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Transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ground transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has always been difficult. The terrain and climate of the Congo Basin present serious barriers to road and rail construction, the distances are enormous across this vast country. Furthermore, chronic economic mismanagement and internal conflict has led to serious under-investment over many years. On the other hand, the DRC has thousands of kilometres of navigable waterways, traditionally water transport has been the dominant means of moving around two-thirds of the country; as an illustration of transport difficulties in the DRC before wars damaged the infrastructure, the so-called "national" route, used to get supplies to Bukavu from the seaport of Matadi, consisted of the following: Matadi to Kinshasa – rail Kinshasa to Kisangani – river boat Kisangani to Ubundu – rail Ubundu to Kindu – river boat Kindu to Kalemie – rail Kalemie to Kalundu – boat on Lake Tanganyika Kalundu to Bukavu – roadIn other words, goods had to be loaded and unloaded eight times and the total journey would take many months.

Many of the routes listed below are in poor condition and may be operating at only a fraction of their original capacity, despite recent attempts to make improvements. Up to 2006 the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre had an operation in Congo to support humanitarian relief agencies working there, its bulletins and maps about the transport situation are archived on ReliefWeb; the First and Second Congo Wars saw great destruction of transport infrastructure from which the country has not yet recovered. Many vehicles were destroyed or commandeered by militias in the north and east of the country, the fuel supply system was badly affected. Outside of Kinshasa and Lubumbashi, private and commercial road transport is non-existent and traffic is scarce where roads are in good condition; the few vehicles in use outside these cities are run by the United Nations, aid agencies, the DRC government, a few larger companies such as those in the mining and energy sectors. High-resolution satellite photos on the Internet show large cities such as Bukavu and Kikwit devoid of traffic, compared to similar photos of towns in neighbouring countries.

Air transport is the only effective means of moving between many places within the country. The Congolese government, the United Nations, aid organisations and large companies use air rather than ground transport to move personnel and freight; the UN operates a large fleet of aircraft and helicopters, compared to other African countries the DRC has a large number of small domestic airlines and air charter companies. The transport of minerals with a high value for weight is carried out by air, in the east, some stretches of paved road isolated by destroyed bridges or impassable sections have been turned into airstrips. For the ordinary citizen though in rural areas the only options are to cycle, walk or go by dugout canoe; some parts of the DRC are more accessible from neighbouring countries than from Kinshasa. For example, Bukavu itself and Goma and other north-eastern towns are linked by paved road from the DRC border to the Kenyan port of Mombasa, most goods for these cities have been brought via this route in recent years.

Lubumbashi and the rest of Katanga Province is linked to Zambia, through which the paved highway and rail networks of Southern Africa can be accessed. Such links through neighbouring countries are more important for the east and south-east of the country, are more used, than surface links to the capital. In 2007 China agreed to lend the DRC US$5bn for two major transport infrastructure projects to link mineral-rich Katanga Lubumbashi, by rail to an ocean port and by road to the Kisangani river port, to improve its links to the transport network of Southern Africa in Zambia; the two projects would link the major parts of the country not served by water transport, the main centres of the economy. Loan repayments will be from concessions for raw materials which China needs: copper, cobalt and nickel, as well as by toll revenues from the road and railway. In the face of reluctance by the international business community to invest in DRC, this represents a revitalisation of DRC's infrastructure much needed by its government.

The China Railway Seventh Group Co. Ltd will be in charge of the contract, under signed by the China Railway Engineering Corporation, with construction to be started from June 2008; the Democratic Republic of the Congo has fewer all-weather paved highways than any country of its population and size in Africa — a total of 2250 km, of which only 1226 km is in good condition. To put this in perspective, the road distance across the country in any direction is more than 2500 km; the figure of 2250 km converts to 35 km of paved road per 1,000,000 of population. Comparative figures for Zambia and Botswana are 721 3427 km respectively; the road network is theoretically divided into four categories, the United Nations Joint Logistics Centre reports that this classification is of little practical use because some roads do not exist. For example, National Road 9 can not be detected by remote sensing methods; the two principal highways are: National Road No. 1 connecting the Atlantic seaports with Kinshasa and southeast Katanga, the most important economic area of the country due to its copper and other mines.

