Transport in Algeria
As the tenth-largest country in the world, the largest in Africa and in the Mediterranean region, Algeria has a vast transportation system which include many transportation infrastructures. There are a total of 3,973 km of railways: 2,888 km is 1,435 mm standard gauge, with 283 km of that being electrified and 215 km of that being double tracked. There are a total of 1,085 km of 1,055 mm gauge track. SNTF operates the railways, whilst a new, separate organisation, has been created to manage infrastructure investment; the High Plateau line is a major new project to build an east-west line across the country, parallel to the Rocade Nord. A 690-km line from Béchar to Oran is opened on 15 July. Planning starts on suburban electrification at 25 kV AC. A new 204-kilometre railway under construction from Tébessa to Aïn M'Lila; the 8 km Algiers bypass line between Djasr Kasentina and Oued Smar is being upgraded. 18 May 2006 SNTF is to spend $US5 billion in the next five years on improvements. It has awarded a 39-month-duration contract worth €248.3 million to a joint Algerian and Spanish consortium which will double the Annaba-Ramdane Djamal portion of the 626 km Algiers-Annaba line and upgrade the track for 160 km/h operation.
SNTF is to electrify 420 km of the route west of Annaba at 25 kV AC, including the branches from Ramdane Djamel to Skikda and Beni Mansour to Bejaia, as well as the line from Khemis Miliana to Oran. 18 May 2006 - By early 2009, it is hoped to open the first 16.3 km section of the new light rail line in Algeria's capital city, linking Carl du Ruisseau to Bordj El Kiffan. Under construction: there are 3 projects to build tramway networks in 3 major cities: Alger and Constantine. CAF is to supply 17 non-tilting diesel multiple-units based on the RENFE Series 598 tilting trains. Algiers and Constantine are the only cities in the country with a tram line in operation. Tram projects have been launched in both Setif and Batna in the east and Sidi Bel-Abbes in the west, Ouargla in the South; the government, wanting to diversify the country's future in rail transport, has assigned the Algiers Subway Company to the projects. Algiers tramway Oran Tramway Constantine tramway There are 71,656 kilometers of paved roads including 1394 kilometers of expressways and 32,344 kilometers of unpaved roads for a total road system of 104,000 kilometers.
Algeria has two routes in the Trans-African Highway network, including the Trans-Sahara Highway, soon to be complete as a paved road running from north to south through the country. The country has embarked in the construction of a new East-West highway. Motorway network in Algeria is expanding along with other kinds of infrastructure, though this is only true for the Northern region of the country, where most of its population lives, and this infrastructure is pretty well developed for North African standards. East-West Highway; this is the most important road infrastructure in the country, because it expands from Ain El Assel, on the border with Tunisia to Zouj Beghal, on the border with Morocco. Along its way, it links the cities of Constantine, Sétif, Blida, Sidi Bel Abbes and Tlemcen, it has a length of 1155 km. Highway of the Hauts Plateaux is a highway of 1020 km under construction in Algeria in parallel to the East–West Highway, it through the wilayas of Tlemcen on the border with Morocco, Tiaret, Medea, M'sila, Oum El Bouaghi and Tebessa on the border with Tunisia.
National Highway 4. Extends from Oran to Boufarik, total length: 384 km, it is a motorway on its extent from Oran to Zaghloul, length: 35 km. National Highway 5, it is a motorway on its extent from Dar El Beïda to Ammal. Length: 82 km. National Highway 11, it is a motorway running from Alger to Cherchell. Length: 65 km. National Highway 12, it is a motorway running from Si Mustapha to Tizi Ouzou. Length: 57 km. There are 456 kilometers of crude oil pipeline, 298 kilometers of refined petroleum pipeline, 2,948 kilometers of natural gas pipeline. There are 4 gas exportation pipelines, two existing ones to Spain and Italy and 2 under construction, Medgaz between Oran and Almería, Spain and GALSI between Annaba and Sardinia, Italy. Both pipelines will be extended to Germany. Algiers, Arzew, Bejaia, Béni Saf, Djendjen, Jijel, Oran, Ténès Total: 110 by type: bulk carrier 3, general cargo 13, oil tanker 9, other 85 An extensive air service used an estimated 137 airports and airstrips in 2004; as of 2005, a total of 52 had paved runways, there was one heliport.
