South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
U.S. Route 169
U. S. Route 169 runs for 966 miles from the city of Virginia, Minnesota to Tulsa, Oklahoma at Memorial Drive. U. S. Highway 169 is a major south–north highway spanning 75.1 miles in Oklahoma. The southern terminus for US-169 is Memorial Drive; the highway connects Tulsa, Oklahoma to the south with the Kansas state border to the north at South Coffeyville, Oklahoma. US-169 travels through Tulsa and Nowata counties. US-169 has undergone several widening projects that have brought US-169 to freeway and expressway standards; the highway is two lanes between Talala and South Coffeyville except for a short four lane portion north of Nowata and ending at State Highway 28. An Alternate US-169 passes through Nowata following the original path of US-169; the alternate route begins at the intersection of Choctaw Avenue and reconnects with US-169 south of Nowata at its intersection with Maple Street. In January 2005, Oklahoma Department of Transportation began a $16.8 million widening project on a mile-long stretch of US-169 from Interstate 244 to Interstate 44.
The project widened the highway from four to six lanes. The project was completed in April 2006; this stretch of US-169 is traveled by 106,000 vehicles per day. US-169 enters the state at Coffeyville as a four-lane road, is a four-lane highway for about 8.8 miles till the edge of the Coffeyville Industrial Park. A segment between Chanute and Iola is a freeway with controlled access with center concrete barrier, with two lanes in each direction. US-169 runs concurrently with US-59 and K-31 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges northeast again south of Garnett; the intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with Stop and Yield signs. It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006; the Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety. In Garnett, 6th Avenue (from US-169 to US-59 is known as Business US 169.
Going south, it veers off from US-169 about a mile and a half north of the US-169/US-59/K-31 roundabout intersection and travels west and south on 6th Avenue from US-169 to US-59/K-31 before turning south onto US-59/K-31 and running concurrent with them, ending at the US-169/US-59/K-31 roundabout intersection. At Osawatomie the road becomes a full freeway. In southern Johnson County 169 becomes an expressway until its junction with Interstate 35 in Olathe. From this point to the Missouri state line, US-169 alternates between freeways and surface streets, it follows Interstate 35 to Shawnee Mission Parkway in Overland Park travels east to Rainbow Blvd. US-169 follows surface streets to its junction with Interstate 70 near downtown Kansas City. US-169 and I-70 enter Missouri together just after crossing the Kansas River. US 169 exits Interstate 70 shortly after both roads enter Missouri via the Clark Viaduct, it serves Kansas City Downtown Airport. Northbound, US 169 becomes a freeway at 5th St south of the Missouri River, however southbound it ceases being a freeway north of the airport.
An at grade private driveway exists just south of the intersection with Route 9 as well as for airport access. At the northern end of the city an intersection is being reconstructed at NE 108th street with completion in November 2013. Once this is completed it will be a freeway through Interstate 435; this segment is known as Arrowhead Trafficway, although this road neither passes nor approaches Arrowhead Stadium. US 169 is a 4-lane rural expressway until it reaches Smithville, where it reverts to a two-lane rural highway. In St. Joseph, it forms most of the Belt Highway, a major commercial strip on the eastern edge of town, paralleling just inside Interstate 29. 169 angles northeastward out of St. Joseph, passing through many rural communities before exiting Missouri north of Grant City. US 169 intersects Interstate 29 three times in Missouri: once in Gladstone, twice in St. Joseph. U. S. 169 enters Iowa just south of Redding. It intersects Interstate 80 near De Soto. U. S. 169 becomes an expressway at U.
S. Route 20, south of Fort Dodge. At Iowa Highway 7 on the northwest side of Fort Dodge it reverts to a two-lane highway again; this is changing, however, as a two-phase, $11 million project began in the spring of 2010 to widen the route to four lanes from Fort Dodge to Humboldt. U. S. 169 passes through Algona before it leaves Iowa north of Lakota. U. S. 169 is a major north–south highway in Minnesota. It enters the state at Elmore. Shortly after, it junctions Interstate 90 at Blue Earth, it passes Mankato. Between Mankato and the Twin Cities, U. S. 169 is a rural highway. Before entering Le Sueur U. S. 169 crosses the Minnesota River again. At Shakopee, U. S. 169 becomes a freeway. The freeway ends in Champlin. U. S. 169 crosses the Mississippi River at Anoka and follows concurrently with US 10 to Elk River, where U. S. 169 splits off northbound through central Minnesota. The rest of the route in Minnesota is rural; the route passes the western side of Mille Lacs Lake. It terminates at U. S. 53 in Virginia, in the Iron Range.