National Road No. 2, Kisangani-Bukavu–Goma, connecting the principal waterway systems of t

Linares CF

Linares Club de Fútbol was a Spanish football club based in Linares, Jaén, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. Founded in 1960 it disappeared 30 years due to serious economic problems, held home matches at Estadio Municipal de Linarejos, with a 10,000-seat capacity. Founded in 1960, Linares reached the national leagues five years later, it would eventual play five seasons in the second division, four of those consecutive, never finishing higher than 12th. From 1965–67, the club competed under the name Santana Linares Club de Fútbol. After being relegated in the 1983–84 season, Linares played five out of its last six years in Segunda División B – created in 1977 as the new third level. Following the team's disappearance another club was founded in the city, CD Linares: in its 19 years of existence it appeared in seven seasons in the fourth division and eight in the third, before folding in 2009. 5 seasons in Segunda División 8 seasons in Segunda División B 11 seasons in Tercera División


Vinicunca, or Winikunka called Montaña de Siete Colores, Montaña de Colores or Rainbow Mountain, is a mountain in Peru with an altitude of 5,200 meters above sea level. Tourist access requires a two-hour drive from Cusco, a walk of about 5-kilometer or three-and-a-half-hour drive through Pitumarca and one-half-kilometre a steep walk to the hill; as of 2019, no robust methods of transportation to Vinicunca have been developed to accommodate travelers, as it requires passage through a valley. It is located on the road to the Ausangate mountain, in the Andes of Peru, in the Cusco Region, between the districts of Cusipata, province of Quispicanchi and the province of Canchis. In the middle of the 2010s, mass tourism became attracted by the mountains' series of stripes of various colors; this due to its mineralogical composition present on the summits. Leaving the city of Cusco, one can arrive to Vinicunca through the Longitudinal Race of the Peruvian Sierra del Sur in the direction of the town of Checacupe where we take the fork to the town of Pitumarca, from this town along a tricky trail passing through several rural communities such as Ocefina, Hanchipacha, until arriving at the community of Pampa Chiri.

The road ends, requiring one to start a 5-kilometer walk to the Vinincunca pass, where you can see the natural formation in the shape of a rainbow, considered the Mountain of Colors. The entrance to the Rainbow Mountain is made by a village of Pitumarca, two hours from the city of Cusco a walk on foot, by car or motorcycle on the slopes of the mountain and you can go up on horseback or on foot the rest of the way until you reach the Montaña de Colores. If you decide for a 45-minute hike instead of a 2-hour hike from Pitumarca you have to travel by car for an additional one-and-a-half-hour drive on a non-paved road through the mountains; the drive features view points where the valley can be seen, as well as llamas and alpacas being herded by the shepherds on the mountains. Travelers to Peru and locals agree that the best time of the year to visit the colorful site is in the month of August, since it is dry season and provides a beautiful view, maximizing the vivid colors of the mountains; the famous colors always look aesthetically beautiful.

Travelers are advised to try to avoid days following significant rainfall and much more in times when snow has fallen. In terms of fauna, travelers are able to view a wide variety of alpacas and other camelids in certain short-term seasons. According to the investigation of the Cultural Landscape Office of the Decentralization of the City of Cusco, the colorations of the mountain of the 7 colors are due to the mineralogical composition that it has: the pink color is for the red clay and arilitas; the whitish colouring is because of the quartzose and marls, rich in calcium carbonate. The red one made up of the clays belonging to the upper tertiary; the green is due to the compound of clays rich in ferro magnesian. The earthy brown is a product of fanglomerate composed of rock with magnesium belonging to the Quaternary era, and the mustard yellow color for the calcareous sandstones rich in sulphurous minerals. The mining approval process began on March 30, 2015 in Lima, when the mining exploration company Minquest Perú SAC, owned by the Canadian Camino Minerals Corporation, submitted a red beds mining petition to the Geological and Metallurgical Institute.

