The transputer is a series of pioneering microprocessors from the 1980s, featuring integrated memory and serial communication links, intended for parallel computing. They were produced by Inmos, a semiconductor company based in Bristol, United Kingdom. For some time in the late 1980s, many considered the transputer to be the next great design for the future of computing. While Inmos and the transputer did not achieve this expectation, the transputer architecture was influential in provoking new ideas in computer architecture, several of which have re-emerged in different forms in modern systems. In the early 1980s, conventional central processing units appeared to reach a performance limit. Up to that time, manufacturing difficulties limited the amount of circuitry that could fit on a chip. Continued improvements in the fabrication process, removed this restriction. Within a decade, chips could hold more circuitry. Traditional complex instruction set computer designs were reaching a performance plateau, it wasn't clear it could be overcome.
It seemed that the only way forward was to increase the use of parallelism, as the use of several CPUs that would work together to solve several tasks at the same time. This depended on such machines being able to run several tasks at once, a process termed multitasking; this had been too difficult for prior CPU designs to handle, but more recent designs were able to accomplish it effectively. It was clear. A side effect of most multitasking design is that it also allows the processes to be run on physically different CPUs, in which case it is termed multiprocessing. A low-cost CPU built for multiprocessing could allow the speed of a machine to be raised by adding more CPUs far more cheaply than by using one faster CPU design; the first transputer designs were due to computer scientist David May and telecommunications consultant Robert Milne. In 1990, May received an Honorary DSc from University of Southampton, followed in 1991 by his election as a Fellow of The Royal Society and the award of the Patterson Medal of the Institute of Physics in 1992.
Tony Fuge a leading engineer at Inmos, was awarded the Prince Philip Designers Prize in 1987 for his work on the T414 transputer. The transputer was the first general purpose microprocessor designed to be used in parallel computing systems; the goal was to produce a family of chips ranging in power and cost that could be wired together to form a complete parallel computer. The name was selected to indicate the role the individual transputers would play: numbers of them would be used as basic building blocks, just as transistors had earlier; the plan was to make the transputer cost only a few dollars per unit. Inmos saw them being used for everything, from operating as the main CPU for a computer to acting as a channel controller for disk drives in the same machine. Spare cycles on any of these transputers could be used for other tasks increasing the overall performance of the machines. One transputer would have all the circuitry needed to work by itself, a feature more associated with microcontrollers.
The intent was to allow transputers to be connected together as as possible, with no need for a complex bus, or motherboard. Power and a simple clock signal had to be supplied, but little else: random-access memory, a RAM controller, bus support and a real-time operating system were all built in; the original transputer used a simple and rather unusual architecture to achieve a high performance in a small area. It used microcode as the main method to control the data path, but unlike other designs of the time, many instructions took only one cycle to execute. Instruction opcodes were used as the entry points to the microcode read-only memory and the outputs from the ROM were fed directly to the data path. For multi-cycle instructions, while the data path was performing the first cycle, the microcode decoded four possible options for the second cycle; the decision as to which of these options would be used could be made near the end of the first cycle. This allowed for fast operation while keeping the architecture generic.
The clock rate of 20 MHz was quite high for the era and the designers were concerned about the practicality of distributing such a fast clock signal on a board. A slower external clock of 5 MHz was used, this was multiplied up to the needed internal frequency using a phase-locked loop; the internal clock had four non-overlapping phases and designers were free to use whichever combination of these they wanted, so it could be argued that the transputer ran at 80 MHz. Dynamic logic was used in many parts of the design to reduce increase speed; these methods are difficult to combine with automatic test pattern generation scan testing so they fell out of favour for designs. Prentice-Hall published a book on the general principles of the Transputer; the basic design of the transputer included serial links that allowed it to communicate with up to four other transputers, each at 5, 10, or 20 Mbit/s –, fast for the 1980s. Any number of transputers could be connected together over links to form one computing farm.
A hypothetical desktop machine might have two of the "low end" transputers handling input/output tasks on some of their serial lines while they talked to one of their larger cousins acting as a CPU on another. This serial link is called an os-link. There were limits to the size of a system that cou
Line 4 or 4 Line may refer to: Busan Metro Line 4, a rubber-tyred metro line in Busan, South Korea Kolkata Metro Line 4 or Noapara Barasat Line, under construction in India Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 4, Metro Manila, Philippines Line 4, under early stages of construction Line 4 or Chūō Line, in Japan Seoul Subway Line 4, a line across the National Capital Area, South Korea Sri Petaling Line, the fourth rapid transit line in Klang Valley, Malaysia Zhonghe–Xinlu line, a metro line in Taipei, Taiwan Line 4, a metro line in Beijing Line 4, a metro line in Changchun, Jilin Line 4, a metro line in Changsha, Hunan Line 4, a metro line in Chengdu, Sichuan Line 4,a metro line in Chongqing Line 4, a planned subway line Line 4, a line under construction Line 4, a metro line in Guangzhou, Guangdong Line 4, a metro line in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Line 4, a metro line in Nanjing, Jiangsu Line 4, a rapid transit line under construction Line 4, a metro line in Shanghai Line 4, a metro line in Shenzhen, Guangdong Line 4, a metro line in Suzhou, Jiangsu Line 4, a metro line in Wuhan, Hubei Line 4, a rapid transit line Line 4, a proposed metro line in Greece Barcelona Metro line 4, a line in Spain Rodalies Barcelona line 4, a commuter railway in Spain Line 4, a proposed line Line 4, a line in Romania Line 4, a line in Hungary Line 4, a line in Spain Line 4, an underground rapid transit line under construction in Italy Line 4, a metro line in Russia Paris Métro Line 4, a line in France Paris Tramway Line 4, a tram-train line just outside the limits of Paris proper Line 4 of Saint Petersburg Metro, a line of the Saint Petersburg Metro U4, a line in Austria Eastern Suburbs and Illawarra Line, coded T4, coloured navy, a train line in Sydney, New South Wales.