In Kansas, US 169 used run concurrent with US 69 from I-35 through Downtown Kansas City and the Fairfax District across the Platte Purchase Bridge to I-635 until splitting at I-29 in Missouri. In Missouri, US 169 replaced Route
A ring road is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in reducing traffic volumes in the urban centre, such as by offering an alternate route around the city for drivers who do not need to stop in the city core; the name "ring road" is used for the majority of metropolitan circumferential routes in the European Union, such as the Berliner Ring, the Brussels Ring, the Amsterdam Ring, the Boulevard Périphérique around Paris and the Leeds Inner and Outer ring roads. Australia and India use the term ring road, as in Melbourne's Western Ring Road, Lahore's Lahore Ring Road and Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road. In Canada the term is the most used, with "orbital" used, but to a much lesser extent. In Europe, some ring roads those of motorway standard which are longer in length, are known as "orbital motorways". Examples include the London Rome Orbital. In the United States, many ring roads are called beltlines, beltways, or loops, such as the Capital Beltway around Washington, D.
C. Some ring roads, such as Washington's Capital Beltway, use "Inner Loop" and "Outer Loop" terminology for directions of travel, since cardinal directions cannot be signed uniformly around the entire loop; the term'ring road' is – and inaccurately – used interchangeably with the term'bypass'. Bypasses around many large and small towns were built in many areas when many old roads were upgraded to four-lane status in the 1930s to 1950s, such as those along the Old National Road in the United States, leaving the old road in place to serve the town or city, but allowing through travelers to continue on a wider and safer route. Construction of circumferential ring roads has occurred more beginning in the 1960s in many areas, when the U. S. Interstate Highway System and similar-quality roads elsewhere were designed. Ring roads have now been built around numerous cities and metropolitan areas, including cities with multiple ring roads, irregularly shaped ring roads, ring roads made up of various other long-distance roads.
London has three ringroads. Other British cities have two. Columbus, Ohio, in the United States has two, while Houston, Texas will have three official ring roads; some cities have far more – Beijing, for example, has six ring roads numbered in increasing order from the city center. Geographical constraints can prohibit the construction of a complete ring road. For example, the Baltimore Beltway in Maryland crosses Baltimore Harbor on a high arch bridge, much of the completed Stockholm Ring Road in Sweden runs through tunnels or over long bridges. However, some towns or cities on seacoasts or near rugged mountains cannot have a full ring road, such as Dublin's ring road. Adjacency of international boundaries may prohibit ring road completion in other cases. Construction of a true ring road around Detroit is blocked by its location on the border with Canada. Sometimes, the presence of significant natural or historical areas limits route options, as for the long-proposed Outer Beltway around Washington, D.
C. where options for a new western Potomac River crossing are limited by a nearly continuous corridor of visited scenic and historical landscapes in the Potomac River Gorge and adjacent areas. When referring to a road encircling a capital city, the term "beltway" can have a political connotation, as in the American term "Inside the Beltway", derived metonymically from the Capital Beltway encircling Washington, D. C. Most orbital motorways are purpose-built major highways around a town or city without either signals or road or railroad crossings. In the United States, beltways are parts of the Interstate Highway System. Similar roads in the United Kingdom are called "orbital motorways". Although the terms "ring road" and "orbital motorway" are sometimes used interchangeably, "ring road" indicates a circumferential route formed from one or more existing roads within a city or town, with the standard of road being anything from an ordinary city street up to motorway level. An excellent example of this is London's North Circular/South Circular ring road.
