Rivera is the capital of Rivera Department of Uruguay. The border with Brazil joins it with the Brazilian city of Santana do Livramento, only a street away from it, at the north end of Route 5. Together, they form an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants; as of the census of 2011, it is the sixth most populated city of Uruguay. On 21 March 1860 a pueblo named Pereira was created by the Act of Ley Nº 614. On 7 May 1862, it was substituted by the villa named Ceballos and founded by the Act of Ley Nº 704, in honour of the Spanish viceroy Pedro de Cevallos. In July 1867 it was recognized as a villa; the Brazilian town Santana do Livramento existed just across the border. On 1 October 1884, it became capital of the Department of Rivera by the Act of Ley Nº 1.757. Its status was elevated to ciudad on 10 June 1912 by the Act of Ley Nº 4.006. In 1943, the Plaza Internacional Rivera-Livramento was built to celebrate the Fifth Conference of the Commission Mixta for Mixed Limits and as a hope for the future integration of the two towns, claimed to be the only international square in the world.
From 1851 to this day, inhabitants of both communities are free to move in both sides. Customs and checkpoints are located outside the cities. Today, duty-free shops are one of the main economic resources of Rivera; the first inhabitants of the city were Spaniards, Italians and some Brazilians immigrants who lived in Santana do Livramento, on the Brazilian side of the border. One of the main economic activities of the city of Rivera is the free-shop stores, aimed at Brazilian neighbors coming from the cities of Rio Grande do Sul, near the border with Uruguay, making Rivera a popular destination for buying imported dollar products. With the fall in the price of the US currency, many devices can be bought for prices up to 40% smaller than similar ones sold in Brazil; the Rivera shopping limit is $300 per person. Purchases above this amount must be declared at the Federal Revenue Office for the payment of the corresponding import tax so that the product can enter Brazil, it is worth mentioning the existence of a casino, located on one of the avenues where the border between the two countries runs.
Within the department, livestock farming and afforestation predominate. In 2011, Rivera had a population of 64,465 Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay The climate in Rivera, as well as in Santana do Livramento, is humid subtropical, temperate in the winter and warm in the summer. Church of the Immaculate Conception Parish Church of St. Dominic Parish Church of the Sacred Heart St. Peter Parish Church Brazil keeps a Consulate in Rivera, located at 1159 Calle Ceballos. Aparicio Méndez, from Rivera, was President of Uruguay from 1976 to 1981, he was chosen by the military dictatorship. Rodrigo Mora, a current football player for Club Atlético River Plate, was born in Rivera. There are regular bus services to Montevideo. A rail service to Tacuarembó has been run intermittently. Rivera is served by Pres. Gral. Óscar D. Gestido International Airport, which receives light aircraft and an irregular service by a Brazilian airline to Porto Alegre; the Estadio Atilio Paiva Olivera holds 27,115 people and was used in the 1995 Copa América.
The Skatepark of Rivera is on Presidente Viera Street. Rivera is twinned with: Rivera Department List of diplomatic missions in Uruguay#Consulate-General in Rivera INE map of Rivera, Santa Teresa, Mandubí and Lagunón
History of Uruguay
The history of Uruguay comprises different periods: the pre-Columbian time or early history, the colonial period, the period of nation-building, the history of Uruguay as an independent country. The earliest traces of human presence are about 10,000 years old, belong to the hunter-gatherer cultures of Catalanense and Cuareim cultures which are extensions of cultures originating in Brasil. Earliest discovered. Examples of ancient rock art have been found at Chamangá. About 4000 years ago Charrua and Guarani people arrived here. During pre-colonial times Uruguayan territory was inhabited by small tribes of nomadic Charrua, Chana and Guarani peoples who survived by hunting and fishing and never reached more than 10 000 – 20 000 people, it is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Native peoples had disappeared by the time of Independence as a result of European diseases and constant warfare. European genocide culminated on April 11, 1831 with the Massacre of Salsipuedes, when most of Charrua men were killed by Uruguayan army on the orders by President Fructuoso Rivera, the remaining 300 Charrua women and children were divided as household slaves and servants among Europeans.
