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Transport in Mauritania

Citizens of Mauritania have various transportation methods. Railways and highways connect major cities in the country. Mauritania is a coastal country so there are many ports along its coast and there are a few big rivers that run through the country. Lastly, there are 26 airports spread out throughout the country. 717 km total of single track 1,435 mm, owned and operated by a government mining company, Société Nationale Industrielle et Minière. The railway goes from the mines at Zouerat and El Rhein, passes another mine at Fderik, ends at the port of Nouadhibou/Cansado. One of the world's longest trains runs here, with more than 200 wagons transporting iron ore, some carriages for passengers. There are no rail links with adjacent countries. In 2008, a railway was proposed that would link Nouakchott with Tiguint, Mederdra, R'Kiz, Leeleibatt, Menjem Boffal and Bofal. UNJLC Map Sunday, August 5, 2007 - Sudan, China To Build $630 Mln Mauritania Railway. Sudan's Danfodio Holding and China's Transtech Engineering have signed an agreement to build a 460 million euro railway linking Mauritania's capital Nouakchott with southern phosphate deposits at Bofal.

The 430 km line would run close to the southern frontier with Senegal. It is hoped that the new line would link with existing lines just across the border in Senegal, Mali There is no through link to Burkina Faso. There are problems of choice of gauge. May - 8 new EMD locomotives Proposed line for phosphate traffic - 430 km long railway line and Kaedi, Mauritania's third city, through Tiguint, Mederdra, R'Kiz, Leguatt and Menjem Boffal, is to be constructed in three years time. Glencore Xstrata proposes branch lines to new mines at Askaf and Guelb El Aouj sharing infrastructure of SNIM. There are 450 km of Motorway in Mauritania, connecting Nouakchott to Nouadhibou along a coastal route. A motorway linking Nouakchott to Rosso is under construction. Mauritania has only about 3,000 km of surfaced roads, 710 km of unsurfaced roads, 5,140 km of unimproved tracks; the country's size and harsh climate make road maintenance and repair problematic. Overland travel is difficult and roadside assistance is nonexistent.

Public transportation is not safe and road conditions in Mauritania are poor in the interior. Driving in Mauritania can be treacherous, many Mauritanians drive without regard to traffic signs or rules. Roadway obstructions and hazards caused by drifting sand and poor roads plague motorists; the Cairo-Dakar Highway in the Trans-African Highway network passes through Mauritania, linking Nouakchott to Rabat, Tangiers and Tripoli. The section between the capital Nouakchott and the port of Nouadhibou was paved by 2018. From Dakar there are links throughout western Africa; the north-western end of the Trans–West African Coastal Highway is considered by the Economic Community of West African States to originate in Nouakchott. Ferry traffic on the Senegal River Nouadhibou Nouakchott Rosso Kaedi Bogue None as of 2002 See Airports in Mauritania 9 in total 3 are of length 2,438 to 3,047 m 6 are of length 1,524 to 2,437 mBy city: Aioun el Atrouss Akjoujt Atar International Bir Moghrein Abbaye Boutilimit Dahara Airport Fderik Kaédi Kiffa Letfotar Néma Nouadhibou International Nouakchott Nouakchott–Oumtounsy International Sélibaby Tamchakett Tichitt Tidjikja Timbedra Tazadit See Airports in Mauritania 17 in total 2 are of length 2,438 to 3,047 m 5 are of length 1,524 to 2,437 m 7 are of length 914 to 1,523 m 3 are of length under 914 m Mauritania Heaviest trains Longest trains National railway passing through foreign territory Mauritania Airlines

ICME cyberinfrastructure

Integrated computational materials engineering involves the integration of experimental results, design models and other computational data related to a variety of materials used in multiscale engineering and design. Central to the achievement of ICME goals has been the creation of a cyberinfrastructure, a Web-based, collaborative platform which provides the ability to accumulate and disseminate knowledge pertaining to materials science and engineering to facilitate this information being broadly utilized and expanded; the ICME cyberinfrastructure provides storage and computational capabilities for an extensive network of manufacturing and life-cycle simulation software. Within this software framework, data is archived and interactive, offering engineers and scientists a vast database of materials-related information for use in research, multiscale modeling, simulation implementation, an array of other activities in support of more efficient, less costly product development. Furthermore, the ICME cyberinfrastructure is expected to provide the capability to access and link application codes, including the development of protocols necessary to integrate hierarchical modeling approaches.