The main international airport, Houari Boumedienne Airport, is about 20 km from Algiers. Constantine, Annaba and Oran have smaller modern airports that can accommodate jet aircraft. Air Algérie, the national airline, provides international service. In 2003, a total of about 3.293 million passengers were carried on domestic and international flights. Algeria This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
A1 motorway (Tunisia)
Tunisia's A1 or A-1 motorway is a 247 km road connecting Tunis and Sfax. In the map shown, the A-1 is in red; the highway is continuing to be extended. The A-1 is conceived of as part of an international project, sometimes called the Trans-Maghreb or Trans-North Africa Highway or Trans-African Highway 1, planned to reach from Cairo to Dakar. There are three lanes each way from Tunis to Hammamet two lanes each way from Hammamet to Sfax, it is a toll road part of the way. Road signs are in French; the speed limit on Tunisian highways is 110 km/h. The first section connected Tunis to Turki in 1981, it was extended to Hammamet in 1986, to Enfidha in 1994, to Sfax in 2008. An extension south to Gabès is underway, it had been planned for completion earlier but progress slowed after the Tunisian revolution of 2011. Since at least 2014 the European Investment Bank has provided some financing for extensions. A 2013 report said: "Currently under construction, the Sfax-Gabès highway should be completed in early 2014, with an investment of €470 m."
After that, 182 km remain from Gabès to Medenine, Ben Gardane, to Ras Jedir on the Libyan border. The planned route from Tunis to the Libyan frontier is 573 km: Tunis-Hammamet Hammamet-M'saken with an exit at Sousse M'saken-Sfax with an exit at Mahdia Sfax-Gabès Gabès-Libyan border There are service areas at Grombalia, Sidi Khelifa, El Jem. Exits and interchanges are, in order: the interchange between A1 and Olympic City November 7th, Hammam Lif, Grombalia, Hammamet-Nord, Golf Hammamet, Hammamet-Sud, Enfidha, Enfidha–Hammamet International Airport, Sidi Bou Ali, Kalâa Kebira, Sousse city center, M'saken, Kerker, El Jem, El Hencha, Sfax-Nord Wikivoyage:Tunisia discusses travel on Tunisian highways
Métro léger de Tunis
The Métro léger de Tunis is an expanding public transportation network for the Tunis area, started in 1985. It represents not a subterranean transit system but a light rail network. Metro leger's light rail system has its track at surface level with its own rail bed, but at key intersections, the system goes underground to avoid congestion or has the right of way. Together with the TGM rail line it is managed by the parastatal transport authority Société des transports de Tunis. While once a number of African cities had traditional electric tram systems, all but the Alexandria Tram were discontinued; the Metro leger's modern light rail system was unique for Africa, but there are now modern trams in Algeria and Morocco, as well. Tunis had an older electric tram system that, like in many cities was dismantled. With the growth of the Tunis area the need for a commuter transportation system became evident leading to the decision to link the city with its suburbs by a modern light rail system; the system was delivered as a turnkey operation by a consortium led by Siemens.
The Société du métro léger de Tunis was founded in 1981 to manage the operation. Construction on Line 1 started the same year and was completed by 1985 when passenger service commenced. In 1989 Line 2 was placed into operation, Line 3 and 4 followed the next year. Line 5 became operative in 1992. In 1997 the extension of Line 4 was inaugurated, further construction for an extension to La Manouba was started in 2007; the Société des transports de Tunis took over management in 2003. A new Line 6 was planned to link Tunis with El Mourouj and its construction began in 2005; the completion of this new line finished in 2009. New Citadis trains from Alstom to supplement the earlier Siemens trains were introduced in 2007; as of 2009, the Metro leger comprised a network of 43 kilometers with 67 stations. It has a capacity to carry 600,000 passengers per day. There is an intersection with the Tunisian Railways' Tunis Gare Centrale at Place de Barcelone and with TGM at Tunis Marine; the lines are: Line 1: Tunis Marine – Ben Arous Length: 9.2 kilometers Number of daily trains: 125 Hours of operation: 03h25 / 23h05 Running time: 27 minutes Line 2: Place de Barcelone – Ariana Length: 8.9 kilometers Number of daily trains: 133 Hours of operation: 04h20 / 22h50 Running time: 28 minutes Line 3: Place de Barcelone – Ibn Khaldoun Length: 8.4 kilometers Number of daily trains: 51 Hours of operation: 05h55 / 19h30 Running time: 28 minutes Line 4: Tunis Marine – Kheireddine Length: 15.1 kilometers Numbers of daily trains: 105 Hours of operation: 04h36 / 22h35 Running time: 32–35 minutes Line 5: Place de Barcelone – Intilaka Length: 9.8 kilometers Number of daily trains: 103 Hours of operation: 04h09 / 22h35 Running time: 34–35 minutes Line 6: Tunis Marine – El Mourouj 4 Diametrical Line 12: 10 décembre – El Ouardia VI Length: 12.03 kilometers Running time: 39 minutes Diametrical line 14: Den Den – El Ouardia VI Length: 14 kilometers Running time: 47 minutesOn October 2, 2007, a 2-year project started to extend Line 4 by 5.2 km to reach the Université de la Manouba.
