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Transport in Panama

Transport in Panama is well developed. The majority of the trips are done by car; the public transportation system is in need of modernization and other improvements. There are 76 km of railway track in Panama: broad gauge 5 ft, used for ship handling tracks along the Panama Canal locks standard gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in: 76 km, converted from broad gauge narrow gauge 3 ft: 279 km Panama City opened its first line of a metro network in 2014 and the second line in 2019. All lines are standard gauge with 1500 V DC overhead electrification Total: 15,137 km paved: 6,351 km unpaved: 8,786 km Highways are well developed for Central American standards. In Panama there are 4 expressways, all of which are owned and require toll payment: Corredor Sur: Runs from Panama City to the Tocumen International Airport, its length is 26 km. Corredor Norte: Runs from Panama City to Colinas de Cerro Viento, it has a length of 20 km. Autopista La Chorrera: Runs from Panama City to La Chorrera, it has a length of 44 km. Colón Expressway: Runs from Panama City to Colón.

It has a length of 59 km. Furthermore, the Pan-American highway, has been upgraded to a 4-lane, dual carriageway highway on its stretch from Panama City to Santiago de Veraguas, counting for 248 km of freeway. A small section of the Pan-American highway from Tocumen to Pacora, counting for 18 km has been upgraded to freeway; the same accounts for the Pan-American stretch between David and Capacho, on the border with Costa Rica, adding 55 km of freeway, for the newly built freeway between David and Bajo Boquete, that extends for 38 km, for the Chitré - Las Tablas freeway that extends for 30 km. Panama's roads and transportation systems are safe, but non-functioning traffic lights are not uncommon. Driving is hazardous and demanding due to dense traffic, undisciplined driving habits, poorly maintained streets, a lack of effective signs and traffic signals. On roads where poor lighting and driving conditions prevail, night driving is difficult. Night driving is hazardous on the old Panama City – Colon highway.

Buses and taxis are not always maintained in a safe operating condition due to lack of regulatory enforcement. Since 2007, auto insurance is mandatory in Panama. Traffic in Panama moves on the right, Panamanian law requires that drivers and passengers wear seat belts, but airbags are not mandatory. Flooding during the April to December rainy season makes city streets unusable for most vehicles and washes out some roads in rural areas. In addition, rural areas are poorly maintained and lack illumination at night; such roads are less traveled and the availability of emergency roadside assistance is limited. Road travel is more dangerous during the rainy season and in the interior from Carnival through Good Friday. Carnival goes on for four days. 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels.

Danuta Kordaczuk

Danuta Kordaczuk-Wagner was a female Polish volleyball player and head coach, a member of Poland women's national volleyball team in 1956–1970, a bronze medalist of the Olympic Games Tokyo 1964, a bronze medalist of the World Championship and medalist of the European Championship. She was born in Warszawa, Poland on September 2, 1939 - on the second day after the outbreak of World War II in Poland. On October 15, 1963 she married to Hubert Wagner, volleyball player and head coach of Polish men's national volleyball team, which he led to titles of World Champions 1974 and Olympic Champions 1976. On December 13, 1965 she gave birth to their son Grzegorz, volleyball player. In 1978 she got divorced, she died on April 1988 in Warszawa. Her first medal - bronze, with Poland women's national volleyball team, she achieved at World Championship 1956 in France, she won bronze of European Championship 1958 held in Czechoslovakia. In 1962 she won bronze medal of World Championship, one year silver of European Championship 1963.

In 1964 she took part in Olympic Games Tokyo 1964. She played in all five matches and Poland, including Kordaczuk, won bronze medal in the Olympic tournament. Kordaczuk was considered as one of the best setters in the world and she played on the national team 164 times. 1957/1958 Polish Championship, with Impel Wrocław 1959/1960 Polish Championship, with Impel Wrocław 1960/1961 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1961/1962 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1962/1963 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1963/1964 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1964/1965 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1966/1967 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1967/1968 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1968/1969 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1969/1970 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1970/1971 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa 1971/1972 Polish Championship, with Legia Warszawa Danuta Kordaczuk at Olympics at Danuta Kordaczuk at the International Olympic Committee