With an emphasis on computational efficiency, experimental validation of models, protecting intellectual property, the cyberinfrastructure assimilates 1) process-microstructure-property relations, 2) development of constitutive materials models that predict multiscale material behaviors admitting microstructure/inclusions and history effects, 3) access to shared databases of analytical and experimental data, 4) material models. As such, it is crucial to identifying gaps in materials knowledge, which, in turn, guides the development of new materials theories and simulation tools; such a community-based knowledge foundation enables materials informatics systems that fuse high fidelity experimental databases with models of physical processes. In addition, the vision of the ICME cyberinfrastructure is compatible with the National Science Foundation's Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st Century Discovery, which advocates development and deployment of human-centered information technology systems that address the needs of science and engineering communities and open new opportunities for enhancing education and workforce development programs.

According to the NSF directive, IT systems, such as the ICME cyberinfrastructure, should provide access to tools and other networked resources, including high-performance computing facilities, data repositories, libraries of computational tools and reliably supporting secure and efficient nationwide or global virtual organizations spanning across administrative boundaries. The National Materials Advisory Board of the National Academy of Engineering committee proposed the following definition for the term ICME cyberinfrastructure: "The Internet-based collaborative materials science and engineering research and development environments that support advanced data acquisition and model storage and model management and model mining and model visualization, other computing and information processing services required to develop an integrated computational materials engineering capability."According to NMAB's vision, the building blocks of the ICME cyberinfrastructure are the individual web sites which offer access to information and tools, each established for specific purposes by different organizations.

Linked together, these "constituent" Web Portals will form the ICME cyberinfrastructure, or ICME "Supply-Chain," i.e. a series of well-established and viable organizations. These organizations are to provide necessary portions of the ICME cyberinfrastructure's value chain: Fundamental model development Model integration into software packages Maintenance of software tools Database generation Application engineering Customer approval and certificationFor example, Mississippi State University has created an ICME cyberinfrastructure where different models and experimental structure-property data are available and discussed. Researchers are encouraged to upload their own models and experimental data with associated references for others to use. Cyberinfrastructure Materials informatics Integrated computational materials engineering Multiscale modeling

Cheryl Pruitt

Cheryl Pruitt is an American educator who most served as the CEO of the nonprofit Chicago Virtual Charter School in Chicago, Illinois. She was the final superintendent of the Gary Community School Corporation before it became the first school district in Indiana involved in a state takeover. Pruitt was hired as the superintendent of the Gary Community School Corporation in 2012, after the board of trustees fired the previous superintendent, following years of financial mismanagement. Given that the city of Gary, Indiana is known for having one of the country's highest rates of crime and debt since the 1990s, Pruitt spent her tenure focused on disrupting the district's school to prison pipeline and renegotiating its contracts to lessen the financial debt. Under her leadership, the district achieved the highest literacy rates and lowest drop out rates in decades. In 2015, state lawmakers forced the school administration to select an independent financial manager to oversee the district's finances and remove oversight from the board of trustees.

However, Governor Eric Holcomb, citing the district's persistently high financial debt, signed a law in April 2017 to replace Pruitt's decision-making powers with a state-appointed emergency management team, thus designating it as the first public school system in the state of Indiana involved in a state takeover. Pruitt announced her resignation in December 2017. In 2018, the district's emergency management team requested an audit of financial transactions during Pruitt's tenure as Superintendent; as a part of the audit, Pruitt was charged with theft and official misconduct after submitting and receiving a personal reimbursement for a trip to an educational conference in 2016, paid for with a credit card by the school district. In May 2018, Pruitt joined the Chicago Virtual Charter School as CEO. Chicago Virtual Charter School board officials placed her on suspension and paid administrative leave on May 29, 2019