The petition included the territory of the districts of Cusipata and Pitumarca with an area of 400 hectares, covering the whole of the mountain, overlapping with the peasant communities of Chillihuani and Pampachiri. INGEMMET issued a warning that parts of this territory, including Vinicunca, should have been protected within the "Ausangate Regional Conservation Area." In 2009, the Regional Government of Cusco had proposed the creation of this protected area to Peru's National Service of Protected Natural Areas. However, SERNANP responded that the Ausangate Regional Conservation Area had never been created, since the proposal had not met the necessary requirements. Therefore, on March 16, 2018 with Presidential Resolution No. 042-2018-INGEMMET / PCD / PM INGEMMET, the title of metallic mining concession was granted. On May 21, 2018, following public protests, the company informed the Regional Government of Cusco of its renunciation of the concession; the National Chamber of Tourism expressed its deep concern over the management of Vinicunca, one of the most important components of Peru's new appeal to tourism.

In November 2018, Peru's President Martín Vizcarra issued a decree enforcing a 12-month ban on all mining activity in the area. The Regional Government stated its expectation that within that time frame, the Ministry of Energy and Mines would permanently register the region as a protected conservation area. Apu Ausangate Mineral industry of Peru Tourism in Peru Geology of the colors

Thomas Tien Ken-sin

Thomas Tien Ken-sin, SVD was a Chinese Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and chair of Fu Jen Catholic University. He served as Archbishop of Peking from 1946 until his death, was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII. For centuries, access to the people of China was difficult for the Catholic Church, because as a Church, she did not recognize local Confucian customs of honouring deceased family members. To the Chinese, this was an ancient ritual, to the Holy See, it was a religious exercise, which conflicted with Catholic dogma; as a result of this and its foreign origin, the Church encountered much resistance in China. Within month of his election, Pope Pius XII issued a dramatic change in policies. On December 8, 1939, the Sacred Congregation of the Propagation of Faith issued at his request new instruction by which Chinese customs were considered not superstitious, but an honourable way of showing esteem for one's relatives and therefore permitted by Catholic Christians.

The Government of the Republic of China established diplomatic relations with the Holy See in 1943, within a short interval. The Papal degree changed the ecclesiastical situation in China in an revolutionary way; as the Church began to flourish, Pius elevated China's status within the Church, established a local ecclesiastical hierarchy, received the Archbishop of Peking, Thomas Tien Ken-sin SVD, into the College of Cardinals. After the Second World War, an estimated four million Chinese professed the Catholic faith. By 1948, the Catholic Church operated some 254 orphanages and 196 hospitals with 81,628 beds, carrying out a great deal of pastoral work throughout China. While Catholics represented less than one percent of the population, they had increased dramatically. In 1949, there were in mainland China: 20 archdioceses, 85 dioceses 39 apostolic prefectures 3080 missionaries 2557 Chinese priests The establishment of Mao Zedong's communist regime in 1949 put these early advances on hold and led to the persecution of thousands of clergy and faithful in China.

The losses in the following years were considerable. Some of the Catholic hierarchy, including the archbishops of Nanking and Peking, left the mainland and made their way to Taiwan. In 1951, the Papal Nuncio, Archbishop Riberi, was expelled, as were many foreign missionaries, who were accused of acting as agents of imperialist forces. Hundreds more Catholic clergy experienced increased supervision, frequent arrests and torture, Catholic laypeople were under tremendous pressure to renounce their faith; the Holy See reacted with several encyclicals and apostolic letters, Cupimus Imprimis, Ad Apostolorum principis, Ad Sinarum gentem. In 1957, a schismatic Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association, which does not recognize papal authority, was formed by the Chinese Communist Party. Bishops and priests who refused to join the Patriotic Association were imprisoned, forced to engage in degrading and exhaustive manual labor, many were martyred in captivity. Thomas Tien Ken-sin was born in Yanggu, to Kilian Tien Ken-sin and his wife Maria Yang.

Baptized in 1901, he studied at the seminary in Yenchowfu before being ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Augustin Henninghaus, on June 9, 1918. Tien did pastoral work in the Yangku Mission until 1939, he entered the Society of the Divine Word on March 8, 1929 in the Netherlands, taking his first vows on February 2, 1931 and his final ones on March 7, 1935. He was raised to Apostolic Prefect of Yangku on February 2, 1934. On July 11, 1939, Tien was appointed Titular Bishop of Ruspae, he received his episcopal consecration on the following October 29 from Pope Pius XII himself, with Archbishops Celso Constantini and Henri Streicher, MAfr, serving as co-consecrators. Tien was made Apostolic Vicar of Qingdao on November 10, 1942, he was elevated to Cardinal Priest of Santa Maria in Via by Pope Pius XII in the consistory of February 18, 1946. Tien, the first cardinal from China, was named, on April 11 of that same year, the first Archbishop of Beijing in post Yuan Dynasty China. In 1951 he was exiled from China by the Communist regime, spent this time in Illinois in the United States, to where he came that year for treatment of a heart ailment.

