A single-track railway is a railway where trains traveling in both directions share the same track. Single track is found on lesser-used rail lines branch lines, where the level of traffic is not high enough to justify the cost of constructing a second track. Single track is cheaper to build, but has operational and safety disadvantages. For example, a single-track line that takes 15 minutes to travel through would have capacity for only two trains per hour in each direction. By contrast, a double track with signal boxes four minutes apart can allow up to 15 trains per hour in each direction, provided all the trains travel at the same speed; this hindrance on the capacity of a single track may be overcome by making the track one-way on alternate days, if the single track is not used for public passenger transit. Long freight trains are a problem. Other disadvantages include the propagation of delays, since one delayed train on a single track will delay any train waiting for it to pass. A single track does not have a "reserve" track that can allow a reduced capacity service to continue if one track is closed.
If a single-track line is designed to be used by more than one train at a time, it must have passing loops at intervals along the line to allow trains running in different directions to pass each other. These consist of short stretches of double track long enough to hold one train; the capacity of a single-track line is determined by the number of passing loops. Passing loops may be used to allow trains heading in the same direction at different speeds to overtake. In some circumstances on some isolated branch lines with a simple shuttle service a single-track line may work under the "one train working" principle without passing loops, where only one train is allowed on the line at a time. On single-track lines with passing loops, measures must be taken to ensure that only one train in one direction can use a stretch of single track at a time, as head-on collisions are a particular risk; some form of signalling system is required. In traditional British practice, single-track lines were operated using a token system where the train driver had to be in possession of a token in order to enter a stretch of single track.
Because there was only one unique token issued at any one time for each stretch of single track, it was impossible for more than one train to be on it at a time. This method is still used on some minor lines but in the longest single-track lines in Britain this has been superseded by radio communication. In the early days of railways in North America it was common to rely upon simple timetable operation where operators knew where a train was scheduled to be at a particular time, so would not enter a single-track stretch when they were not scheduled to; this worked but was inflexible and inefficient. It was improved with the invention of the ability to issue train orders. Converting a single-track railway to double track is called duplication or doubling. A double-track railway operating only a single track is known as single-line working. Building bike trails on rail corridors has occurred in limited examples, however developing rail right of ways for a bike trail can restrict a train corridor to a single track.
Reclaiming a railway corridor to use trains again, that have become bike paths, limits the use of double tracks. The bike path is where the second track would be. An example of a bike, single-track corridor is the E&N Railway in Canada. Rails to trails
Moengo is a town in Suriname, located in the Marowijne district, between Paramaribo and the border town Albina. Moengo is a resort in the district of Marowijne. Alcoa's first bauxite mine in Suriname was located in Moengo. In former times it was a major centre for the storage of bauxite; the Moengo Airstrip is one of the oldest airports in Suriname, in use since August 1953, when the Piper Cub of Kappel-van Eyck named "Colibri" landed there from Zorg en Hoop Airport. The town is home to two Surinam first division football clubs: Inter Moengotapoe who play at Ronnie Brunswijkstadion, Notch who play at Moengo Stadion
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge
The Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge called Suriname bridge and known locally as Bosje Brug, is a bridge over the Suriname River between the capital city Paramaribo and Meerzorg in the Commewijne District. The bridge is part of the East-West Link, is named after former president Jules Wijdenbosch. Constructed by Dutch constructor Ballast-Nedam, the bridge has two lanes, is 1504 metres long, was opened on 20 May 2000. Coppename Bridge Coordinates: 5°48′20″N 55°9′45″W
Transport in Guyana
The transport sector comprises the physical infrastructure and vehicle, fleets, ancillary equipment and service delivery of all the various modes of transport operating in Guyana. The transport services, transport agencies providing these services, the organizations and people who plan, build and operate the system, the policies that mold its development. Public transport around Guyana's capital Georgetown is provided by owned mini buses which operate in allocated zones for which there is a well-regulated fare structure; this arrangement extends to all mini bus routes throughout the country. There are designated bus stops for mini buses for most routes but some buses still pick up passengers at any point on their routes; this practice poses a serious inconvenience to other vehicles by disrupting the normal flow of traffic. Taxis have freer movement into rural areas, their fare, while standard, is less regulated. Starting in 2010, all taxis must be painted yellow, a regulation designed to protect consumers and to distinguish the vehicles from others that are used in committing crimes.
