Rail transport in Mexico
Mexico has a freight railway system owned by the national government and operated by various entities under concessions granted by the national government. The railway system provides freight and passenger service throughout the country, connecting major industrial centers with ports and with rail connections at the United States border. Passenger rail services were limited to a number of tourist trains between 1997, when Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México suspended service, 2008, when Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana de México inaugurated Mexico's first commuter rail service between Mexico City and the State of Mexico; this is not including the Mexico City Metro, which started service in 1969. Mexico's rail history began in 1837, with the granting of a concession for a railroad to be built between Veracruz, on the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico City. However, no railroad was built under that concession. In 1857, Don Antonio Escandón secured the right to build a line from the port of Veracruz to Mexico City and on to the Pacific Ocean.
Revolution and political instability stifled progress on the financing or construction of the line until 1864, under the regime of Emperor Maximilian, the Imperial Mexican Railway Company began construction of the line. Political upheaval continued to stifle progress, the initial segment from Veracruz to Mexico City was inaugurated nine years on January 1, 1873 by President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. President Lerdo and his successor Porfirio Díaz encouraged further rail development through generous concessions that included government subsidies for construction. At the beginning of his first term Díaz inherited 398 miles of railroads consisting exclusively of the British-owned Mexican Railway. By the end of his second term in 1910, Mexico boasted 15,360 miles of in-service track built by American and French investors. Growing nationalistic fervor in Mexico led the Díaz administration to bring the bulk of the nation's railroads under national control through a plan drafted by his Minister of Finance, José Yves Limantour.
The plan, implemented in 1909, created a new government corporation, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México, which would exercise control of the main trunk rail lines through a majority of share ownership. The rail system deteriorated from neglect during the period of the Mexican Revolution. Following the Revolution, the entirety of the Mexican rail system was nationalized between 1929 and 1937. In 1987 the government merged its five regional railroads into FNM. During the period of national ownership, FNM suffered significant financial difficulties, running an operating deficit of $552 million in 1991. Competition from trucking and shipping decreased railroad's share of the total freight market to about 9 percent, or about half of rail's share a decade earlier. In 1995, the Mexican government announced that the FNM would be privatized and divided into four main systems; as part of the restructuring for privatization, FNM suspended passenger rail service in 1997. In 1996, Kansas City Southern, in a joint venture with Transportacion Maritima Mexicana, bought the Northeast Railroad concession that linked Mexico City, the Pacific port at Lázaro Cárdenas and the border crossing at Laredo.
The company was called Transportación Ferroviaria Mexicana, but was renamed Kansas City Southern de México in 2005 when KCS bought out TMM's interests. KCS's systems in the United States and Mexico jointly form end-to-end rail system linking the heartlands of Mexico and the United States; the Northwest Railroad concession, connecting Mexico City and Guadalajara with the Pacific port of Manzanillo and various crossings along the United States border was sold to a joint venture between Grupo Mexico and Union Pacific Railroad in 1998 during the presidency of Dr. Ernesto Zedillo; the company operates as Ferrocarril Ferromex. Ferromex's freight volumes have increased. Ferrosur, the railroad serving Mexico City and cities/ports southeast of Mexico City, hauled their own record 3,565 million tonne-kilometers. There were two southern concessions, merged in 2000 to form Ferrosur. Ferrosur operates the Gulf of Mexico port of Veracruz. In 2005, Ferrosur was bought by Ferromex's parent company. KCSM challenged the merger failed to receive regulatory approval.
