click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transport in Slovenia

The location at the junction of the Mediterranean, the Alps, the Dinarides and the Pannonian Plain and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia. Their course was established in Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V and X in the country; this gives it a special position in the European social and cultural integration and restructuring. The existing Slovenian rails, which were built in the 19th century, are out-of-date and can't compete with the motorway network; the maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network has been neglected due to the lack of financial assets, creating bottlenecks. It has been gaining momentum with the completion of the motorway cross; the Slovenian Railways company operates 1,229 km of 1,435 mm standard gauge tracks, 331 km as double track, reaches all regions of the country.

The network comprises regional lines. Electrification is provided by a 3 kV DC system, except at the junctions with railways of foreign countries, covers 503.5 kilometres. Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia despite growing in absolute terms; the railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, several E-railways intersect in Slovenia. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana Railway Hub, all international passenger trains stop there; as of 2018, first tenders should be invited for the upgrade of the Divača-Koper Railway. With the share of over 80%, the road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia. Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has declined. Motorways and expressways, operated by the Motorway Company in the Republic of Slovenia, are the state roads of the highest category.

On motorways and express ways, cars must have a toll sticker. Slovenia has a high motorway density compared to the European Union average; the first highway in Slovenia, the A1 motorway connecting Vrhnika and Postojna, was opened in 1972, but the construction was speed up in 1994, when the National Assembly enacted the first National Motorway Construction Programme. Till February 2012, a network consisting of 528 km of motorways and similar roads has been built, its essential section, the Slovenian Motorway Cross, part of the Trans-European Road network, was completed in October 2011. It comprises the motorway route heading from east to west, in line with the Pan-European Corridor V, the motorway route heading in the north–south direction, in line with the Pan-European Corridor X, part of, considered the Slovenian transport backbone; the newly built road system but transforms Slovenia into a large conurbation and connects it as a unitary social and cultural space, with links to neighbouring areas.

In contrast, other state roads, managed by the Slovenian Infrastructure Agency, have been deteriorating due to neglect and the overall increase in traffic. About half of them are in a bad condition; the urban and suburban network served by buses is dense. The first highway in Slovenia, the A1, was opened in 1958 as part of the major Yugoslav project of the Brotherhood and Unity Highway; the section between Ljubljana and Zagreb was built by 54,000 volunteers in less than eight months in 1958. It connects Postojna. Constructed under the liberal minded government of Stane Kavčič their development plan envisioned a modern highway network spanning Slovenia and connecting the republic to Italy and Austria. After the liberal fraction of the Communist Party of Slovenia was deposed, expansion of the Slovenian highway network came to a halt. In the 1990s the new country started the'National Programme of Highway Construction' re-using the old communist plans. Since about 400 km of motorways and similar roads have been completed, easing automotive transport across the country and providing a strong road service between eastern and western Europe.

This has provided a boost to the national economy, encouraging the development of transportation and export industries. There are two types of highways in Slovenia. Avtocesta are dual carriage way motorways with a speed limit of 130 km/h, they have green road signs as in Italy and other countries. A hitra cesta is a secondary road a dual carriageway but without a hard shoulder for emergencies, they have blue road signs. Since 1 June 2008 highway users in Slovenia have been required to buy a toll sticker; this system was investigated by the European Commission that it was unfair upon holiday makers and other non Slovenian users of the highway system. On 28 January 2010, after short-term stickers were introduced by Slovenia and some other changes were made to the Slovenian toll sticker system, the European Commission concluded that the toll sticker system is in accordance with European law. According to the Slovenian Motorway Company Act valid since December 2010, the construction and building of highways in Slovenia is carried out and financed by private companies the Motorway Company in the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Družba za avtoceste v Republiki Sloven

Islamic Liberation Front of Patani

The Islamic Liberation Front of Patani, until 1986 known as the National Liberation Front of Patani is a militant Islamic separatist movement based in northern Malaysia and with a history of operations in the South Thailand insurgency. The group was formed in 1959 by Tengku Abdul Jalal, aka Adul na Saiburi, is reputed to be one of the first armed insurgent outfits in the Pattani area; the group had its base in Southern Thailand. The BNPP was active in the 1970s and 1980s, it renamed itself to "Islamic Front for the Liberation of Pattani" in 1986. After a period of dormancy, it was revived in 2002; the renewed group has reduced its nationalistic emphasis and expanded its hard-line Islamic politico-religious goals. The political wing of the group participates in Malaysian state-level politics. South Thailand insurgency List of paramilitary groups

Tourism in Ethiopia

Tourism in Ethiopia accounted for 5.5% of the country's gross domestic product in 2006, having increased 2% over the previous year. The government is proving its commitment and willingness to develop tourism through a number of initiatives. Tourism is a featured component of Ethiopia's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, which aims to combat poverty and encourage economic development. Tourist destinations include Ethiopia's collection of national parks, historic sites, such as the cities of Axum, Gondar, Negash Mosque, Sof `Umer Washa, Harar Jugol. Developed in the 1960s, tourism declined during the 1970s and the 1980s under the Derg. Recovery began in the 1990s, but growth has been constrained by the lack of suitable hotels and other infrastructure, despite a boom in construction of small and medium-sized hotels and restaurants, by the effects of drought and political instability. One encouraging aspect is the growing popularity of ecotourism, with significant potential for growth in Ethiopia.