In some cases, a circumferential route is formed by the combination of a major through highway and a similar-quality loop route that extends out from the parent road reconnecting with the same highway. Such loops not only function as a bypass for through traffic, but to serve outlying suburbs. In the United States, an Interstate highway loop is designated by a three-digit number beginning with an digit before the two-digit number of its parent interstate. Interstate spurs, on the other hand have three-digit numbers beginning with an odd digit. Circumferential highways are prominent features near many large cities in the United States. In many cases, such as Interstate 285 in Atlanta, circumferential highways se
An articulated bus is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is a single-decker, comprises two or more rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint enclosed by protective bellows inside and outside and a cover plate on the floor; this allows a longer legal length than rigid-bodied buses, hence a higher passenger capacity, while still allowing the bus to maneuver adequately. Due to their high passenger capacity, articulated buses are used as part of bus rapid transit schemes, can include mechanical guidance. Used exclusively on public transport bus services, articulated buses are 18 m or 60 ft in length; the common arrangement of an articulated bus is to have a forward section with two axles leading a rear section with a single axle, with the driving axle mounted on either the front or the rear section. Some articulated buses have a steering arrangement on the rearmost axle which turns in opposition to the front steering axle, allowing the vehicle to negotiate tighter turns, similar to hook-and-ladder fire trucks operating in city environments.
A less common variant of the articulated bus is the bi-articulated bus, where the vehicle has two trailer sections rather than one. Their capacity is around 200 people, their length is about either 25 meters or 80 feet. Early examples of the articulated bus appeared in Europe in the 1920s. In 1938, Twin Coach built an articulated bus for the city of Baltimore. 15 examples of the "Super Twin" were built in 1948. According to contemporary coverage, the Super Twin had a capacity of 58 seated and 120 total, with a weight of 27,500 lb. In Budapest, the first prototypes of the Ikarus 180 were shown in 1961. There is an ongoing exhibition in Budapest at the Hungarian Technical and Transportation Museum in 2010 with the title "The articulated bus is 50 years old." The Ikarus 180 went into limited production in 1963, entered serial production in 1966. In the mid-1960s, AC Transit in California pioneered the American use of a modern articulated bus, operating the experimental commuter coach "XMC 77" on some of its transbay lines.
The XMC-77, which AC Transit dubbed the "Freeway Train", was built in 1958, purchased by the District in October 1965, made its debut run for Line N on March 14, 1966. XMC-77 was exhibited to the public at various locations in the East Bay and the Transbay Terminal, it offered seats for 77 passengers and an observation lounge, complete with a card table to seat a quartet. The 60 ft long coach stood 10 ft 10 in high and was powered by a Cummins engine with an output of 262 hp. Engineering for the XMC-77 was carried out by the local firm of DeLeuw Co.. In the United States, articulated buses were imported from Europe and deployed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. During this time, rising operating costs led to public takeovers of transit systems, the pressure to reduce labor costs in turn meant transporting more passengers in a single vehicle. King County Metro and Caltrans led a Pooled Purchase Consortium, formed in 1976, which awarded a contract to the AM General/M. A. N. Joint venture responsible for assembling MAN SG 220 articulated buses in America.
Contemporaneously, Crown entered an agreement with Ikarus to produce the Crown-Ikarus 286, coupling American-made powertrains with the Hungarian Ikarus 280 chassis. Articulated buses have been used in Australia, Italy, Canada, Poland ) The first modern British "bendy buses" were built by Leyland-DAB and used in the city of Sheffield in the 1980s, they were subsequently withdrawn from service. The main benefits of an articulated bus over the double-decker bus are rapid simultaneous boarding and disembarkation through more and larger doors, somewhat larger passenger capacity, increased stability arising from a lower centre of gravity, smaller frontal area giving less air resistance than double decker buses thus better fuel efficiency a smaller turning radius, higher maximum service speed, the ability to pass under low bridges, improved accessibility for people with disabilities and the elderly. During late 2003 and early 2004, a series of onboard fires on newly delivered Mercedes-Benz Citaros led to Londoners humorously nicknaming the vehicles chariots of fire.
Mercedes-Benz addressed the problem, although the vehicles were out of service for a period. However, no overheating or fire-related incidents have been recorded in Vancouver's articulated electric trolley buses from a similar cause. Vancouver's articulated trolley buses were chosen for the higher torque output of their electric motors, which outperform diesel-based low-floor buses. In some circumstances of urban operation, articulated buses may be involved in more accidents
U.S. Route 212
U. S. Route 212 is a spur of U. S. Route 12, it does not intersect U. S. 12 now, but it once had an eastern terminus at U. S. 12 in St. Paul, Minnesota, it runs for 949 miles from Minnesota Highway 62 at Minnesota to Yellowstone National Park. U. S. 212 passes through the states of Minnesota, South Dakota and Montana. It goes through Billings, Montana; the western terminus of Highway 212 is at the Montana/Wyoming state line within Yellowstone National Park. Within the park it is contiguous with Northeast Entrance Road, which has its western terminus on the Grand Loop within the Wyoming portion of the park. Highway 212 passes through Cooke City, Montana crosses the Wyoming state line and re-emerges into Montana 38 miles later; the section of Highway 212 between Cooke City and Red Lodge is known as the Beartooth Highway. Rising to an elevation of 10,974 feet above sea level at Beartooth Pass, the highway traces the historical route of Civil War General Philip Sheridan over the Beartooth Mountains. In his book Dateline America published in 1979, the late CBS correspondent Charles Kuralt referred to the highway as "the most beautiful drive in America."