All taxis are registered under the term "Hackney Carriage" and carry the letter H at the beginning of their number plates. There are scores of taxi services operating in Georgetown but its easy to "flag a ride" in the central business district; the network of routes has a number of identifiable starting points which are concentrated in the Stabroek area and along the Avenue of the Republic between Croal and Robb Streets. Road conditions vary immensely, maintenance is sometimes deficient. In 2006 there was one operational set of traffic lights but in July 2007, a modern system was installed by Indian firm CMS Traffic Systems Limited, through a US$2.1 million line of credit to the government from India's EXIM Bank, providing signals for both vehicular and pedestrian traffic at all major intersections in Georgetown. In 2004, Guyana's road network was 3,995 kilometers long, 24 percent or 940 kilometers of which comprised primary roads in the coastal and riverine areas serving the agricultural sector, while the road to Linden serves the mining and forestry sectors.
21 percent is made up of feeder roads that link the agricultural areas along the coast to the primary road network. The remaining 56 percent is composed of interior trails. Most access roads are in poor condition. However, the Central Government has targeted several roads for complete rehabilitation, many have been rehabilitated; the main coastal roads are, from west to east, the Essequibo Coast Road, the Parika to Vreed en Hoop Road, the East Coast Demerara and West Coast Berbice Roads, the Corentyne Highway from New Amsterdam to Moleson Creek. All these roads are paved and their speed limit vary between 50-100kph. South of Georgetown the primary road is the East Bank Demerara Road, a four-lane road from Rumiveldt to Providence and two-lane from Providence to Timehri Georgetown to Timehri, where the Cheddi Jagan International Airport - Timehri is located. Between 1966 and 1968, located on the East Bank Demerara Road, was connected to Mackenzie by a modern two lane highway, called the Soesdyke-Linden Highway.
This road was constructed as a section of a highway connecting Georgetown with Lethem. In 1968 a bridge was built across the Demerara River at Linden, and, in 1974, it was decided that the route to Lethem would cross the Demerara River at Linden and go south, along the watershed of the Demerara and Essequibo Rivers, through Mabura, to Kurupukari. From Kurupukari it would run parallel to the old cattle trail to Annai, from Annai it would follow an existing road to Lethem. In the early 1970s a two-lane road with modern geometry and surfaced with laterite was built between Linden and Rockstone; this road was connected to Mabura and Kurupukari. In 1990-91 a two-lane laterite road was constructed between Kurupukari and Annai and a vehicle ferry installed at Kurupukari. Since there was an existing road between Mabura and Kurupukari, between Annai and Lethem, it was now possible for vehicles to travel between Georgetown and Lethem. In the period 1974 to 1978, an attempt was made to build a road between Rockstone and Kurupung to facilitate the construction of a large hydroelectric station.
From Rockstone it headed north to Suribanna, where a pontoon ferry was installed across the Essequibo River to Sherima. From Sherima the road went westward, intersecting the Bartica - Mahdia Road at Allsopp Point 31 km from Bartica. From Allsopp Point the road followed the existing road towards Bartica and branched off 8 km from Bartica going to Teperu in the lower reaches on the Mazaruni River. At Teperu a pontoon ferry was installed across the Mazaruni River to Itaballi. From Itaballi the road went westward to Peter's Mine on the Puruni River. From Peter's Mine the road continued as a penetration road to Kurupung; this road is referred to as the UMDA Road. There is in addition a hinterland east-west main road system that extends from Kwakwani in the east, through Ituni, Rockstone, Sherima to Bartica in the west. Linden is therefore one of the main hubs for road transportation in the hinterland. Outside the existing main roads there are several other interior roads or trails that comprise 1,570 kilometers.
