was made in 2004. Uruguay's first constitution was adopted in 1830, following the conclusion of the three-year-long Cisplatine War in which Argentina and Uruguay acted as a regional federation: the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. Sponsored by the United Kingdom, the 1828 Treaty of Montevideo built the foundations for a Uruguayan state and constitution. Attempts to reform the 1830 constitution in 1966 led to the adoption of an new document in 1967. A constitution proposed under a military dictatorship in 1980 was rejected; when it became independent on August 25, 1825, the Oriental Republic of Uruguay drew up its first constitution, promulgated on July 18, 1830. This text has been regarded as Uruguay's most technically perfect charter. Influenced by the thinking of the French and American revolutions, it divided the government among the executive and judicial powers and established Uruguay as a unitary republic with a centralized form of government.
The bicameral General Assembly was empowered to elect a president with considerable powers to head the executive branch for a four-year term. The president was given control over all of his ministers of government and was empowered to make decisions with the agreement of at least one of the three ministers recognized by the 1830 constitution. Like all of Uruguay's charters since the 1830 constitution provided for a General Assembly composed of a Chamber of Senators, or Senate, elected nationally, a Chamber of Representatives, elected from the departments. Members of the General Assembly were empowered to pass laws but lacked the authority to dismiss the president or his ministers or to issue votes of no confidence. An 1834 amendment, provided for juicio político, or impeachment, of the ministers for "unacceptable conduct"; as established by the 1830 constitution, the Supreme Court of Justice, lesser courts, exercised the judicial power. The General Assembly appointed the members of the high court.
The latter – with the consent of the Senate in the case of the appellate courts – appointed the members of the lesser courts. The constitution divided the country into departments, each headed by a governor appointed by the president and each having an advisory body called a Neighbors' Council. Although the 1830 constitution remained in effect for eighty-seven years, de facto governments violated it repeatedly. In the 1878-90 period, the Blancos and Colorados initiated the framework for a more stable system through understandings called "pacts between the parties." This governing principle, called coparticipation, meaning the sharing of formal political and informal bureaucratic power, has been formally practiced since 1872. The anniversary of the 1830 promulgation of this original constitution on July 18 is now a public holiday in Uruguay. In 1913 President José Batlle y Ordóñez, the father of modern Uruguay, proposed a constitutional reform involving the creation of a Swiss-style collegial executive system to be called the colegiado.
A strong opponent of the one-person, powerful presidency, Batlle y Ordóñez believed that a collective executive power would neutralize the dictatorial intentions of political leaders. It met intense opposition, not only from the Blancos but from members of his own Colorado Party; the proposal was defeated in 1916, but Batlle y Ordóñez worked out a deal with a faction of the Blancos whereby a compromise system was provided for in the second constitution, approved by a plebiscite on 25 November 1917. The history of successive constitutions is one of a lengthy struggle between advocates of the collegial system and those of the presidential system. Although the 1917 constitution worked well during the prosperous time after World War I, recurring conflicts between the president and the colegiado members made the executive power ineffective in coping with the economic and social crises wracking the country; these conflicts led to the presidential coup of 1933. The ad hoc government suspended the constitution and appointed a constituent assembly to draw up a new one.
The 1934 constitution transferred its power to the president. Presidential powers remained somewhat limited; the executive power once again was exercised by a president who had to make decisions together with the ministers. The 1934 charter established the Council of Ministers as the body in which these decisions were to be made; this council consisted of the cabinet ministers. The constitution required the chief executive to appoint three of the nine cabinet ministers from among the members of the political party that received the second largest number of votes in the presidential election; the General Assembly, for its part, could issue votes of no confidence in cabinet ministers, with the approval of two-thirds of its members. The constitution divided the Senate between the Blancos and the Colorados or, as political scientist Martin Weinstein has pointed out, between the Herrerist faction of the Blancos and the Terrist wing of the Colorados; the party that garnered the second largest number of votes automatically received 50 percent of the Senate seats.
In addition, the 1934 charter empowered the Supreme Court of Justice to rule on the constitutionality of the laws. This system, which lasted eighteen years, further limited the power of the president and his government. Uruguay return