Running northeast from the Beartooth Mountains, Highway 212 joins U. S. Route 310 before passing into the town of Montana. Here Highway 212 joins Interstate 90 eastbound. Together, Highway 212 and I-90 run east through Billings, Montana to the town of Crow Agency, Montana between mile markers 434 and 510, a distance of 76 miles. Within the Crow Indian Reservation, Highway 212 leaves I-90 and runs east and southeast through the high plains of Montana, it is the main east–west road through the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Southeast of Alzada, Highway 212 recrosses the Wyoming state line. For the entire length of Highway 212 in Montana between I-90 and the Wyoming state line, it is known as the Warrior Trail Highway. Highway 212 enters South Dakota near the junction of the Montana and South Dakota state lines, continues southeast to Belle Fourche. Here it intersects with U. S Route 85, continues eastward, skirting the southern end of the Belle Fourche Reservoir, it continues east, until connecting with SD-79 south of Newell.
It runs north into Newell turns east again, passing through the town of Faith and entering the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. It passes through Dupree and North Eagle Butte crossing the Missouri River. Continuing east, it intersects with U. S. Route 83 near Gettysburg, continues eastward, passing through Gettysburg and Faulkton, it intersects with SD-45, where it is cosigned for a brief southern leg, before turning eastward again and passing through Rockham and Redfield, where it intersects with U. S. Route 281. Continuing east, it passes through Clark, before entering Watertown, becoming 9th Avenue SW. Just east of Watertown, it intersects with Interstate 29, continues east to the Minnesota state line; the South Dakota section of U. S. 212 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-206. The 160 miles of US 212 in Minnesota are designated Minnesota Veterans Memorial Highway. Yellowstone Trail is the original name designation for this same stretch of US 212 from the auto trail days. Yellowstone Trail was one of the first designated names written into law in the state, but not now marked anywhere along the Minnesota portion of US 212.
The route in Minnesota connects the cities of Montevideo, Granite Falls, Glencoe, Norwood Young America, the southwest suburbs of Minneapolis. The Minnesota section of US 212 is defined as Routes 155, 12, 187, 260 in Minnesota Statutes §§ 161.114 and 161.115, and. Montana Northeast Entrance Road at the northeast entrance to Yellowstone National Park, west of Cooke City-Silver Gate Wyoming–Montana No major intersections Montana No major intersections Wyoming No major intersections Montana US 310 north-northwest of Edgar; the highways travel concurrently to Laurel. I‑90 / US 310 in Laurel. I-90/US 212 travels concurrently to Crow Agency. US 87 in Lockwood; the highways travel concurrently to Crow Agency. I‑94 in Lockwood Wyoming No major intersections South Dakota US 85 in Belle Fourche US 83 west of Gettysburg; the highways travel concurrently for 0.9 miles. US 281 in Redfield; the highways travel concurrently through Redfield. US 81 in Watertown I‑29 in Watertown Minnesota US 75 south of Madison US 59 west-southwest of Montevideo.
The highways travel concurrently to Montevideo. US 71 in Olivia; the highways travel concurrently through Olivia. I‑494 in Eden Prairie US 169 in Eden Prairie U. S. Roads portal Media related to U. S. Route 212 at Wikimedia Commons
Interstate 90 is an east–west transcontinental freeway, the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at 3,020.54 miles. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at State Route 519 near T-Mobile Park and CenturyLink Field, its eastern terminus is in Boston, at Route 1A near Logan International Airport; the western portion of I-90 crosses the Continental Divide over Homestake Pass just east of Butte, connecting major cities such as Spokane, Washington. Between Seattle and the Wisconsin-Illinois state line, I-90 is a toll-free Interstate. East of that border, much of I-90 follows several toll roads, many of which predate the Interstate Highway system; these include the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway, Chicago Skyway, Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, New York State Thruway, the Massachusetts Turnpike. The Interstate is not tolled through some segments in downtown Chicago; the western I-90 terminus is in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle. I-90 eastbound begins at exit 2B, Edgar Martínez Drive S and 4th Avenue S. I-90 westbound exit 2B ends at Edgar Martínez Dr and 4th Ave near T-Mobile Park, as well as 4th Ave just north of S.