He was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 1958 papal conclave, which selected Pope John XXIII, was Apostolic Administrator of Taipei from December 16, 1959 to 1966. From 1962 to 1965, he attended the Second Vatican Council, voted in the 1963 papal conclave, which selected Pope Paul VI. Tien died in Taipei, at age 76, he is buried in the metropolitan cathedral of that same city. He promoted devotion to Our Lady of China. Tien was the first Cardinal from the Society of the Divine Word; the Holy See has not recognized any of CPCA-approved successors of Tien as Archbishop of Peking, though in his 2007 letter to the faithful in China, Pope Benedict XVI expressed an openness to dialogue with the CPCA-appointed "bishops." SVD Hagiography Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Catholic-Hierarchy Tien's Appointment to Taipei

ItapĂșa Department

Itapúa is a department in the southern region of Paraguay. The capital is the city of Encarnación, it is divided into 30 districts. This department was created after the breakup of the Misiones Department, with the city of Encarnación as the capital, it had a high economic growth in the first 30 years by the coming of immigrants and the Carlos Antonio Lopez Railway, the growth was accompanied with several ups and downs. Came an era of decline until the 50s when the Carnaval Encarnaceno became known and attracted tourists from various regions. In the 80s the department became more industrial, but modestly, compared with other departments like Central Department. In 1989 the Yacyretá Dam displaced the people living in the Yacyretá Reservoir, which still continues; the San Roque González de Santa Cruz Bridge was inaugurated in 1991, connecting not only the city of Encarnación and Posadas, but Paraguay with Argentina. The name is in Guaraní and refers to the place where Encarnación, the current capital city, was founded.

The site was known as "itá" and "punta". According to the 2002 National Census Itapúa has a total population of 453,692 inhabitants making it the third most populated department of the country after Central and Alto Paraná, 8,9% of Paraguay's total population lives in this department. Much of the Itapúa region was colonized by immigrants from different origins, among them are the Italians, Russians, French, Japanese and recent time there were immigrants from Syria and Lebanon; because of this cultural diversity Itapúa was given the name "Melting pot", making it the most cosmopolitan department of Paraguay. In the beginning, the first economic sector of the immigrants was the exploitation of natural resources timber, in the Alto Paraná and San Rafael Hills, now a national park, but now they hold several thriving industries, they engaged in agriculture and livestock. The department is divided into the following 30 districts: This department is located southeast of the Eastern Region of Paraguay.

North: the departments of Alto Paraná and Caazapá. South: with Argentina. Separated by the Paraná River. East: the Argentine Republic. West: with the Misiones Department; the climate is humid subtropical with a tendency to low temperatures, the annual average is 15°C, with a maximum of 40°C and a minimum of -3°C. Rainfall is abundant, with an annual average of nearly 1,700 mm, recorded throughout most of the year except in July and August. List of high schools in Itapúa

McLaren F1 LM

The McLaren F1 LM is a track oriented edition of the McLaren F1 built to honour the five McLaren F1 GTRs that competed and finished the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans in first, fourth and thirteenth places overall. The LM is based on the McLaren F1 GTR and built on the standard F1 chassis, with modifications necessary for the modified GTR to be a road legal car—but without the engine intake restrictions that racing regulations impose on the GTR racing car. In late 1995, McLaren built five F1 LMs in honour of the five McLaren F1 GTR's that finished the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans and took the overall win. McLaren designed the standard F1 as an ultimate road car, in the sense that it strives to be comfortable and usable in everyday conditions despite being a potent sports car. However, the LM edition is a lower and stiffer, track-oriented vehicle, with a stripped down, bare interior, solid aluminium bushings in place of the rubber bushings in the suspension system and without the Ground Plane Shear Centre system on the standard F1.