During the colonial era the present-day territory of Uruguay was known as Banda Oriental and was a buffer territory between the competing colonial pretensions of Portuguese Brazil and Spanish Empire. The Portuguese first explored the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512–1513; the first European explorer to land here was Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516, but he was killed by natives. Ferdinand Magellan anchored at the future site of Montevideo in 1520. Sebastian Cabot in 1526 explored. Absence of gold and silver limited settlement of the region during the 17th centuries. In 1603 cattle and horses were introduced here by the order of Hernando Arias de Saavedra and by the mid-17th century their number had multiplied; the first permanent settlement on the territory of present-day Uruguay was founded by the Spanish Jesuits in 1624 at Villa Soriano on the Río Negro, where they tried to establish a Misiones Orientales system for the Charruas. Portuguese colonists in 1680 established Colônia do Sacramento on the northern bank of La Plata river, on the opposite coast from Buenos Aires.
Spanish colonial activity increased as Spain sought to limit Portugal's expansion of Brazil's frontiers. In 1726 Spanish established San Felipe de Montevideo on the northern bank and its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial center competing with Buenos Aires, they moved to capture Colonia del Sacramento. Treaty of Madrid secured Spanish control over Banda Oriental, settlers were given land here and a local cabildo was created. In 1776 the new Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata was established with capital in Buenos Aires and it included territory of Banda Oriental. By this time the land was used by cattle ranchers to raise cattle. By 1800 more than 10,000 people lived in another 20,000 in the rest of the province. Out of these about 30% were African slaves. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights between the British, Spanish and local colonial forces for dominance of the La Plata basin. In 1806 and 1807, the British as a part of Anglo-Spanish War, launched the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
Buenos Aires was invaded in 1806, liberated by forces from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers. A new and stronger British attack in 1807 aimed to Montevideo, occupied by a 10,000-strong British force; the British forces were unable to invade Buenos Aires for the second time, Liniers demanded the liberation of Montevideo in the terms of capitulation. The British gave up their attacks when the Peninsular War turned Britain and Spain into allies against Napoleon; the May Revolution of 1810 in Buenos Aires marked the end of Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty and establishment of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. The Revolution divided inhabitants of Montevideo, many of whom remained royalists, loyal to the Spanish crown and revolutionaries who supported independence of provinces from Spain; this soon led to the First Banda Oriental campaign between the Spanish viceroy. Local patriots under José Gervasio Artigas issued the Proclamation of 26 February 1811 which called for a war against the Spanish rule.
With the help from Buenos Aires, Artigas defeated Spaniards on May 18, 1811 at the Battle of Las Piedras and began Siege of Montevideo. At this point Spanish viceroy invited Portuguese from Brazil to launch a military invasion of Banda Oriental. Afraid to lose this province to the Portuguese, Buenos Aires made peace with the Spanish viceroy. Only British pressure persuaded Portuguese to withdraw in late 1811, leaving royalists in control of Montevideo. Angered by this betrayal from Buenos Aires, Artigas with some 4000 supporters retreated to Entre Ríos Province. During the Second Banda Oriental campaign in 1813 Artigas joined José Rondeau's army from Buenos Aires and started the second siege of Montevideo, resulting in its surrender to Río de la Plata. Artigas participated in formation of League of the Free People, which united several provinces that wanted to be free from Buenos Aires dominance and centralized state, envisioned by the Congress of Tucumán. Artigas was proclaimed Protector of this League.
Guided by his political ideas he launched a land reform. The steady growth of influence and prestige of the Liga Federal frightened the Portuguese gover
Transport in Brazil
Transport infrastructure in Brazil is characterized by strong regional differences and lack of development of the national rail network. Brazil's fast-growing economy, the growth in exports, will place increasing demands on the transport networks. However, sizeable new investments that are expected to address some of the issues are either planned or in progress. Total actual network: 29,303 kmBroad gauge: 4,932 km 1,600 mm gauge Narrow gauge: 23,773 km 1,000 mm gauge Dual gauge: 396 km 1000 mm and 1600 mm gauges Standard gauge: 202.4 km 1,435 mm gauge Estrada de Ferro do Amapá in the middle of the Amazon Rainforest used standard gauge. A 12 km section of the former 2 ft 6 in gauge Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas is retained as a heritage railway. International rail links exist between Brazil and Argentina and Uruguay. Brazil had a hundred tramway systems. There are vintage tramways operating in Belém, Campos do Jordão, Rio de Janeiro and Santos. A high-speed rail connecting São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro is under development.