Royal Brougham Way near CenturyLink Field, about a block east of the entrance to the Port of Seattle's container shipping terminal at Pier 46. The tunnel that carries I-90 under the Mount Baker Ridge is on the National Register of Historic Places; the east portal of the tunnel is constructed as a bas relief concrete sculpture. I-90 incorporates two of the longest floating bridges in the world, the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, which cross Lake Washington from Seattle to Mercer Island, they are the fifth longest such bridges, respectively. Forty miles east of Bellevue, I-90 traverses the Cascade Range's Snoqualmie Pass, elevation 3,022 feet, it intersects I-82 shortly after exiting the mountains and crosses the Columbia River on the Vantage Bridge at mile post 137. After entering Spokane near mile post 279, it enters Idaho eighteen miles later. Since 1980, I-90 from Seattle to Thorp was designated the Mountains to Sound Greenway to protect its outstanding scenic and cultural resources.
The Washington section of I-90 is defined in the Revised Code of Washington. The small town of Wallace still prides itself on having what was the last stop light in the Rocky Mountains on I-90, its downtown has many historical buildings, which would have been wiped out by the original planned route of the freeway, so in 1976, city leaders had the downtown placed on the National Register of Historic Places. As a result, the federal government was forced, at great expense, to reroute the freeway to the northern edge of downtown and elevate it; that section of I-90 opened in September 1991. A bicycle path is routed beneath part of that segment. In the period between 1995 and 1999, there was no numbered speed limit on I-90 in Montana; the speed limit was defined as "reasonable and prudent" as determined on a case-by-case basis by the Montana Highway Patrol. The speed limit in Montana is now 80 mph. From the west I-90 enters Montana on the summit of Lookout Pass, it passes next to Missoula and runs through Butte, where it connects with I-15 for close to eight miles, before crossing the continental divide just east of Butte where it goes over Homestake Pass, 6,329 feet in elevation, the highest point for the Interstate.
It passes between the Gallatin and Bridger mountain ranges over Bozeman Pass between Bozeman and Livingston. It follows the Yellowstone River from Livingston to Billings where it connects the suburbs of Laurel and Lockwood with the rest of the Billings area. In Lockwood it turns south. South of Hardin it passes the site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn at Crow Agency on the Crow Indian Reservation. Montana boasts the longest stretch of I-90. I-90 enters the state of Wyoming from the north after splitting off from I-94 in Montana; the first major town is Sheridan. It follows the foothills of the Bighorn Mountains between Sheridan and Buffalo where it intersects with I-25, where the route goes from a north–south orientation to an east–west orientation, it goes across the Powder River Basin toward Gillette and Sundance where it shares alignments with both US 14 and US 16. Near the Black Hills, I-90 leaves Wyoming and enters South Dakota between Sundance and Spearfish, South Dakota where it proceeds southeast toward Rapid City, South Dakota.
Near Rapid City at the Wyoming border I-90 is a four-lane divided highway with a grass median. In the Sioux Falls area, I-90 continues east a short distance to Minnesota. I-90 is the longest east–west thoroughfare in South Dakota; this interstate goes through Mitchell, Sioux Falls, Rapid City. It does not go through the state capital of Pierre; the South Dakota section of I-90 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-184. The Minnesota section of I-90 is defined as Route 391 in Minnesota Statutes § 161.12. I-90 crosses southern Minnesota from the South Dakota border near Beaver Creek, Minnesota, to the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. On most of its length in the state, it is close to the Iowa border and parallel with it. In southeast Minnesota, it curves north to Winona; the wayside rest area near Blue Earth, Minnesota is where Minnesota's east-building and
Saint Anthony Falls
Saint Anthony Falls or the Falls of Saint Anthony, located northeast of downtown Minneapolis, was the only natural major waterfall on the Upper Mississippi River. The natural falls were replaced by a concrete overflow spillway after it collapsed in 1869. In the 1950s and 1960s, a series of locks and dams was constructed to extend navigation to points upstream. Named after the Catholic saint Anthony of Padua, the falls is the birthplace of the former city of St. Anthony and to Minneapolis when the two cities joined in 1872 to use its economic power for milling operations. From 1880 to about 1930, Minneapolis was the "Flour Milling Capital of the World". Today, the falls are defined by the locks and dams of the Upper Saint Anthony Falls, just downstream of the 3rd Avenue Bridge, the Lower Saint Anthony Falls, just upstream of the I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge; these locks were built as part of the Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Navigation Project. The area around the falls is designated the St. Anthony Falls Historic District and features a 1.8-mile self-guided walking trail with signs explaining the area's past.