However, in March 2011, a tribunal ruled in Grupo Mexico's favor, the merger was permitted. The three major Mexican railroads jointly own Ferrocarril y Terminal del Valle de México which operates railroads and terminals in and around Mexico City; the Secretariat of Communications and Transport of Mexico proposed a high-speed rail link that will transport its passengers from Mexico City to Guadalajara, with stops in the cities of Querétaro, Guanajuato and Irapuato. The train would travel at 300 km/h, would allow passengers to travel from Mexico City to Guadalajara in just 2 hours at an affordable price; the network would be connected to Monterrey, Cuernavaca, Puebla, Hermosillo, Veracruz, Colima, Torreon, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Mexicali and Acapulco by 2015. The whole project was projected to cost about 25 billion dollars. Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim expressed an interest in investing in high-sp
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México, was Mexico's state owned railroad company from 1938 to 1998, prior to 1938 a major railroad controlled by the government that linked Mexico City to the major cities of Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juárez on the U. S. border. The first trains to Nuevo Laredo from Mexico City began operating in 1903. N de M absorbed the Mexican Central Railroad in 1909, thus acquiring a second border gateway at Ciudad Juárez; the N de M was nationalized by President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río in 1938, privatized 60 years by President Ernesto Zedillo. N de M operated most railway trackage through the northeastern regions of the republic; the Ferrocarril del Pacífico and the Ferrocarril Chihuahua al Pacífico operated railroads in the northwest. In 1995, the Mexican government announced that the FNM would be privatized and divided into four main systems; as part of the restructuring for privatization, FNM suspended passenger rail service in 1997, the new arrangements applied from 1998. The companies were Kansas City Southern de Mexico, Ferromex and Ferrocarril y Terminal del Valle de México or Ferrovalle which operates railroads and terminals in and around Mexico City.
It was until June 4, 2001 during Vicente Fox Presidency, where FNM was extinguished, after a publication in Mexican Official's Gazette. FNM juridic representation will be kept; as of 2006, the remaining parts of NdeM are in the process of liquidation. During the days of steam locomotives, N de M was best known for operating Niágara class locomotives, which took their name from the New York Central Railroad locomotives of the same wheel configuration, it was the home of several 3 ft narrow gauge systems that used steam, both nationally and regionally. N de M was one of the few railroads outside the US to purchase new diesel locomotives from Baldwin Locomotive Works: the only three "Baldwin E-units" built, the DR-12-8-1500/2 "Centipede" and the AS-616. Two of the three 0660 1000/2 DE locomotives had been on major railroads in the United States on a demonstration tour in 1945. N de M bought them and ordered a third in 1946. All three broke down and were retired soon after their factory warranties expired.
They do not appear on the 1950 N de M locomotive roster, sat for years in the scrapyard at San Luis Potosí. Notes in the FNM archives in Puebla, Mexico describe how one of these locomotives had a wheel disintegrate at high speed, how the Centipede locomotives were delivered in 1948 with parts missing. In Acámbaro, Guanajuato, N de M operated one of the few facilities in Latin America, capable of constructing and doing complete rebuilds of steam locomotives, thus with rare exceptions, most of N de M steam motive power was purchased used and rebuilt there. Portions of the facility and a preserved 2-8-0 steam locomotive remain as part of Acambaro's municipal railway museum. Named trains bore names related to the destination, for example, El Purépecha referred to the Purépecha peoples of western Michoacán. Águila Azteca - Mexico City - Monterrey - Nuevo Laredo, with the addition name, the Texas Eagle for continued service to San Antonio and St. Louis El Azteca - Mexico City - El Paso, Texas La Estrella del Sur - Mexico City - Puebla - Oaxaca El Regiomontano - Mexico City - Monterrey - Nuevo Laredo El Fronterizo - El Paso, Texas - Ciudad Juárez - Chihuahua - Mexico City.
The Águila Azteca/Texas Eagle service was in conjunction with the Missouri Pacific railroad, with Amtrak. Besides connections in Ciudad Juarez and Nuevo Laredo, there were connections to trains in the United States in Guadlajara, Piedras Negras and Matamoros. There were connections to Guatemala in Ciudad Hidalgo. Other passenger service was provided between Mexico City and: Cuernavaca, Morelos. Photos of Buenavista prominently feature a pyramid-like tower, the Torre Insignia; the building housed the headquarters of Banobras, but is unoccupied and it has been renovated. A preserved Niagara steam locomotive and GE boxcab can be viewed at the Museum of Electricity at Chapultepec, Mexico City. Many more preserved Mexican steam and electric locomotives can be viewed at the FNM museum in Puebla, Mexico. In 1999, sound artist and musician Chris Watson worked as an audio recorder for the BBC riding the "Ghost Train" in the fourth episode of the fourth season of the television documentary series Great Railway Journeys.
