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Transposing instrument

A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is recorded in staff notation at a pitch different from the pitch that sounds. A written middle C on a transposing instrument produces a pitch other than middle C, that pitch identifies the interval of transposition when describing the instrument. For example, a written C on a B♭ clarinet sounds a concert B♭. Rather than a property of the instrument, the transposition is a convention of musical notation. Instruments whose music is notated in this way are called transposing instruments; as transposing instruments is a notation convention, the issue of transposition is an issue for genres of music which use sheet music, such as classical music and jazz. For some instruments, the sounding pitch in a different octave. Many instruments are members of a family of instruments that differ in size; the instruments in these families have differing ranges, with the members sounding lower as they get larger. For example, the fingerings which produce the notes of a C major scale on a standard flute, a non-transposing instrument, produce a G major scale on an alto flute.

As a result, these instruments' parts are notated so that the written notes are fingered the same way on each instrument, making it easier for a single instrumentalist to play several instruments in the same family. Instruments that transpose this way are referred to as being in a certain "key", such as the "A clarinet" or "clarinet in A"; the instrument's key tells which pitch will sound when the player plays a note written as C. A player of a B♭ clarinet who reads a written C will sound a B♭ while the player of an A clarinet will read the same note and sound an A; the non-transposing member of the family is thus called a "clarinet in C". Examples of families of transposing instruments: cornets saxhornsExamples of families of non-transposing instruments: trombones tubasRecorders are either untransposed or in some cases transposed at the octave. In the early 20th century, instruments with basic scales other than C were sometimes written as transposing instruments. Examples of families with both transposing and non-transposing instruments: clarinets flutes oboes saxophones trumpetsThe euphonium, with its close relative the baritone horn, may be played as either a treble clef instrument or a bass clef instrument because it is played as a second instrument: trumpet or cornet players who double on the euphonium are used to playing in treble clef, while trombone or tuba players who double on the euphonium are used to playing in bass clef.

In both cases, the instrument plays in the same range as the trombone, i.e. it produces the same pitches. However, in treble clef, the euphonium is a transposing instrument, i.e. its music and fingering are set up as if it is a B♭ instrument, while in bass clef, its music and fingering assume that it is a C instrument. Musicians who play both bass- and treble-clef euphonium must learn to use different fingerings for the written notes: e.g. a B♭ in treble clef requires that the first valve be depressed, whereas a B♭ in bass clef is open. Before valves were invented in the 19th century and trumpets could play only the notes of the overtone series from a single fundamental pitch. Beginning in the early 18th century, a system of crooks was devised in Germany, enabling this fundamental to be changed by inserting one of a set of crooks between the mouthpiece and the lead pipe of the instrument, increasing the total length of its sounding tube; as a result, all horn music was written as if for a fundamental pitch of C, but the crooks could make a single instrument a transposing instrument into any key.

Changing these lead-pipe crooks was time-consuming, keeping them from falling out while playing was a matter of some concern to the player, so changing crooks could take place only during substantial rests. Medial crooks, inserted in the central portion of the instrument, were an improvement devised in the middle of the 18th century, they could be made to function as a slide for tuning, or to change the pitch of the fundamental by a semitone or tone; the introduction of valves made this process unnecessary, though many players and composers found the tone quality of valved instruments inferior. F transposition became standard in the early 19th century, with the horn sounding a perfect fifth below written pitch in treble clef. In bass clef, composers differed in whether they expected the instruments to transpose down a fifth or up a fourth. In the music of Germany during the Baroque period, notably in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, instruments used for different purposes were tuned to different pitch standards, called Chorton and Kammerton.

When they played together in an ensemble, the parts of some instruments would have to be transposed to compensate. In many of Bach's cantatas the organ part is notated a full step lower than the other instruments. See pitch inflation. A few early-music ensembles of the present day must do something similar if they comprise some instruments tuned to A415 and others to A440 a semitone apart

Charged Up

"Charged Up" is a song by Canadian rapper Drake. It is the first diss track aimed at American rapper Meek Mill. At OVO Fest 2015, Drake performed this song and "Back to Back" live. On July 22, 2015, Meek Mill publicly criticized Drake on Twitter after being upset with Drake's non-involvement with the promotion of his album Dreams Worth More Than Money, claiming that he used ghostwriters to write his verse on "R. I. C. O." Following this, Drake released two diss songs within a week, "Charged Up" and "Back to Back", both aimed at Meek Mill. Meek Mill responded with another diss song about Drake, titled "Wanna Know". Meek Mill removed his diss to Drake on SoundCloud. Digital download"Charged Up" – 3:10 "Charged Up" debuted and peaked at number 75 on the Billboard Canadian Hot 100; the song debuted and peaked at number 78 on the Billboard Hot 100. List of notable diss tracks Lyrics of this song at Genius