Before European exploration, the falls held cultural and spiritual significance for native tribes who frequented and lived in the area. The falls was an important and sacred site to the Mdewakanton Dakota and they called the Mississippi River, hahawakpa, "river of the falls"; the falls themselves were given specific names, mnirara "curling waters", owahmenah "falling waters", or owamni, "whirlpool". Dakota associated the falls with legends and spirits, including Oanktehi, god of waters and evil, who lived beneath the falling water; the sacred falls enters into their oral tradition by a story of a warrior's first wife who killed herself and their two children in anguish and forlorn love for the husband who had assumed a second wife. The rocky islet where the woman had pointed her canoe towards doom thus was named Spirit Island, once a nesting ground for eagles that fed on fish below the falls. Dakota camped on Nicollet Island upstream of the falls to fish and to tap the sugar maple trees. Since the cataract had to be portaged, the area became one of the natural resting and trade points along the Mississippi between Dakota and Anishinaabe peoples.
The Anishinaabe term was recorded as "kakabikah". In 1680, the falls became known to the Western world when they were observed and published in a journal by Father Louis Hennepin, a Catholic friar of Belgian birth, who first published about Niagara Falls to the world's attention. Hennepin named them the Chutes de Saint-Antoine or the Falls of Saint Anthony after his patron saint, Anthony of Padua. Explorers to document the falls include Jonathan Carver and Zebulon Montgomery Pike. Following the establishment of Fort Snelling in 1820, the falls became an attraction for tourists and artists who sought inspiration if Hennepin's descriptions were not as majestic as hoped for. By the 1860s, industrial waste had filled the area and marred the falls' majesty. Further competition over the power of the falls on both banks of the river led to its eventual downfall when it collapsed in 1869 and was reinforced and subsequently sealed by a concrete overflow spillway; the area around the river was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Saint Anthony Falls Historic District in 1971 which includes 8th Avenue Northeast extending downstream to 6th Avenue Southeast and two city blocks on both shoreline.
The district's archaeological record is one of the most-endangered historic sites in Minnesota. The National Register of Historic Places is facilitated by the National Park Service; the national significance of the Saint Anthony Falls Historic District is a major reason why the National Park Service's Mississippi National River and Recreation Area was established along the Mississippi River in the Minneapolis – Saint Paul metropolitan area. A Heritage Trail plaque nearby says, For untold generations of Indian people the Mississippi River was an important canoe route. To pass around the falls, the Dakota and Ojibway used a well-established portage trail. Starting at a landing below the site now occupied by the steam plant, the trail climbed the bluff to this spot. From here it followed the east bank along. Geologists say that the falls first appeared 12,000 years ago about 10 miles downstream at the confluence of the glacial River Warren. Estimates are that the falls were about 180 feet high when the River Warren Falls receded past the confluence of the Mississippi River and the glacial River Warren.
Over the succeeding 10,000 years, the falls moved upstream to its present location. The water churning at the bottom of the falls ate away at the soft sandstone breaking off the hard limestone cap in chunks as the falls receded. From its origins near Fort Snelling, St. Anthony Falls relocated upstream at a rate of about 4 feet per year until it reached its present location in the early 19th century. Tributaries such as Minnehaha Creek begot their own waterfalls as the Mississippi River valley was cut into the landscape; when Father Louis Hennepin documented the falls he estimated the falls' height to be 60 feet. Explorers described it as being in the range of 16 to 20 feet high; the discrepancy may have been due to scope, as the current