Having spent between five weeks and a month on the journey, Watson used to the field recordings for his 2011 album El Tren Fantasma. In 2016, a fictional character named Carlos introduced in the Thomas & Friends movie The Great Race was based the preserved ex-Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México 2-8-0 steam locomotive No.903. List of Mexican railroads
Cabinet of Mexico
The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. It consists of nineteen Secretaries of State, the head of the federal executive legal office and the Attorney General. In addition to the legal Executive Cabinet there are other Cabinet-level administration offices that report directly to the President of the Republic. Officials from the legal and extended Cabinet are subordinate to the President; the term "Cabinet" does not appear in the Constitution, where reference is made only to the Secretaries of State. Article 89 of the Constitution provides that the President of Mexico can assign and remove Secretaries of State. Article 26 of the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration creates the several cabinet secretariats, the Organic Law of the Attorney General's Office creates the office of the Attorney General; the Executive Cabinet does not play a collective executive role. The main interaction that Cabinet members have with the legislative branch are regular testimonials before Congressional committees to justify their actions, coordinate executive and legislative policy in their respective fields of jurisdiction.
The Executive Cabinet members are nominated by the President and they must be approved by the Senate. Cabinet Secretaries are selected from past and current governors and other political office holders. Private citizens such as businessmen or former military officials are common Cabinet choices, it is not rare for a Secretary to be moved from one Secretariat to another. For example, former Secretary of Energy Fernando Canales Clariond had served as Secretary of Economy and former Secretary of Education Josefina Vázquez Mota had served as Secretary of Social Development; some positions are not part of the legal Executive Cabinet, but have cabinet-level rank therefore their incumbents are considered members of the extended cabinet. Some of the cabinet-level administration offices are: Executive Cabinet CIA: Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Mexico
Manzanillo is a city, seat of Manzanillo Municipality, in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port, responsible for handling Pacific cargo for the Mexico City area, it is the largest producing municipality for the business tourism in the state of Colima. The city is known as the "sailfish capital of the world". Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo has become one of the country's most important tourist resorts, its excellent hotels and restaurants continue to meet the demands of both national and international tourism. 16th centuryIn 1522, Gonzalo de Sandoval, under orders from conquistador Hernan Cortes, dropped anchor in the Bay of Salagua, looking for safe harbors and good shipbuilding sites. In the year before he left, Sandoval granted an audience to local Indian chieftains in a small cove, which today carries the name Playa de La Audiencia.
A great part of his fleet, which left to conquer the Philippines, was constructed in Salagua. Manzanillo Bay was discovered in 1527 by navigator Alvaro de Saavedra, naming it Santiago de la Buena Esperanza, or Santiago's Bay of Good Hope. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, it became a departure point for important expeditions. Cortes visited the bay twice to protect his galleons from Portuguese pirates. Over the next 300 years, the Pacific Coast’s history is filled with accounts of pirates from Portugal, England and Spain assaulting and burning ships for their rich cargos. 19th centuryIn 1825 the Port of Manzanillo opened, in independent Mexico, so named because of the abundant groves of native Manzanilla trees that were used extensively in the early days of shipbuilding. Manzanillo was raised to the status of a city on 15 June 1873; the railroad to Colima was completed in 1889. 20th centuryIn 1908, President Porfirio Diaz designated Manzanillo as an official port of entry to Mexico.
It was the state capital of Colima from 20 February to 1 March 1915, while Pancho Villa’s troops were threatening to capture the city of Colima. In the 2005 census, the city of Manzanillo had a population of 110,728 and in 2010 its municipality had 161,420, it is the second-largest community in the state, after the capital. The municipality covers an area of 1,578.4 km2, includes such outlying communities as El Colomo, in addition to many smaller communities. Manzanillo is a beach resort, is one of many locations to promote themselves as the "sailfish capital" of the world.. One way they promote; the Revillagigedo Islands, off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean, are part of the municipality, but they are directly administered by the federal government. Manzanillo is a sister city of the U. S. cities of Flagstaff, Arizona. The city is well known internationally for deep-sea fishing and the green flash phenomenon during sunsets, as well as the warm waters of the ocean; the city is a destination resort and has many hotels and self-contained resorts built on the De Santiago peninsula which juts out into the Pacific north of the city centre.