Most of those roads are unpaved, will deteriorate if maintenance remains inadequate. They are found in the hinterland and riverain areas and provide linkages with a number of important mining and forestry activities thus facilitating transportation between the mining and forestry communities and the more developed coastal areas. Parts of this road/trail network can
The Lawa Railway was a 173-kilometre-long single-track metre gauge railway in Suriname. It was built during the gold rush in the early 20th century, from the harbour town Paramaribo to Dam at the Sarakreek, but it was not extended to the gold fields at the Lawa River, as intended. Private businessmen came up with the first plans, the Governor of Suriname Cornelis Lely announced in 1902 that the government would build the railway to ease the exploitation of the gold fields; the track was intended to be more than 350 km long, but was built only halfway since the gold fields were not as efficient as hoped for. In 1903 former seamen from Curacao began building the track from Paramaribo to Republiek, they completed the section to Dam at the Sarakreek in 1912. The rail track was by 173 km long and had cost 8.5 million Surinamese guilder. A 300 m long aerial cable car crossed the Suriname River, as building a bridge was considered too expensive; the passengers had to disembark the train at the Cable station and cross the river in a simple gondola lift.
On the other side of the river, another train waited to bring them to the terminus at the Sarakreek. When the Brokopondo Reservoir filled up in the 1960s, the track from Brownsberg Nature Park to the cable car was intentionally flooded and had to be taken out of use; the remainder was decommissioned in the 1980s. The last train departed in 1987. In the 1990s Peter Sul of Lovers Rail tried to reuse the remaining 86 km for tourist trains, but failed to do so. Since some of the rolling stock rots away at the former Onverwacht station; the track in the jungle is overgrown and the section between Paramaribo and Onverwacht has been lifted. Steam locomotives were used but were replaced in 1954 by diesel railcars for passenger transport; the German locomotive manufacturer Borsig in Berlin delivered the first set of six steam locomotives with serial numbers 5339 to 5344 and a weight of 16 t each. Their design was based on the tram engines used at the Semarang Railway in Indonesia. In 1905 the Arnold Jung Lokomotivfabrik in Kirchen, built two small steam locomotives with a weight of 8.5 t each, for use south of the Suriname River.
On arrival, they had to be disassembled at the cable car station and reassembled on the other side, after crossing the river by cable car. They were named Maabo. In 1908 the German locomotive manufacturer Krauß & Comp. in Munich built two 16 t sister locomotives and Dam, with serial numbers 6074 and 6075. One of them is now plinthed in Onverwacht. In 1916 the Dutch locomotive manufacturer Machinefabriek Breda in Breda built the steam locomotive Para, now stored with two passenger coaches at the former Onverwacht station. An American railcar with the number L. S.3 demonstrated the benefits of internal combustion engines instead of steam engines. In 1954 the German joint venture Linke-Hofmann-Busch/Büssing built a three-car DMU with 160 PS for the Lawa Railway, it consisted of a motor coach with 26 seats in 2nd class. The middle coach had 56 seats in 3rd class, the last coach provided 31 seats in 3rd class and a freight capacity of 3 t. In addition, the Lawa Railway had motorised draisines; the Belgian rolling stock manufacturer Metallurgique in Marchienne-au-Pont provided 15 passenger cars with 12 windows each and fixed sun shades.
For excursions, three tarpaulin-covered wagons were used, for example during the inspection of the railway and cable car by Governor Aarnoud van Heemstra in July 1923. A caravan style box was placed on an eight-wheeler flat car to provide a posh environment for refreshments; until 1959, one hundred bogie tank cars with eight wheels each were used for transporting jet fuel from the harbour in Paramaribo to the airport in Zanderij, a hazardous undertaking considering the sparks being ejected from the funnels of the steam locomotives. In 1923 the Surinamese teacher and author Richard O'Ferrall published under the pseudonym Ultimus a satirical novel about building the railway, titled Een Beschavingswerk, een sociaal- en economisch-politieke studie in romanvorm; the novel sketches an ironic vision of the gigantomania of governments, the disrespectful attitude toward maroons and indigenous people, the truculence of the Royal Family and the idiocy of the civilisation missions. The Dutch filmmaker Hans Hylkema filmed in 2002 a documentary The Gold Line for the broadcasting company Humanistische Omroep, in which he showed old black-and-white films of the Lawa Railway.