Hari Nair

Hari Nair is an Indian cinematographer known for his works in Malayalam cinema, Bengali cinema, English cinema, Hindi cinema. Hari graduated from the Television Institute of India, he was born on 30 March 1965 at Malappuram. His father K. P. Rajgopalan Nair was the head of the department of photography at the Film and Television Institute of India. Hari, a member of the Indian Society of Cinematographers and graduated from the Film and Television Institute of India and went on to completing many features in different indian languages, he was awarded the National Award for best Cinematographer for the film Sham’s Vision, he received his first Kerala state award in Swaham and second for Ennu Swantham Janakikutty. 2018 Goa State Award for Best Cinematography K Sera Sera Konkani Feature Hari Nair on IMDb


Sinodelphys is an extinct mammal from the Early Cretaceous. To date, it is the oldest metatherian fossil estimated to be 125 million years old, it was discovered and described in 2003 in rocks of the Yixian Formation in Liaoning Province, China, by a team of scientists including Zhe-Xi Luo and John Wible. Only one fossil specimen is known, a slab and counterslab given catalog number CAGS00-IG03, it is in the collection of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. Sinodelphys szalayi grew only 15 cm long and weighed about 30 g, its fossilized skeleton is surrounded by impressions of fur and soft tissue, thanks to the exceptional sediment that preserves such details. Luo et al. inferred from the foot structure of Sinodelphys that it was a scansorial tree-dweller, like its non-marsupial contemporary Eomaia and modern opossums such as Didelphis. Sinodelphys hunted worms and insects. Most Mesozoic metatherians have been found in North Asia. Most lived during the Late Cretaceous between 66 million years ago.

Sinodelphys szalayi, living in China around 125 million years ago, is the earliest known metatherian. This makes it contemporary to the eutherian Acristatherium, found in the same area. However, Bi et al. reinterpreted Sinodelphys as an early member of Eutheria. Eomaia Evolution of mammals

Pedestrian detection

Pedestrian detection is an essential and significant task in any intelligent video surveillance system, as it provides the fundamental information for semantic understanding of the video footages. It has an obvious extension to automotive applications due to the potential for improving safety systems. Many car manufacturers offer this as an ADAS option in 2017. Various style of clothing in appearance Different possible articulations The presence of occluding accessories Frequent occlusion between pedestrians Despite the challenges, pedestrian detection still remains an active research area in computer vision in recent years. Numerous approaches have been proposed. Detectors are trained to search for pedestrians in the video frame by scanning the whole frame; the detector would “fire” if the image features inside the local search window meet certain criteria. Some methods employ global features such as edge template, others uses local features like histogram of oriented gradients descriptors; the drawback of this approach is that the performance can be affected by background clutter and occlusions.

Pedestrians are modeled as collections of parts. Part hypotheses are firstly generated by learning local features, which include edgelet and orientation features; these part hypotheses are joined to form the best assembly of existing pedestrian hypotheses. Though this approach is attractive, part detection. Implementation of this approach follows a standard procedure for processing the image data that consists of first creating a densely sampled image pyramid, computing features at each scale, performing classification at all possible locations, performing non-maximal suppression to generate the final set of bounding boxes. Leibe et al. proposed an approach combining both the detection and segmentation with the name Implicit Shape Model. A codebook of local appearance is learned during the training process. In the detecting process, extracted local features are used to match against the codebook entries, each match casts one vote for the pedestrian hypotheses. Final detection results can be obtained by further refining those hypotheses.

The advantage of this approach is. When the conditions permit, background subtraction can help to detect pedestrians. Background subtraction classifies the pixels of video streams as either background, where no motion is detected, or foreground, where motion is detected; this procedure highlights the silhouettes of every moving element in the scene, including people. An algorithm has been developed, at the university of Liège, to analyze the shape of these silhouettes in order to detect the humans. Since the methods that consider the silhouette as a whole and perform a single classification are, in general sensitive to shape defects, a part-based method splitting the silhouettes in a set of smaller regions has been proposed to decrease the influence of defects. To the contrary of other part-based approaches, these regions do not have any anatomical meaning; this algorithm has been extended to the detection of humans in 3D video streams. Fleuret et al. suggested a method for integrating multiple calibrated cameras for detecting multiple pedestrians.