Line 4 Sheppard, a subway line in Toronto, Canada Yellow Line known as Line 4, in Canada Mexico City Metro Line 4, a rapid transit line in Mexico City Route 4, a bus route in the United States No. 4 Line, replaced by MTA Maryland Route 15 4, a subway line in New York City Line 4, a line under construction in Brazil Line 4, a line under construction in Brazil Santiago Metro Line 4, in Chile Santiago Metro Line 4A, in Chile 4-line, obsolete measure in Line 4-line, 12.17x44mm ammunition or a rifle which fires it 4 Train
Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe Limited referred to as Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe. It is one of the regulated banking institutions licensed by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, the country's central bank and national banking regulator; the bank was established in 1997, as Kingdom Bank Zimbabwe Limited, by Lysias C Sibanda, Frank Kufa, Nigel Chanakira and Solomon Mugavazi. In January 2012, AfrAsia Bank Limited, a financial services provider, based in Mauritius, invested US$9.5 million in the bank's holding company, thereby acquiring 35% ownership in the Zimbabwean financial group. Until September 2013, the bank was a subsidiary of Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited, a publicly traded company on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. In 2013, due to changes in ownership, KFHL rebranded to AfrAsia Zimbabwe Holdings Limited, while the bank took up its present name; the 35.7% shareholding that the holding company held in Kingdom Africa Bank Limited, an investment bank in Botswana, was disposed of in September 2013.
The AfrAsia Bank Zimbabwe Group includes the following bank subsidiaries: AfrAsia Capital Management Limited MicroKing Finance Limited - A microfinance company As of October 2013, shareholding in the stock of the bank, is as depicted in the table below: List of banks in Zimbabwe Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Economy of Zimbabwe FDH Bank AfrAsia Bank Limited Website of Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe KFHL In Process of Re-listing on Zimbabwe Stock Exchange Nigel Chanakira Exits AfrAsia Bank Limited Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited Sold Its Ownership In FDH Financial Holdings Limited of Malawi In 2012
James Albert Bowen is an American record producer and former rockabilly singer. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business and holds an MBA with honors from Belmont University, he lives with his wife Ginger in Colorado. Bowen brought Nancy Sinatra and Lee Hazlewood together, introduced Sinatra to Mel Tillis for their album, Mel & Nancy. Bowen was born in New Mexico, his family moved to Dumas, when he was eight years old. Bowen began as a teenage recording star in 1957 with "I'm Stickin' with You"; the song started as the flip side of the hit record "Party Doll" by Buddy Knox, but hit the charts on its own, peaking at No. 14 on Billboard's Hot 100 chart. Bowen's version sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold record. Bowen's singing career did not take off as well as that of Knox, his partner in the Rhythm Orchids, he abandoned a singing career, choosing to stay in the production end of the music industry. In the early 1960s, in Los Angeles, California, he bucked the 1960s rock phenomenon when Frank Sinatra hired him as a record producer for Reprise Records, Bowen showed a strong knack for production, getting chart hits for Sinatra, Dean Martin, Bert Kaempfert and Sammy Davis, Jr. regarded as too old-fashioned for the sixties market.
Among the songs Bowen produced for Sinatra was the 1966 "Strangers in the Night", which went to No. 1 in the US and UK, won three Grammy Awards in 1967, including Record of the Year for Bowen. Bowen produced Dino, Desi & Billy, a group which included Dean Martin's son, Desi Arnaz' and Lucille Ball's son. In mid-1968, Bowen launched an independent record label, Amos Records, which lasted until 1971. Leaving Los Angeles for Nashville, Bowen became president of a series of record labels, took each one to country music preeminence, his success stories during the second half of the 1970s included Glen Campbell, Kenny Rogers, Hank Williams, Jr. The Oak Ridge Boys, Reba McEntire, George Strait, Suzy Bogguss, Kim Carnes and Garth Brooks in the 1980s. Bowen helped Conway Twitty make the album titled "Merry Twismas" in 1983, one of Conway's number one selling albums. Bowen revolutionized the way music was recorded in Nashville, introducing digital technology and modernizing the way instruments such as drums, for example, were recorded and mixed.