Of the production run of six, five F1 LMs were sold and the sixth, the Papaya orange prototype F1 LM, XP1 LM, was retained by Mclaren and used as the platform for the continued development of the F1 chassis. This car worth $25 million, was promised by McLaren CEO Ron Dennis to his driver Lewis Hamilton if he should win two Formula One World Championship titles. Subsequently however, Lewis Hamilton left McLaren with his single World Championship title to drive for the rival Mercedes Formula 1 team in 2013 and the car still remains in possession of McLaren; the F1 LMs can be identified by their Papaya orange paint. The F1 LM's were painted in this colour in memory and tribute to Bruce McLaren, whose race colour was Papaya orange, it has been discovered however, that contrary to the official word from McLaren at the time, only four of the LMs were painted'Papaya' orange, with two of the three delivered to The Sultan of Brunei being painted black with graphics. In addition, two standard F1s were upgraded to "LM specification".

These were serial number 073 and 018. The engines were upgraded to 680 HP unrestricted GTR specification and had the Extra High Downforce Kit added to them, their interiors were made more comfortable over the F1 LM. Car serial number 018 had upgrades to the air conditioning units, the headlamps changed to a gas discharge type and the steering wheel changed to 14 inch unit. Moreover, race spec dampers and springs set to the softest settings for comfortable road use was added. 18 inch GTR wheels were used instead of the standard 17 inch and the tires were Michelin Sport. The weight was reduced by 60 kg over that of original, through the removal of various pieces of trim and use of optional equipment, i.a. no interior noise suppression, no audio system, a stripped down base interior, no fan assisted ground effect and no dynamic rear wing—giving the McLaren F1 LM a total mass of 1,062 kg. The F1 LM used the same engine as the 1995 F1 GTR without the race-mandated restrictors; the engine produces 680 bhp at 7,800 rpm.

It has a peak torque of 705 N⋅m at 4,500 rpm. The total weight and horsepower of the car gives it a weight to power ratio of 3.4 lb/hp. The aerodynamics of the LM is directly derived from the GTR race car; the bodywork of the vehicle has the addition of a larger cooling duct at the nose of the machine and cooling ducts on either side of the car for the brakes where the storage lockers are seen on the standard F1. In the place of the small dynamic rear wing seen on the regular F1 there is a larger, adjustable CFRP rear wing mounted on the back of the vehicle, it has a CFRP splitter at the front, side skirts and extensions for the wheel arches to increase downforce and thus give the car more grip; the car features the diffuser from the GTR race car. The McLaren F1 LM uses Michelin SX-MXX3 tyres and features specially-designed 18-inch magnesium alloy wheels; the tyres at the front are 275/35 ZR 18, while at the rear 345/35 ZR 18. The front wheels are 10.85 x 18 inches and at the rear 13.00 x 18 inches.

The carbon ceramic brakes on the GTR are not present on the LM, the front and rear callipers on the brakes are four-pot monobloc light alloy calliper, ventilated using the GTR95 Brake Cooling System. The LM has an upgraded gearbox with gun drilled driveshaft from the Le Mans specifications, tripod CV joint and straight cut gears, although the gear ratios are identical to the standard F1, i.e. 3.23:1, 2.19:1, 1.71:1, 1.39:1, 1.16:1, 0.93:1, with a final drive of 2.37:1. The magnesium casing for the gearbox that first appeared in the 1996 GTR is not in the LM; the clutch of the LM is a hydraulic remote actuation triple plate carbon/carbon clutch, the clutch is 200 mm in diameter. The McLaren F1 LM has a fuel tank capacity of 90 l; the F1 LM is considered the fastest incarnation of the McLaren F1 road cars through the gears and in overall track performance. It has a tested 0-60 mph time of 3.9 seconds due to wheelspin at the start, 0-100 mph in 6.7 seconds and was once the holder of many world records, including the 0-100-0 mph record it completed in 11.5 seconds when driven by Andy Wallace at the disused airbase RAF Alconbury in Cambridgeshire.

0–60 mph: 3.9 seconds 0–100 mph: 6.7 seconds 225 mph, less than the standard version due to added aerodynamic drag