At the north end of Manzanillo bay is the resort Las Hadas, the most famous of the city's resorts, having been featured in the movie 10 starring Bo Derek and Dudley Moore. Beach scenes were filmed on La Audencia Bay, just over the hill from Las Hadas. Manzanillo is a popular cruise ship port of call. Many tourists go from their cruise ships on city tours. Excellent swimming and scuba diving is found in Santiago Bay, a few miles north of the city where a cargo ship sank in a hurricane in 1959. Other wrecks and reefs plentiful with fish are scattered throughout the bay. Manzanillo is known as the Sailfish Capital of the World. Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo consists of two bays with crescent-shaped beaches, each about 4 miles in length. Bahía de Manzanillo is the older tourist section. Bahía de Santiago, to the west, is the more upscale area; the two are separated by the Santiago Peninsula.
Ship channels are located at the southeast end of Bahía de Manzanillo where large cruise ships enter the port area. Manzanillo was once the scene of adventure. By 2011, its peaceful bays and sophisticated tourist and port infrastructure had made it one of the main tourist resorts and trading centers in the west of Mexico. On 6 July 2010, the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation opened a specialized dock for cruise ships at the port, which involved an investment of $100 million pesos in the first stage. A second phase foresees the construction of a shopping centre. Manzanillo has a tropical savanna climate; the dry season, from November to May, has low amounts of precipitation, temperatures tend to be cooler than in the wet season. The average temperature in March, the coolest month, is 24 °C; the wet season, which runs from June to October, has warmer temperatures, averaging 28.3 °C in July, humidity during this time is higher. In 2012, the port of Manzanillo initiated an ecological project consisting of dredged canals and creating islands in the Lagoon of the Valle de las Garzas, a protected wildlife area.
With this work, the port pla
Transportes Aeromar, S. A. de C. V, doing business as Aeromar, is a Mexican airline that operates scheduled domestic services in Mexico and international services to the United States, its main base is Mexico City International Airport. The airline was established on 29 January 1987 and started operations on 5 November 1987 as Transportes Aeromar, it is owned by Grupo Aeromar and had 864 employees in July 2010. On April 1, 2010, Aeromar signed a commercial alliance with Continental Airlines. Aeromar announced it would lease two Bombardier CRJ200 regional jets; these twin jet aircraft were subsequently removed from the airline's fleet. On August 30, 2010, Aeromar and Continental Airlines announced a frequent flyer partnership that allowed each carrier's passengers to earn and redeem miles on either airline. In addition, Continental international first- and business class passengers, Presidents Club members and Star Alliance Gold customers were able to access Aeromar's Salon Diamante lounge in Mexico City at that time.
When Continental Airlines merged into United Airlines, the codeshare agreement was transferred over to United. As of 2018, Avianca has been trying to acquire or merge with Aeromar to become "Avianca Mexico". Aeromar participates in the United Airlines MileagePlus program, despite not being owned by United's corporate parent, United Continental Holdings, or being a member of Star Alliance, of which United is a member. Salon Diamante is Aeromar's private airport lounge. On February 1, 2011, Aeromar and Continental Airlines implemented codesharing on all routes at Aeromar's hub in Mexico City International Airport. Aeromar started operating additional domestic services such as flights to Durango, Matamoros and Piedras Negras; the only international destination served by the airline is McAllen, Texas although Aeromar served Austin and San Antonio, Texas. When Continental Airlines merged into United Airlines, the codeshare agreement was transferred over to United; as of January 2019 the Aeromar fleet consists of the following ATR aircraft: In early 2015, Aeromar decided to remove its Bombardier CRJ200 regional jet aircraft from operations.