Travel retail sales are expected to continue to grow, posting an increase of 7% in 2006 and with a forecast 5% increase in 2007. Sales are driven by expanding interest in ecotourism packages, including adventure travel and walking safaris that are making up much of the tour operators' revenues. Ethiopia has 9 UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Ruins of Aksum Rock-Hewn Churches at Lalibela Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town Konso Cultural Landscape Lower Valley of the Awash Lower Valley of the Omo Tiya Simien Mountains National Park Ethiopia was named the World's Best Tourism Destination for 2015 by the European Council on Tourism and Trade, citing Ethiopia's outstanding natural beauty, dramatic landscapes and ancient culture. Ethiopia land of origin. September 12, 2007 marked the beginning of the year 2000 in the Ethiopian calendar; the Ministry of Culture and Tourism was embroiled in a controversy surrounding a beauty pageant in celebration of the Ethiopian Millennium.

The ministry failed to pay for promotional services from a UK based company for the Ethiopian Millennium, is being sued for US$1 Million in the British courts. Ministry of Culture and Tourism List of World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia

Smothers Brothers

The Smothers Brothers are Thomas and Richard, American folk singers and comedians. The brothers' trademark double act was performing folk songs, which led to arguments between the siblings. Tommy's signature line was, "Mom always liked you best!" Tommy acted "slow", Dick, the straight man, acted "superior". In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the brothers appeared on television variety shows and issued several popular record albums of their stage performances, their own television variety show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, became one of the most controversial American TV programs of the Vietnam War era. Despite popular success, the brothers' penchant for material, critical of the political mainstream and sympathetic to the emerging counterculture led to their firing by the CBS network in 1969. One show was left unaired; the brothers continued to work, both independently and as a team, on stage and television, in films during subsequent decades. The brothers were both born on Governors Island in New York Harbor, where their father, Thomas B.

Smothers, Jr. a West Point graduate and U. S. Army officer, was stationed. Tom was born on February 2, 1937, Dick was born on November 20, 1939. Major Smothers served in the 45th Infantry Regiment and died during World War II, while being transported from a Japanese prisoner of war camp in Fukuoka, Japan, to a POW camp in Mukden, Manchukuo, they were raised by their mother in the Los Angeles area. They graduated from Redondo Union High School in Redondo Beach and attended San Jose State University. After a brief time in a folk group called the Casual Quintet, the brothers made their first professional appearance as a duo in February 1959 at The Purple Onion in San Francisco, they were a popular act in clubs and released several successful top 40 albums for Mercury Records, the most successful being Curb Your Tongue, Knave! in 1964. Their first national television appearance was on The Jack Paar Show on January 28, 1961; the brothers appeared in a segment of the television series Burke's Law, in 1964, in which they played two compulsive hoarders.

Their first television series was a situation comedy, The Smothers Brothers Show, produced by Four Star Television. Tom played, it did not do well in the ratings and had little of the music, identified with the brothers. Tom would say in 1969 that "Four Star gave me ulcers." The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour started out as only a "hip" version of the typical comedy-variety show of its era, but evolved into a show that extended the boundaries of what was considered permissible in television satire at that time. While the Smothers themselves were at the forefront of these efforts, credit goes to the roster of writers and regular performers they brought to the show, including Steve Martin, Don Novello, Rob Reiner, Presidential candidate Pat Paulsen, Bob Einstein, Albert Brooks, resident hippie Leigh French; the show introduced audiences to pop singer Jennifer Warnes, a regular on the series. The television premiere of Mason Williams' hit record, "Classical Gas", took place on the show; the series showcased new musical artists to whom other comedy-variety shows gave airtime, due to the nature of their music or their political affiliations.

George Harrison, Ringo Starr, Joan Baez, Buffalo Springfield, Cass Elliot, Harry Belafonte, Donovan, The Doors, Glen Campbell, Janis Ian, Jefferson Airplane, The Happenings, Peter and Mary, Spanky and Our Gang, Steppenwolf and Garfunkel, The Hollies, The Who and Pete Seeger were showcased on the show, despite the advertiser-sensitive nature of their music. Seeger's appearance was his first appearance on network television since being blacklisted in the 1950s; the song was censored on Seeger's first appearance but permitted on a appearance. In 1968, the show broadcast in successive weeks "music videos" for The Beatles' popular songs "Hey Jude" and "Revolution". Before a rowdy crowd at the Los Angeles Forum, Jimi Hendrix dedicated "I Don't Live Today" to the Smothers Brothers, as heard on The Jimi Hendrix Box Set; the performance by The Who in 1967 was another defining moment in the series. The piece would end with guitarist Pete Townshend smashing it. On the Smothers Brothers show that night a small amount of explosive was put into the small cannon that Keith Moon kept in his bass drum.