Brazil has 1,751,868 kilometers of roads, 96,353 km of them paved and 1,655,515 km unpaved. That means that 94.5 % are unpaved. The most important highway of the country is BR-116 and the second is BR-101; the country has a low rate of car ownership of 140 per 1000 population, however in comparison to the other developing economies of the BRIC group Brazil exceeds India and China. 50,000 km navigable condensate/gas 62 km natural gas 9,892 km liquid petroleum gas 353 km crude oil 4,517 km refined products 4,465 km Belém Manaus Santarém Corumbá total: 136 ships totaling 3,964,808 GT/6,403,284 tonnes deadweight ships by type: Most international flights must go to São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport or Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport. Belo Horizonte is the main international airport outside Rio de São Paulo. A few go to Brasília, Recife and just Fortaleza has accepted international flights. With South American integration, more airports can be expected to open to international flights.
In 2013 Brazil had the sixth largest passenger air market in the world. Total: 734 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 169 914 to 1,523 m: 476 under 914 m: 56 total: 3,442 1,524 to 2,437 m: 85 914 to 1,523 m: 1,541 under 914 m: 1,816 Azul Linhas Aéreas Brasileiras Gol Transportes Aéreos Avianca TAM Airlines 16 13 Rail transport by country CIA - The World Factbook - Brazil - Transportation
Economy of Uruguay
The economy of Uruguay is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector and a well-educated work force, along with high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually during 1996–98, in 1999–2002 the economy suffered a major downturn, stemming from the spillover effects of the economic problems of its large neighbors and Brazil. In 2001–02, Argentine citizens made massive withdrawals of dollars deposited in Uruguayan banks after bank deposits in Argentina were frozen, which led to a plunge in the Uruguayan peso, causing the 2002 Uruguay banking crisis. In the 19th century, the country had similar characteristics to other Latin American countries: caudillism, civil wars and permanent instability, foreign capitalism's control of important sectors of the economy, high percentage of illiterate people. José Batlle y Ordóñez, President from 1903 to 1907 and again from 1911 to 1915, set the pattern for Uruguay's modern political development and dominated the political scene until his death in 1929.
Batlle introduced widespread political and economic reforms such as a welfare program, government participation in many facets of the economy and a new constitution. Batlle created a modern social welfare system. Income tax for lower incomes was abolished in 1905, secondary schools established in every city, telephone network nationalized, unemployment benefits were introduced, eight-hour working day introduced, etc. Claudio Williman who served between Batlle’s two terms was his supporter and continued all his reforms, as did the next President Baltasar Brum. Around 1900 infant mortality rates in Uruguay were among the world's lowest, indicating a healthy population; the number of trade unionists has quadrupled since 2003, from 110,000 to more than 400,000 in 2015 for a working population of 1.5 million people. According to the International Trade Union Confederation, Uruguay has become the most advanced country in the Americas in terms of respect for "fundamental labour rights, in particular freedom of association, the right to collective bargaining and the right to strike.
Uruguay has a dollarized economy. As of August 2008 60% of bank loans use United States dollars, but most transactions use the Uruguayan peso. Throughout Uruguay's history, their strongest exporting industries have been wool. In the case of beef exports, they have been boosted since Uruguay joined the Mercosur agreement in 1991 and the country has been able to reach more distant markets, such as Japan. In the case of wool exports, they have not been doing so well in recent years suffering from other competitors in the market like New Zealand and the fluctuations of its demand during the 2008/09 recession in the developed world. At the same time with timber refining being kept within the country, forestry has become a growth industry in the recent years. Although this is a sector that does not make substantial contributions to the country's economy, in recent years there have been some activity in gold and cement production, in the extraction of granite. Due to two major investments made in 1991 and 1997, the most significant manufactured exports in Uruguay are plastics.