Further extensions are planned. By 2006, 136 articulated passenger trams were in operation, they were built by Siemens, delivered between 1984 and 1997. These trains were derived from the TW 6000 developed for Hanover Stadtbahn; the bi-directional trains are run on a 1,435 mm track. The trams have a green livery with a white line. A train consists of two wagons each of which has: bogies typ Bo-2-2-Bo electric motors 2 x 240 kW weight of 40,3 tonnes length of 30 meters width of 2,47 meters access from low and high platformsIn 2004, an agreement between the French and Tunisian governments led to the order of 30 new Citadis trams built by Alstom; each train consists of two trams of 64 metre length to hold 58 sitting. The first such trains started to operate on September 17, 2007. 16 more trams were ordered from Alstom in July 2010. List of Tunis Metro stations List of town tramway systems in Africa Réseau Ferroviaire Rapide Transport in Tunisia Template:Suburban railways in Africa Official site of the Société des transports de Tunis
Transport in Botswana
Transportation in Botswana is provided by internal and extensive network of railways, ferry services and air routes that criss-cross the country. All passenger services were discontinued in 2009, with the only remaining service being an international link to Zimbabwe from Francistown. Freight trains still operate. Passenger service was expected to resume in late 2015. Passenger services were re-introduced in March 2016. Over half of BRs freight traffic is in coal and intermodal freight, it ships automative parts and assembled automobiles, fertilizers, other chemicals, soda ash, forest products and other types of the commodities. Botswana Railways run 2 nightly passenger trains, one from Lobatse to Francistown, the other from Francistown to Lobatse, with stops in Gaborone, Mahalapye and Serule; the passenger train is termed the "BR Express". In Botswana, the "BR Express" has a commuter train between Gaborone; the train is scheduled to arrive at Gaborone 0649 hrs. This train return to Lobatse in well departing in Gaborone at 1800 hrs.
Arrival time at Lobatse is 1934hrs. The train stops at Otse and Commerce Park Halt; the BR decided from the beginning that it would operate its own sleeping cars. Bigger - sized berths and more comfortable surroundings were built. Providing and operating their own cars allowed better control of the service provided as well as revenue received, although profit was never a direct result of providing food to passengers. Rather, it was for those who could afford to travel great distances expected such facilities and favourable opinion would - well attracting others to Botswana and the BR's trains. Diesel locomotives As of March 2009 8 General Electric UM 22C diesel-electric locomotive, 1982. 20 General Motors Model GT22LC-2 diesel-electric locomotive, 1986. 10 General Electric UI5C diesel-electric locomotive, 1990.8 new gt142aces delivered in 2017 from emd. total: 888 km number of stations: 13 standard gauge: 1,067 mm cape gauge. Existing South Africa-yes- same gauge 1,067 mm Zimbabwe-yes- same gauge 1,067 mm Currently under construction Zambia- being built at Kazungula Bridge in Kazungula.
Proposed Namibia Mozambique As of 1996, Botswana has 10,217 km of highway. Roads; the following classes of traffic are not allowed on Botswana motorways: Learner drivers Slow vehicles. Invaild carriages Pedestrians Pedal-cycles Vehicles under 50cc AnimalsRules for driving on motorways include the following: The keep-left rule applies unless overtaking No stopping at any time No reversing No hitchhicking Only vehicles that travel faster than 80 km/h may use the outside lane No driving on the hard-shoulderThe general motorway speed limit is 120 km/h. Traditionally, road signs in Botswana used blue backgrounds rather than the yellow, white, or orange that the rest of the world uses on traffic warning signs. In the early 2010s, officials announced plans to begin phasing out the distinctive blue signs in favor of more typical signs in order to be more in line with the neighboring Southern African Development Community member states. Existing Thapama Interchange at the junction of A1 / Blue Jacket Street and A3 in Francistown.
Under construction Boatle Interchange in Boatle, its map plan it's done, the tendering of the project, it's done and the groundbreaking or construction has commenced. Proposed The Government of Botswana is committed to build three interchanges along K. T Motsete Drive in Gaborone. In most parts of Botswana, there are many taxiscabs of various styles. Botswana has no limitation in taxicab design, so each taxiscab company adopts their own design. Minibus Taxis is known as Kombi are the predominant form of transport for people in urban areas of Botswana and of them they're found within cities, major villages and least populated areas, they have their own minibus station within that particular area, they only transport people within that specific area, all of them they have different routes. This is due to their affordability to the public. Most minibus taxis they do not have depart time that's allocated by the state and of them they have 15 seaters. They're owned by many minibus owners. Coach buses are used for longer-distance services within and outside Botswana.