The airline supplemented its fleet of fifteen ATR 42 turboprops with two new larger ATR 72-600 aircraft. In November 2016, the airline ordered eight new ATR 42 and ATR 72 aircraft and optioned another six ATR 72s. Aeromar operated the following aircraft: 3 Bombardier CRJ200ER Aeromar Aeromar Aeromar Cargo, Fastpaq "Making Waves." Flight International. 6–12 March 1996. Page 31
Cancún International Airport
Cancún International Airport is located in Cancún, Quintana Roo, on the Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. It is Latin America's fourth and Mexico's second busiest airport, after Mexico City International Airport. In 2018, Cancún airport handled 25,202,016 passengers, a 6.8% increase compared to 2017. It has two parallel operative runways; the airport was opened in 1974. The airport is operated by Grupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, it is a focus city for Aeroméxico, VivaAerobus and Volaris, offers flights to over 20 destinations in Mexico and to over 30 countries in North, South America and Europe. The airport has been expanding as it has become the second busiest point of entry by air to the country, after Mexico City International Airport. In 2005, ASUR invested US$150 million for the construction of Terminal 3, inaugurated in 2007, a new runway and a new control tower opened in October 2009; the new 2,800 meters long, 45 meters wide runway was built to the north of the current one.
Terminal 2 was expanded in 2014. A 76,000 m2 expansion in Terminal 3 was carried out, adding six gates and commercial areas, it was formally opened in March 2016; the expansion should contribute to increase annual capacity to 10 million from the existing 6 million. Terminal 4 was opened at the end of October 2017, much to the excitement from the local politicians as well as vacationers who were growing impatient with an overcrowded airport; the airport has four terminals, all of which are in use. Terminal 1 has 7 gates: 1-7A. After suffering damage by Hurricane Wilma, it was temporarily closed for remodeling in order to accommodate charter airlines operating into the airport, it re-opened in November 2013 to charter flights. Terminal 2 has 22 gates: A1-A11 and B12-B22. Most domestic airlines depart from here, along with all international flights to Central and South America and a few long-haul flights to Europe. There is a bank and food outlets in the check-in area, along with several restaurants and shops in the boarding area and immigration/customs services.
A VIP airport lounge operated by Global Lounge Network serves international travelers. Terminal 3 has 21 gates: C4-C24, it has been expanded. Most US carriers as well as some Canadian and European carriers use this terminal, it offers cafés and restaurants, as well as immigration/customs services. Terminal 4 has 12 gates and opened in October 2017; the terminal is able to handle 9 million passengers a year. Airlines flying to terminal 4 include Aeroméxico, Air France, Air Transat, WestJet, Southwest Airlines, Thomas Cook Airlines, Air Europa, Frontier Airlines and Sun Country Airlines. An on site hotel is planned to be opened around the same time frame as well as a parking structure; the addition of terminal 4 made Cancun International the first airport in Mexico to have four terminals. Notes^1 Turkish Airlines's flight from Istanbul to Cancún makes a stop in Mexico City, however the airline doesn't have local traffic rights from Mexico City to Cancún. Note On March 15, 1984, Aerocozumel Flight 261 crashed soon after takeoff.
No one died in crash but, one of the passengers died of a heart attack while moving through the swamp. On September 9, 2009, hijacked Aeroméxico Flight 576 landed at Mexico City International Airport from Cancun International Airport. On January 19, 2010, a Mexicana Airbus A318, flight MX-368 from Cancun to Mexico City, with 45 passengers suffered a mishap at takeoff. Both the outboard and inboard core cowling of the left hand engine separated, hitting the fuselage and the semi-left wing leaving residues on the runway. 2011 - Best Airport in Latin America - Caribbean of the Airport Service Quality Awards by Airports Council International and 2nd Best Airport by Size in the 5 to 15 million passenger category. List of the busiest airports in Mexico List of the busiest airports in Latin America Media related to Cancun Airport at Wikimedia Commons Cancun Airport Airport information for MMUN at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for MMUN at Great Circle Mapper.
Source: DAFIF. Current weather for MMUN at NOAA/NWS Accident history for CUN at Aviation Safety Network Cancun airport travel data at Airportsdata.net
Mexicana de Aviación
Compañía Mexicana de Aviación, S. A. de C. V. was Mexico's oldest airline and one of the oldest continuously single-branded airlines, Mexico's biggest and flagship airline before ceasing operations on August 28, 2010. The group's closure was announced by the company's installed management team a short time after the group filed for Concurso Mercantil and US Chapter 15. On April 4, 2014, a judge declared Mexicana bankrupt and ordered to start selling off the company's assets to repay the airline's obligations; the headquarters of the company were in the Mexicana de Aviación Tower in Colonia del Valle, Benito Juárez, Mexico City. In addition to domestic services, Mexicana operated flights to various international destinations in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Europe, their primary hub was Mexico City's Benito Juarez International Airport, with secondary hubs at Cancún International Airport, Guadalajara's Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport. Mexicana's main competitors were Aeroméxico, low-cost carriers such as Volaris and Interjet.