Clarence Harris

Clarence Lee "Curly" Harris was the store manager at the F. W. Woolworth Company store in Greensboro, North Carolina, during the Greensboro sit-ins in 1960. Harris was born in North Carolina, he attended high school in Durham, North Carolina. There, in 1923, he began his career at the F. W. Woolworth Company store as an assistant stock room manager, he continued working at Woolworth's after school and at night during his five and a half years at Trinity College, now Duke University, from which he graduated in 1928 with a major in accounting and business law. From 1929 to 1933, Harris worked. In 1933, he was transferred to the Harrisonburg, Virginia and promoted to store manager, he managed the Wilmington, North Carolina, store from 1937 to 1947, the Raleigh store from 1947 to 1955, when he was transferred to the Greensboro, North Carolina store. He remained at the Greensboro store until his retirement in 1969. On February 1, 1960, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, Jr. and David Richmond, four young African-American students from the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, entered the downtown Greensboro Woolworth's and sat at the "whites only" lunch counter.

Although a Woolworth's waitress told them "we don't serve Negroes here," the four students refused to leave their seats for the rest of the day. During the following days and months the four students were joined by other students in their sit-in demonstration, Sit-in protests spread to other cities and were an important part of the Civil Rights Movement. On Monday, July 25, 1960, after nearly $200,000 in losses due to the demonstrations, store manager Harris integrated the lunch counter when he asked 3 black employees of the store to change out of work clothes into street clothes and order a meal at the counter; these were the first black customers to be served at the store's lunch counter. The event received little publicity

Zachariah Spaulding Farm

The Zachariah Spaulding Farm is a historic farmstead on South Hill Road in Ludlow, Vermont. With a history dating back to 1798, it is a well-preserved example of diversified 19th-century farmstead, made further distinctive by the remains of a sauna, the product of ownership by two Finnish families in the 20th century, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. The Spaulding Farm property consists of 10 acres of land on the east side of South Hill Road midway between Godfrey Road and South Hill Cross Road; the rectangular parcel is lined on its north by a stone wall, most of its southern edge by fencing, consists of lands used for pasture and haymaking, with some woodlands towards the back of the property. The farmstead is clustered near the western end of the property, with the house set about 50 feet back from the road, it is a handsome 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, oriented with its main facade to the south and an ell extending to the north. Outbuildings on the property include two barns, both from the 19th century, a milkhouse, a storage shed.

Foundational remnants exist for a third barn, for a modest structure, built in the 1930s as a sauna. The farmstead was developed in the 1790s by Zachariah Spaulding, who built the farmhouse in 1798, he was prominent in local civic affairs, serving in the state legislature. In addition to agricultural uses, he operated a brickmaking operation on the property in the 1810s, but ended the effort due to inferior clay, taken from the streambed on the property, his son continued to work the land until 1885. The farm was in active use as a diversified operation with multiple products, through about 1974. National Register of Historic Places listings in Windsor County, Vermont

Hydrangea stylosa

Hydrangea stylosa is a species of Hydrangea, native to China. H. stylosa is a shrub around 1.5 meters tall with branches which become more pubescent with age reaching a grey-white colour. The petioles of H. stylosa are pubescent and brown in colour. These bear glabrous, papery leaves 6–14 cm by 3–7 cm; the leaves may have midvein pubescence. The inflorescence of H. stylosa is 5 -- 10 cm wide. The sterile flowers of the species have three to four sepals which are broadly ovate to broadly elliptical in shape, 0.5–2 cm in size some with denticulated margins. Flowers which are fertile have campanulate calyx tubes which are ovate to suborbicular in shape, 1-1.5 mm in size, with obtuse apexes. After flowering, the 2.5-3.5 cm oblong and unequal petals of H. stylosa reflex. There are ten subequal stamens in an H. stylosa flower, the longest of these are longer than the petals. The anthers of this species are blue, 1 mm in size. H. stylosa seeds are brown, ellipsoid to oblong in shape, 0.5-0.8 mm in size.

The seeds are shortly winged on both ends with a net veined seed coat. H. stylosa is found growing in dense forests in the mountainous regions of western Yunnan Province, China at elevations between 2,700 m and 3,000 m above sea level. Hydrangea stylosa at