They're operated by private companies and they're the only ones that have depart time that's allocated by the ministry of transport. All couch buses have different time for depart and they have different routes, they have their couch bus stations all over Botswana. In 2004 there were an estimated 85 airports; the country's main international airport is Sir Seretse Khama International Airport in Gaborone. The government-owned Air Botswana operates scheduled flights to Francistown, Gaborone and Selebi-Phikwe. There is international service to South Africa. A new international airport near Gaborone was opened in 1984. Air passengers arriving to and departing from Botswana during 2003
Tunis is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf, behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette, the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it. At its core lies its ancient medina, a World Heritage Site. East of the medina through the Sea Gate begins the modern city, or Ville Nouvelle, traversed by the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba, where the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast to smaller, older structures. Further east by the sea lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, Sidi Bou Said; as the capital city of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life. It has two cultural centres, as well as a municipal theatre, used by international theatre groups and a summer festival, the International Festival of Carthage, held in July. Tunis is the transcription of the Arabic name تونس which can be pronounced as "Tūnus", "Tūna or delata", or "Tūnis".
All three variations were mentioned by the Greek-Syrian geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mu'jam al-Bûldan. Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis; some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith, as many ancient cities were named after patron deities. Some scholars claim that it originated from Tynes, mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Polybius in the course of descriptions of a location resembling present-day Al-Kasbah. Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means "to lie down" or "to pass the night". Given the variations of the precise meaning over time and space, the term Tunis can mean "camp at night", "camp", or "stop". There are some mentions in ancient Roman sources of such names of nearby towns as Tuniza, Thunusuda and Thunisa; as all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, they undoubtedly served as rest-stations or stops. The historical study of Carthage is problematic; because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive.
While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in Northwest Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Dio Cassius, Herodotus. These writers belonged to peoples in competition, in conflict, with Carthage. Greek cities contended with Carthage over Sicily, the Romans fought three wars against Carthage. Not their accounts of Carthage are hostile. Tunis was a Berber settlement; the existence of the town is attested by sources dating from the 4th century BC. Situated on a hill, Tunis served as an excellent point from which the comings and goings of naval and caravan traffic to and from Carthage could be observed. Tunis was one of the first towns in the region to fall under Carthaginian control, in the centuries that followed Tunis was mentioned in the military histories associated with Carthage. Thus, during Agathocles' expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions.
During the Mercenary War, it is possible that Tunis served as a center for the native population of the area, that its population was composed of peasants and craftsmen. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large. According to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed; the city is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Thuni. In the system of Roman roads for the Roman province of Africa, Tunis had the title of mutatio. Tunis Romanized, was eventually Christianized and became the seat of a bishop. However, Tunis remained modestly sized compared to Carthage during this time; the modern city of Tunis was settled by Arab Muslim troops, around the 7th century AD. The medina of Tunis, the oldest section of the city, dates from this period, during which the region was conquered by the Umayyad emir Hasan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghasani; the city had the natural advantage of coastal access, via the Mediterranean, to the major ports of southern Europe.
Early on, Tunis played a military role. From the beginning of the 8th century Tunis was the chef-lieu of the area: it became the Arabs' naval base in the western Mediterranean Sea, took on considerable military importance. Under the Aghlabids, the people of Tunis revolted numerous times, but the city benefited from economic improvements and became the second most important in the kingdom, it was the national capital, from the end of the reign of Ibrahim II in 902, until 909 when control over Ifriqiya was lost to the newly founded Fatimid Caliphate. Local opposition to the authorities began to intensify in September 94
Sfax is a city in Tunisia, located 270 km southeast of Tunis. The city, founded in AD 849 on the ruins of Roman Taparura, is the capital of the Sfax Governorate, a Mediterranean port. Sfax has a population of 330,440; the main economic activities of Sfax are industries, agriculture and trade. The city is described as Tunisia's "second city", being the second-most populous city after the capital Tunis. Present-day Sfax was founded in AD 849 on the site of the ancient Roman town of Taparura; the modern city has grown to cover some other ancient settlements, most notably Thenae in its southern suburb of Thyna. By the end of the 10th century, had become an independent city-state; the city was conquered by Roger II of Sicily in 1148 and occupied until it was liberated in 1156 by local forces, was occupied by European forces again. Sfax became an integral base of the Barbary piracy, prompting an unsuccessful invasion by Venice in 1785; when the Bey of Tunis signed the Bardo Treaty, in 1881, making Tunisia a protectorate, an insurrection broke out in Sfax.