In this approach, The ground plane is partitioned into uniform, non-overlapping grid cells with size of 25 by 25. The detector produces a Probability Occupancy Map, it provides an estimation of the probability of each grid cell to be occupied by a person. Given two to four synchronized video streams taken at eye level and from different angles, this method can combine a generative model with dynamic programming to follow up to six individuals across thousands of frames in spite of significant occlusions and lighting changes, it can derive metrically accurate trajectories for each one of them. Histogram of oriented gradients Integral channel feature Human presence detection Human sensing Code for POM – Pedestrian Detection from multiple cameras using Probabilistic Occupancy Map Pedestrian detection system for heavy equipment – Example of pedestrian detection system Blaxtair pedestrian detection system for mobile plant

Education in Switzerland

The education system in Switzerland is diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the confederation can run or support universities; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. After primary schools, the pupils split up according to their abilities and intentions of career paths. 25% of all students attend lower and upper secondary schools leading after 12 school years in total to the federal recognized matura or an academic Baccalaureate which grants access to all universities. The other students split in two or more school-types, depending on the canton, differing in the balance between theoretical and practical education, it is obligatory for all children to attend school for at least 9 years. The first university in Switzerland was founded in 1460 with a faculty of medicine.

This place has a long tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland. In total, there are 12 Universities in Switzerland. In addition, there are seven regional associations of Universities for Applied Sciences which require vocational education and a special Berufsmatura, or a Fachmatura to study. Switzerland has a high rate of foreign students in tertiary education including one of the highest in the world of doctoral level students. Many Nobel prizes have been awarded to Swiss scientists. More Vladimir Prelog, Heinrich Rohrer, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Rolf Zinkernagel, Didier Queloz, Michel Mayor, Kurt Wüthrich, Jacques Dubochet have received nobel prizes in the sciences. In total, 113 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to Switzerland and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organizations residing in Switzerland. Geneva hosts the world's largest particle physics laboratory, the CERN. Other important research centers are the Empa and Paul Scherrer Institute which belong to the ETH domain.

The obligatory school system includes primary education and secondary education I. Before that, children go to Kindergarten, with one or two years is required in most cantons. In the Canton of Ticino, an optional, third year is available for three-year-old children. In some German speaking cantons kindergarten and the first one or two years may be combined into a Grundstufe or Basisstufe where they are all taught together in a single class. In French speaking cantons kindergarten is combined into a four-year cycle primaire 1 or cycle 1, followed by a four-year cycle primaire 2 or cycle 2 which completes their primary school; the minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons but Obwalden, where it is five years and three months. The cantons Nidwalden allow five-year-olds to start primary school in exceptional cases. Primary school continues until grade five or six, depending on the school/canton. Any child can take part in school if they choose to, but pupils are separated depending on whether they speak French, German or Italian.

At around age 11–12, depending on which canton in Switzerland the child goes to school in, there could be a screening exam to decide how to separate the students for secondary school. Some cantons have a system of examination in the second semester of the final year of primary school, some cantons have an exam in second semester and continuous evaluation in both first and second semesters. In some cases, parents or legal guardians of the child are asked for their recommendations along with a self-evaluation done by the child. Parents' recommendation in combination with child's self-evaluation is called the third indicator for evaluating the student, the first being teacher's evaluation, the second the results of tests held in first semester; the fourth criteria is the final exam that takes place in the middle of the second semester of the final year primary school. At the end of primary school, pupils are separated according to their capacities and career-intentions in several sections for a period of 2–3 years in either Pre-higher secondary school section, General section or Basic section.

Students who aspire for an academic career enter Mittelschule to be prepared for further studies and the Matura. Students intending to pursue a trade or vocation complete three to four additional years before entering Vocational Educations which are regulated by federal law and are based on a cooperation of private business offering educational job-positions and public schools offering obligatory school-lessons complementary to the on-the-job education; this so-called "dual system" splitting academic and vocational training has its continuation in the higher education system. While the academic training l