Mexicana was North America's oldest airline and the world's fourth oldest airline operating under the same name, after the Netherlands's KLM, Colombia's Avianca and Australia's Qantas. In 2009, the Mexicana group of airlines carried just over 11 million passengers, using a fleet of some 110 aircraft. Over the three years prior to folding, the Mexicana group had increased their share of what was a burgeoning domestic market, from around 22% at the beginning of 2007 to somewhere between 28% and 30% for most of their final 12 months; this was achieved through downsizing mainline Mexicana operations whilst ramping up activities at Mexicana Click and Mexicana Link. After first joining Star Alliance in 2000, Mexicana left the alliance in 2004 before joining Oneworld on November 10, 2009. Mexicana entered bankruptcy protection in August 2010 in an attempt to restructure its business operations. On August 27, 2010, Mexicana announced it would suspend operations indefinitely effective noon August 28, 2010.
Its subsidiaries Click and Link have since ceased their operations as well. On February 24, 2012, Mexicana Airlines announced for the first time in this Chapter 11 period that Med Atlantic bought the airline for $300 million. Formations: 1920s William Lantie Mallory and George Rihl headed Compañía Mexicana de Aviación, a competitor to CMTA. In 1925 Sherman Fairchild purchased a 20% stake in the Mexican airline, introducing Fairchild FC2 airplanes in 1928. In February 1929, Juan Trippe of Pan Am took over the majority of the airline's stock, the company opened its first international route, with service to the United States. Mexicana used the Ford Trimotor plane to operate the Mexico City-Tuxpan-Tampico-Brownsville, Texas, USA, route. Charles Lindbergh piloted the first flight on this route; the 1930s saw route service improvements. Mexicana opened a route from Brownsville to Guatemala City, stopping over at Veracruz, Minatitlán, Ixtepec and Tapachula. In addition, new routes were opened to El Salvador, Costa Rica and Cuba, in addition to Nicaragua and Panama, made possible by their association with Pan Am via Pan Am's Miami base Mexicana became the first foreign airline to fly to Los Angeles, when it began flights on January 3, 1936.
The company expanded its fleet during that decade, with the addition of eight Fairchild FC2s and three Fokker F.10s. One of the Fokker F.10's, tail number X-ABCR, crashed at Miami on August 7, 1931 but no other details are available. The 1940s were a period of domestic growth, although an international service began linking Mexico City and Havana. Routes were opened to Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo, Mérida. Additionally, a night flight to Los Angeles was established, which added to the company's night-time service to Mérida. Though Mexicana used Douglas DC-2s for these flights, over time they were replaced by larger aircraft, such as the Douglas DC-3s – known as El Palacio Aéreo for their luxury and comfort – and Douglas DC-4s; the DC-4 allowed Mexicana to offer a non-stop service from Mexico City to Los Angeles. During the decade, Mexicana established a certified pilots' school in Mexico City; the 1950s saw the airline's growth slow, though the fleet was modernized with the addition of Douglas DC-6s, staff training improved with the opening of a flight attendant school.
The DC-6s were put to work on the Mexico City to Mexico City to Oaxaca routes. Service to San Antonio, Texas began in the decade. In the 1960s four De Havilland Comet 4C jets were bought: one is being restored by the Seattle Museum of Flight; the Comets' arrival saw Mexicana join the jet age on July 4, 1960 with a flight from Mexico City to Los Angeles. Despite its use of advanced aircraft, competition was stiff, by the late 1960s, the company faced bankruptcy. Amid the difficulties, the airline received its first Boeing 727-100. In 1967, the airline was serving six destinations in the U. S. including Corpus Christi and San Antonio in Texas as well as Chicago, Los Angeles and Miami, was flying internationally to Havana and Kingston and Montego Bay in Jamaica. The financial situation bro