Six ironclads were dispatched from Toulon to join the French Navy ships in Tunisian waters. In Sfax, three ironclads from the Division of the Levant were present, together with four cannon boats. Sfax was bombarded, on 16 July the city was taken by the French after hard fighting, with 7 dead and 32 wounded for the French. During World War II, the Axis powers used the city as a major base until British forces took it on 10 April 1943. After World War II, Tunisia was returned to France, but gained independence in 1956; the A1 motorway connects Sfax with Tunis. A narrow gauge railway system of SNCFT offers passenger services to Tunis and delivers phosphates and iron ore for export. Sfax is served by Sfax–Thyna International Airport and Syphax Airlines has scheduled flights to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Tripoli International Airport, charter flights to Jeddah Airport for the pilgrimage to Mecca. Founded in 1961, Radio Sfax broadcasts twenty hours a day on MW 720 kHz/105.21 MHz.
Sfax has a hot semi-arid climate. Owing to its sheltered location relative to Mediterranean Sea winter storms, Sfax receives half the rainfall of Tunis and less than the major cities of Libya. Summers, like all of North Africa, are hot and rainless, whilst winters are pleasant with only light rain usual; the University of Sfax includes: ENIS issued a number of well-known scientists and industrialists. ESCS issued a number of managers and Management researchers and young entrepreneurs. FLSHS issued a number of renowned poets and prose writers. Sfax Faculty of Medicine. ISAAS FSEGS. FSS. ISIMS. FDS ISAMS IHEC CS Sfaxien, a club of football, volleyball and rugby. Sfax Railway Sport Stade Sportif Sfaxien Max Azria, fashion designer Mamdouh Bahri, artist and jazz guitarist and teacher now living in France Hédi Bouraoui and writer now living in Canada Nouri Bouzid, film director Hamdi Braa, basketball player Mohamed Charfi, politician and scholar Moncef Dhouib and screenwriter Tom Dixon, industrial designer Mohamed Fourati, surgeon Mohamed Gouaida, footballer Farhat Hached, trade union leader assassinated by the French government Mohamed Jamoussi, poet and famous singer Claude Kayat, Franco-Swedish writer and dramatist, winner of the 1997 Prix Ève Delacroix Mounir Laroussi, inventor Christian Lauba, composer Mansour Moalla, former Minister of Economy and banker Georges Perec, writer Hatem Trabelsi, former football player for Ajax Amsterdam, Manchester City and the Tunisian national team Sfax is twinned with: Grenoble, France Makhachkala, Russia Marburg, Germany Dakar, Senegal Oran, Algeria Safi, Morocco Fossa regia Sfax War Cemetery Sufax, a possible etymon of Sfax Transport in Tunisia Sfax travel guide from Wikivoyage Sfaxonline.com Histoiredesfax.com CSS.org.tn Flysyphax.com
Djerba–Zarzis International Airport
Djerba–Zarzis International Airport is the international airport serving the island of Djerba in Tunisia. The airport began operation in 1970 and today is an important destination for seasonal leisure flights. On 6 August 2005, Tuninter Flight 1153, a Tuninter ATR-72 en route from Bari to Djerba, ditched into the Mediterranean Sea about 18 miles from the city of Palermo. 16 of the 39 people on board died. The accident resulted from engine fuel starvation that resulted from the installation of the wrong fuel quantity indicator; the fuel quantity indicator installed had been calibrated for the smaller ATR-42 aircraft and showed more fuel than was in the tank of the larger ATR 72. When the aircraft ran out of fuel, the indicator still showed 1800 kilograms of fuel remaining thus confusing the crew for several minutes. Both engines stopped and the crew was forced to ditch the airliner in the sea; the airport was a stopover for Air Berlin chartered flight AB7377, involved in a bomb scare. During loading at Hosea Kutako International Airport in Namibia, a suitcase was discovered that contained a clock, batteries and a firing mechanism.
Upon closer inspection, it was discovered that the object was part of a test to assess the quality of airport screening procedures. The A330-200 aircraft was examined with an explosives sniffer dog, before it was allowed to fly to Munich Airport, via a stopover in Djerba. Tunisian Civil Aviation and Airports Authority Current weather for DTTJ at NOAA/NWS Accident history for DJE at Aviation Safety Network