But it did not go off during the rehearsal. Unbeknownst to Moon, a stage hand had added another explosive before the taping, Moon added another charge so that now there were three explosive charges in the cannon instead of one; when Moon detonated it, the explosion was so intense that a piece of cymbal shrapnel cut into Moon's arm. Townshend, in front of Moon's drums at the time, had his hair singed by the blast; the blast contributed to Townshe

ARO M461

The ARO M461 was an off-road vehicle built in post World War II Romania by ARO. The first model was IMS-57, named by the factory initials and the year it was released. A total of 914 vehicles were built between 1957 and 1959 handcrafted. During World War II, on the site of a paper plant belonging to Letea company from Câmpulung-Muscel, the production of plane propellers and shooting equipment for airplanes produced by IAR Brașov was organized. After the production was abandoned, a group of workers begun building the first Romanian motorcycles in 1953; the design and production of the first Romanian all-terrain vehicle IMS-57 began in 1957, using the parts that were produced as well as upgrading. The 914 IMS-57 produced had the following characteristics: coachwork with two doors and tarpaulin, 3260 cc gasoline engine, 50 hp at 2,800 rpm, 80 km/h, 24 L/100 km consumption; the construction was handicraft: the equipped chassis in functioning condition were tested on the route Câmpulung-Colibași where they were bodyworked and finished in the Pitești factory UAP.

The tin parts were made on wooden lasts. Among other oddities, the IMS-57 had manual windshield wipers. In 1959, the IMS-57 was replaced by M59, a substantial improvement over its predecessor. Launched two years the new type M59 signified a step forward compared to IMS-57: its engine had 56 hp, a maximum speed enhanced to 90 km/h, the manual wind screen wiper replaced with an electric one; the cars were bodyworked and finished in Câmpulung. During the four years in production the number of vehicles built jumped from 803 to 3,222. A new model, the M461, was started in 1964; the design was similar to the previous models but every panel was different and the cars are distinguishable. It showed look and finishing improvements, a redesigned mechanics, its engine had four in-line cylinders, 70 hp, a maximum speed of 100 km/h, a 17 l at 80 km/h consumption. The export of M461 begun to China and Colombia; the M461 was a good performer for its time, having won a few international competitions: 1970 Forests Rally, 1973 Sons of Beaches.

With improvements in their technology and performances, some 80,233 M461 land vehicles were produced by 1975, out of which 46,549 were exported and more were used by Romanian Army. About 3,000 M461s are still on the road in Romania, with a active owners' club. Many of the cars were until used by the army. Late versions were known as M473 on the German market. ARO 10 Series ARO 24 Series ARO M461 Club website ARO Club Romania History of IMS 57 Shop online for Aro M-461 Blog for rebuilt Aro M-461 M461 at Retromobil Club Romania

Cut fastball

In baseball, a cut fastball or cutter is a type of fastball that breaks toward the pitcher's glove-hand side, as it reaches home plate. This pitch is somewhere between a slider and a four-seam fastball, as it is thrown faster than a slider but with more motion than a typical fastball; some pitchers use a cutter to prevent hitters from expecting their regular fastballs. A common technique for throwing a cutter is to use a four-seam fastball grip with the baseball set off center in the hand. A batter hitting a cutter pitch achieves only soft contact and an easy out due to the pitch's movement keeping the ball away from the bat's sweet spot; the cutter is 2–5 mph slower than a pitcher's four-seam fastball. In 2010, the average pitch classified as a cutter by PITCHf/x thrown by a right-handed pitcher was 88.6 mph. The New York Yankees' former closer Mariano Rivera, one of the foremost practitioners of the cutter, made the pitch famous after the mid-1990s, though the pitch itself has been around since at least the 1950s.

When the cut fastball is pitched skillfully at speed against the opposite hand batter, the pitch can crack and split a hitter's bat, hence the pitch's occasional nickname of "the buzzsaw". Batter Ryan Klesko of the Atlanta Braves, broke three bats in a single plate appearance during the 1999 World Series while facing Rivera. To deal with this problem a few switch hitters batted right-handed against the right-handed Rivera—that is, on the "wrong" side, as switch hitters bat from the same side of the plate as the pitcher's glove hand. In 2011, Dan Haren led all major league starting pitchers with nearly 48% of his pitches classified by PITCHf/x as cutters. Roy Halladay was close behind at 45%. Other pitchers who rely on a cut fastball include Jon Lester, James Shields, Josh Tomlin, Will Harris, Mark Melancon, Jaime Garcia, Kenley Jansen, Wade Miley, David Robertson, Jerry Reuss, Andy Pettitte; the cutter grew in popularity as certain pitchers, including Dan Haren, looked to compensate for loss of speed in their four-seam fastball.

Braves third baseman Chipper Jones attributed the increased dominance of pitchers from 2010–2011 to a more prolific use of the cutter, as did Cleveland Indians pitcher Chris Perez. By 2011, it was being called the "pitch du jour" in the baseball press; some pushback has developed against the pitch, due to concerns that a pitcher overusing the cutter could develop arm fatigue. Baltimore Orioles General Manager Dan Duquette instructed prized prospect Dylan Bundy not to throw the pitch in the minor leagues, believing its use could make Bundy's fastball and curve less effective. Baseball portal