These investments laid the way for most of the substantial exports of plastic-based products which has taken a important role in Uruguay's economy. In spite of having poor levels of investment in the fixed-line sector, the small size of Uruguay's population has enabled them to attain one of the highest teledensity levels in South America and reach a 100% digitalization of main lines. Although the telecommunications sector has been under a state monopoly for some years, provisions have been made to introduce liberalization and to allow for entry of more firms into the cellular sector. In 2013, travel and tourism accounted for 9.4% of the country's GDP. Their tourist industry is characterized for attracting visitors from neighboring countries. Uruguay's major attraction is the interior located in the region around Punta del Este. Cattle were introduced to Uruguay before its independence by Hernando Arias de Saavedra, the Spanish Governor of Buenos Aires in 1603. Beef exports in 2006 amounted to around 37% of Uruguayan exports.
Wool is a traditional product exported to America, followed by the UK and India. Milk and dairy products. Conaprole, National Cooperative of Milk Producers is the main exporter of dairy products in Latin America; the area of the country dedicated to the dairy food is located in the south west. Rice. Fine varieties are produced in the lowlands in the east of the country close to Merin lake on the Uruguay-Brazil border; the national company Saman claims to be the main exporter in Latin America. Countries it exports to include Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Senegal, Paraguay, Ecuador, USA, Canada and China. Tourism: Several seaside resorts, like Punta del Este or Punta del Diablo in the south-eastern departments of Maldonado and Rocha, regarded as a jet set resort in South America, are main attractions of Uruguay. International cruises call at Montevideo from October to March every year. Uruguay hosts many year-round international conferences.. Montevideo is home to the headquarters of, the Common Market of the South, whose full members are Uruguay, Brazil and Venezuela, associate members Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.
Software and consulting. Uruguay's well-educated workforce and lower-than-international wages have put Uruguay on the IT map. A prod
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
Geography of Uruguay
Uruguay is a country in Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil. It is located in the Southern Hemisphere on the Atlantic seaboard of South America between 53 and 58 west longitude and 30 and 35 south latitude, it is bordered to the west by Argentina, on the north and northeast by Brazil, on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, which makes up Uruguay’s coast. To the south, it fronts a broad estuary that opens out into the South Atlantic. Montevideo, the capital and major port, sits on the banks of the Río de la Plata and is on the same latitude as Cape Town and Sydney. Uruguay is the smallest Spanish-speaking nation in South America with a land area of 171,520 km2 and a water area of 2,600 km2. Additionally, Uruguay is the world's only sovereign nation that does not extend north of the 30 degrees south latitude. Most of Uruguay is a rolling plain that represents a transition from the featureless Argentine pampas to the hilly uplands of southern Brazil.
The country itself has flat plains on its eastern and western edges. The narrow Atlantic coastal plain is sandy and marshy broken by shallow lagoons; the littorals of the Río de la Plata and the Río Uruguay are somewhat broader and merge more into the hilly interior. The remaining two-quarters of the country is a rolling plateau marked by ranges of low hills that become more prominent in the north as they merge into the highlands of southern Brazil; these hilly areas are remarkably featureless and elevations exceed 200 meters. The highest point, the Cerro Catedral, is located in the southeast of the country in the Cuchilla Grande mountain range. Uruguay is a water-rich land. Prominent bodies of water mark its limits on the east and west, most of the boundary with Brazil follows small rivers. Lakes and lagoons are numerous, a high water table makes digging wells easy. Three systems of rivers drain the land: rivers flow westward to the Río Uruguay, eastward to the Atlantic or tidal lagoons bordering the ocean, south to the Río de la Plata.
The Río Uruguay, which forms the border with Argentina, is flanked by low banks, disastrous floods sometimes inundate large areas. The longest and most important of the rivers draining westward is the Río Negro, which crosses the entire country from northeast to west before emptying into the Río Uruguay. A dam on the Río Negro at Paso de los Toros has created a reservoir—the Embalse del Río Negro—that is the largest artificial lake in South America; the Río Negro's principal tributary and the country's second most important river is the Yí River. The rivers flowing east to the Atlantic are shallower and have more variable flow than the other rivers. Many empty into lagoons in the coastal plain; the largest coastal lagoon, Laguna Merín, forms part of the border with Brazil. Six smaller lagoons, some freshwater and some brackish, line the coast farther south. Located within the temperate zone, Uruguay has a humid subtropical climate, uniform nationwide. Seasonal variations are pronounced; as would be expected by its abundance of water, high humidity and fog are common.
The absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, makes all locations vulnerable to high winds and rapid changes in weather as fronts or storms sweep across the country. Weather is sometimes humid. Seasons are well defined, in most of Uruguay spring is damp and windy. Northwestern Uruguay, however, is farther from large bodies of water and therefore has warmer summers and milder and drier winters than the rest of the country. Average highs and lows in summer in Montevideo are 28 and 17 °C with an absolute maximum of 43 °C. Winter average highs and lows in Montevideo are 14 and 6 °C although the high humidity makes the temperatures feel colder. Averages in July of a high of 18 °C and a low of 7 °C in Artigas confirm the milder winters in northwestern Uruguay, but here temperatures have dropped to a subfreezing −4 °C. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, annual amounts increase from southeast to northwest. Montevideo averages 950 millimeters annually, Artigas receives 1,235 millimeters in an average year.
As in most temperate climates, rainfall results from the passage of cold fronts in winter, falling in overcast drizzly spells, summer thunderstorms are frequent. High winds are a disagreeable characteristic of the weather during the winter and spring, wind shifts are sudden and pronounced. A winter warm spell can be abruptly broken by a strong pampero, a chilly and violent wind blowing north from the Argentine pampas. Summer winds off the ocean, have the salutary effect of tempering warm daytime temperatures. Uruguay may be divided into four regions, based on social and geographical factors; the regions include the countryside, the littoral, Greater Montevideo, the coast. This largest region includes the
Melo is the capital city of the Cerro Largo Department of north-eastern Uruguay. As of the census of 2011, it is the ninth most populated city of the country, it is located at the center of the department, on the intersection of Route 7 with Route 8, 60 kilometres south of Aceguá and the border with Brazil. Other primary roads to the city are Route 26 and Route 44; the stream Arroyo Conventos flows by the west limits of the city. It was founded on 27 June 1795 by an officer to the Spanish Empire, it was named after a Spanish colonial official of Portuguese royal ancestry. Given its proximity to some Portuguese colonies in Brazil, the "Melo Village", as it was once named, was invaded by Portuguese forces in 1801, 1811, 1816. With Uruguayan independence, Melo was declared capital of the department of Cerro Largo. In 1845, the city square was renamed in honor of Manuel Oribe, a former President of Uruguay and a political leader of the White Party, which brought to light the relations of this corner of the country with that National Movement.
Melo had acquired the status of "Villa" before the Independence of Uruguay. Its status was elevated to "Ciudad" on 22 May 1895 by the Act of Ley Nº 2.3279. It was capital of one of the nine original departments of the Republic; the historian J. C. Chasteen has discussed the place of Melo in the history of Uruguay in his book Heroes on Horseback: A Life and Times of the Last Gaucho Caudillos. In 2011 Melo had a population of 51,830 inhabitants. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay Melo has a humid subtropical climate, described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. Summers are warm and winters are cool, with frequent frosts and fog; the precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an average of 1,241 mm, the annual average temperature is 17 °C. This city has the lowest recorded temperature in Uruguay, of -11 °C, on June 14, 1967. There are two museums: Juana de Ibarbourou's birthplace Regional History MuseumNear Melo is situated the old Posta del Chuy, a stone inn near an ancient bridge over the Chuy del Tacuarí creek.
Melo was visited by Pope John Paul II in 1988. This formed the background to the 2006 film El Baño del Papa about an enterprising citizen with the ill-fated idea of making money by building a toilet and charging the hordes of Brazilians expected to visit Melo to see the Pope. Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar and St. Raphael Parish Church of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Parish Church of St. Joseph the Worker Parish Church of St. Dominic Savio and St. Charles Borromeo Jesus Good Shepherd Parish Church Melo HVDC Back-to-back station Domínguez, Carlos María. El norte profundo. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental. INE map of Melo, Hipódromo, Barrio López Benítez and Barrio La Vinchuca