The government of Suriname announced in November 2014 detailed plans for a new railway from Paramaribo to Onverwacht. The Dutch company Strukton proposes to start at the Poelepantje station in Paramaribo towards the south with stations at Latour, Welgedacht, Lelydorp and Onverwacht; the construction was estimated to last 12 months at €130 million cost. In a second phase, the line could be extended to the Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport. Eric Wicherts: The Railway of Suriname; the Landsspoorweg 1902 - 2002. Publisher: Private Rail Consultants - Canada. ISBN 9780973481709, ISBN 0973481706. Eric Wicherts and Jan Veltkamp: Geschiedenis Van De Landsspoorweg. Publisher: Veka productions. ISBN 9789081675581, ISBN 9081675583. Photographs of the trains
Paramaribo is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District. Paramaribo has a population of 241,000 people half of Suriname's population; the historic inner city of Paramaribo has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002. The city is named for the Paramaribo tribe living at the mouth of the Suriname River; the name Paramaribo is a corruption of the name of an Indian village, Parmirbo. This was the location of the first Dutch settlement, a trading post established by Nicolaes Baliestel and Dirck Claeszoon van Sanen in 1613. English and French traders tried to establish settlements in Suriname, including a French post established in 1644 near present-day Paramaribo; the Dutch settlement was abandoned some time before the arrival of English settlers in 1650. The settlers were sent by the English governor of Barbados, Lord Francis Willoughby, 5th Baron Willoughby of Parham, established a town on the site of Paramaribo; the town was protected by a fort, called Fort Willoughby.
In 1662, Governor Willoughby was granted the settlement and surrounding lands by King Charles II. In 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Paramaribo was conquered by a squadron of ships under Abraham Crijnssen; the Treaty of Breda in 1667, confirmed Paramaribo as the leading town of the now Dutch colony of Suriname. The fort protecting Paramaribo was renamed Fort Zeelandia in honor of the Dutch province that had financed Crijnssen’s fleet.. The population of Paramaribo has always been diverse. Among the first British settlers were many Jews and one of the oldest synagogues in the Americas is found in Paramaribo; the population of the town was increased after 1873, when former slaves were allowed to stop working for their former masters and leave the sugar plantations. Paramaribo has remained the capital of Suriname, from its colonial days through the independence of Suriname in 1975 to the present day; the old town has suffered many devastating fires over the years, notably in January 1821 and September 1832.
In 1987 an administrative reorganization took place in Suriname and the city was divided into 12 administrative jurisdictions. The city is located on the Suriname River 15 kilometres inland from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Paramaribo district. Evolution of Paramaribo Paramaribo features a tropical rainforest climate, under the Köppen climate classification, more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and with no cyclone therefore the climate is equatorial; the city has no true dry season, all 12 months of the year average more than 60 mm of rainfall, but the city does experience noticeably wetter and drier periods during the year. "Autumn" is the driest period of the year in Paramaribo. Common to many cities with this climate, temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures of 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of 22 degrees Celsius. Paramaribo on average receives 2200 mm of rainfall each year. Paramaribo has a population of 240,924 people.
While the population number is stagnating in recent years, many towns in the surrounding Wanica District are increasing in population. The city is famed for its diverse ethnic makeup, including Creoles 27%, Indian 23%, Multiracials 18%, Maroons 16%, Javanese 10%, Indigenous 2%, Chinese 1.5%, smaller numbers of Europeans and Jews. In the past decades a significant number of Brazilians and new Chinese immigrants have settled in Paramaribo. Paramaribo is the business and financial centre of Suriname. Though the capital city does not produce significant goods itself all revenues from the country's main export products gold, bauxite and tropical wood are channeled through its institutions. All banks, insurance corporations and other financial and commercial companies are headquartered in Paramaribo. Around 75 percent of Suriname's GDP is consumed in Paramaribo. Tourism is an important sector, with most visitors coming from the Netherlands. Administratively, Paramaribo forms its own district in Suriname.
The resorts of Paramaribo district therefore correspond to boroughs of the city. There are twelve resorts in the Paramaribo district: Paramaribo is served by the Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport and Zorg en Hoop Airport for local flights; the Jules Wijdenbosch Bridge, part of the East-West Link, connects Paramaribo with Meerzorg on the other side of the Suriname River. Most airlines like Gum Air, Caricom Airways and Blue Wing Airlines have their head offices on the grounds of Zorg en Hoop Airport in Paramaribo. Paramaribo's institution of higher learning is Anton de Kom University of Suriname, the country's only university. Paramaribo is home to four hospitals, the Academic Hospital Paramaribo,'s Lands Hospitaal, Sint Vincentius Hospital and Diakonessenhuis; the Dutch colonial town established in 17th and 18th centuries was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2002. The historic inner city is located along the left bank of the Suriname River