NĂ©stor Clausen

Néstor Clausen, a native of Arrufó, Santa Fe Province, Argentina, is a former footballer who played as a defender, 1986 FIFA World Cup Champion. His ancestors were from Ernen, Valais in Switzerland and emigrated to Argentina around the year 1889. In his career, he played for Club Atlético Independiente, FC Sion and with Argentina was 1986 World Champion. Independiente Metropolitano 1983 Copa Libertadores 1984 Copa Intercontinental 1984 Primera Division Argentina 1988–89 Supercopa Sudamericana 1995FC Sion Schweizer Cup 1990–1991 Swiss Super League 1991–1992 Argentina FIFA World Cup: 1986 The Strongest Torneo Apertura 2003 Torneo Clausura 2004 Néstor Clausen – FIFA competition record Néstor Clausen at National-Football-Teams.com Néstor Clausen at Footballdatabase Futbol Factory profile at the Wayback Machine

Nizhalgal Ravi

Nizhalgal Ravi is an Indian film and television actor who has performed in Tamil and Telugu films and serials. He started his career in 1980 with the film Nizhalgal, he has acted in 500 films. Nizhalgal Ravi, an actor in South Indian film industry, started his career under the baton of veteran director Bharathiraja in the Tamil film Nizhalgal which fetched him his sobriquet, he played the role of an aspiring hero who falls in love, a performance which brought him his greatest success, although he has not become a top hero. He has had many character roles including films Vedam Puthithu, Chinna Thambi Periya Thambi, Annamalai and Aasai, he portrayed roles such as those of a ruthless villain, or a back-stabber. He dubbed for Amitabh Bachchan for the program Kaun Banega Crorepati in Tamil, he acted in more than 25 movies in Malayalam during the 80s. He acted in director K. Balachander's telefilm Rayil Sneham, he did his B. A. in Economics in P. S. G. Arts, Coimbatore, he was born as Ravichandran to D. Rajammal in an orthodox family.

He has one son, Rahul. He is the youngest of all his siblings, he has 3 sisters. In the Tamil speaking community, the program "KBC" got huge reception, due to the dubbing voice performed by Nizhalgal Ravi. Nizhalgal Ravi on IMDb

Abbeycwmhir

Abbeycwmhir or Abbey Cwmhir is a village and community. In the valley of the Nant Clywedog in Radnorshire, Wales; the village is named after Cwmhir Abbey, the Cistercian abbey built there in 1143. It was never completed, its fourteen bay nave was longer than Canterbury and Salisbury Cathedral naves and twice as long as that at St. Davids, it was a daughter house of Whitland Abbey, constructed at the behest of three sons of Madog, the Prince of southern Powys. The first community at Dyvanner failed because of the intervention of Hugh de Mortimer, Earl of Hereford but in 1176 the Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth re-established the Abbey on land given by Cadwallon ap Madog. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd is buried near the altar in the nave; the abbey was burned by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr in 1401. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in March 1537 only three monks lived in the abbey; the Abbey was slighted during the English Civil War, although some ruins still remain. There is a memorial stone to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Prince of Wales of direct descent, whose body is buried there.

The village church of St Mary was rebuilt in the neo-Byzantine style by Mary Beatrice Philips in 1866. She was a grand daughter of Francis Philips who purchased the Abbeycwmhir estate in 1837 with money from the cotton-trade, it replaced a church built in 1680. Soon after the Victorian church was built, the Rev. Francis Kilvert visited; the Happy Union Inn is a grade II listed building. The age of the building is something of a mystery together with unusual pub sign; the present owner is the 3rd generation of his family to run the pub. Abbey Cwmhir Hall: a Georgian style house built in 1833 by Thomas Wilson, a London lawyer who had purchased the 3000 acre Abbeycwmhir estate, it is open to the public. Glyndŵr's Way Abbeycwmhir Heritage Trust/ www.abbeycwmhirhistory.org.uk / CADW Exhibition Room Village website

Zuzu Bollin

Zuzu Bollin was an American Texas blues guitarist and singer from Frisco, Texas. Named A. D. Bollin, the name'Zuzu' is believed to refer to a brand of ginger-snap cookies popular at the time. Bollin notably recorded "Why Don't You Eat Where You Slept Last Night" and "Headlight Blues", variously worked alongside Duke Robillard, Doug Sahm, Booker Ervin, Percy Mayfield and David "Fathead" Newman. Bollin was thought to be dead, until he was rediscovered in 1988 living in Dallas, Texas, by the Dallas Blues Society Records founder, Chuck Nevitt. Nevitt gathered together a band and produced Bollin's first full length album Texas Bluesman in 1989, as the debut release on Dallas Blues Society Records; this record was sold to Antone's Records a couple of years and Antones released it on compact disc. This recording augmented Bollin's only four sides recorded in the early 1950s on the Dallas-based Torch Records label. Bollin made festival dates both in abroad. Bollin died in Dallas, Texas in October 1990, aged 68.

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