In 1988, Bowen founded a label named Universal Records, which he sold to Capitol Records a year later. Bowen produced his first movie soundtrack in 1970, for Vanishing Point, released in 1971; that soundtrack contains three songs which he composed, as well as music from the band Mountain and from Big Mama Thornton. The three Bowen pieces are an incidental theme called "Love Theme", credited to Jimmy Bowen Orchestra, two others, "Super Soul Theme" and the hard-rock piece "Freedom of Expression", credited to The J. B. Pickers. Other soundtracks include the movies Smokey and the Bandit II, The Slugger's Wife and the soundtrack of the theater play Big River. Bowen, Jimmy. Rough Mix. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0684807645. "Jimmy Bowen: Nashville Powerhouse". Mix. October 2, 2007. ISSN 0164-9957. Jimmy Bowen at AllMusic Jimmy Bowen discography at Discogs Jimmy Bowen on IMDb
The Jefferson Intermediate School is a school building located at 938 Selden Street in Detroit, Michigan. It is known as Jefferson Junior High School or Jefferson School; the school was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. The site on which the Jefferson School sits was purchased by the city of Detroit in 1869, an elementary school was built on the property in 1873 at a cost of $60,000. In 1915, additional lots to the west were purchased for a playground. However, the old school was considered dilapidated, in 1922, the city tore it down and began construction of the building now occupying the site; the structure, designed by Malcomson, Higginbotham, & Palmer, was completed in 1923 at a cost of $706,000. During the 1950s, the Lodge Freeway was constructed, running directly to the west of the school through what was once the playground; as of 2008, the building has been rehabilitated and served as a public charter school, Experiencia Preparatory Academy, serving grades K–11.
Experiencia closed in 2016. As of 2019, the building is being redeveloped into office space; the Jefferson School is a three-story rectangular Tudor Revival school building, finished with brick and limestone, with a flat roof. The front facade has a stone-faced foundation, is divided into three sections; the center section protrudes and the two flanking sections make up a nearly symmetrical facade. Each end of the central section projects farther than the main body and protrudes above the roofline, forming a pair of "towers." Between the "towers," the center section is divided into five bays with a continuous stone water table running through them. Each bay has a two-story window sitting on the water table, with a decorative stone transom at the first story level and three windows on the third story; the center section is topped with a stone brick parapet wall. The two flanking sections are divided into five bays each; the left hand section has two outer bays which protrude and an inner bay containing an arched stone entryway which protrudes from the facade.
At the second and third story above the entrance are pairs of windows. The outermost bay contains a similar entryway, but constructed of stone, with a five sided bay window with a shaped parapet; the right-hand section nearly mirrors the left-hand section, but without the second entrance and bay window. The three central bays in each section contain three-story windows with decorative stone spandrels on the second and third floors; the interior contained 53 rooms. Utilities are located in the basement under the main section; the upper three floors of the schools have a similar arrangement, with larger rooms located near the center, a U-shaped hallway, smaller rooms on either side. The first floor contained an auditorium, as well as a conference room, shop rooms, a science room, other classrooms; the second floor contained a gymnasium, a teachers work room, administrative office, art/design and sewing room, general classrooms. The third floor contained a library, lunch room, cooking housekeeping, typewriting rooms, more general classrooms
Mighty Ape Ltd is a New Zealand online retailing company, based in Silverdale, Auckland. Known as Gameplanet Store, it is one of the longest running online retailers in New Zealand. Founded by Simon Barton as Virtual Stores, Ltd. in 1999, the company began by selling computer and video games under the GameZone brand. In 2003 the business rebranded to Gameplanet Store. Over the following years the product range expanded to include PC hardware and music. In 2008 the company relaunched as Mighty Ape and began selling toys. Mighty Ape has launched in Australia. Simon Barton first founded Micro-World in 1993, a small retail store in Mt Eden, which sold Amiga computers; when Amiga production ceased, the business shifted its focus to selling video games and rebranded to GameZone. Several other stores were opened in Auckland. GameZone became well known for its large-scale product launch parties, including one for the original PlayStation. GameZone created its first e-commerce website in 1998, allowing the company to begin selling video games online and cater to a wider customer base.
The site was developed by Simon Garner, whom Simon Barton partnered with in 2000 to start a separate venture called Gameplanet, a gaming website which publishes video game news, previews and community forums. GameZone began operating under the company name Virtual Stores, Ltd in 1999. In 2003, GameZone was rebranded as Gameplanet Store; this coincided with the closure of the Symonds St store and opening of a new retail store on Dominion Rd in Mt Eden, the launch of a new web site. As GP Store grew, the product range expanded to include DVD movies, PC hardware and music. While the e-commerce side of the business went from strength to strength, the retail store in Mt Eden was not so successful. In 2007 the retail store was closed, enabling the company to focus on its e-commerce operations. With the diverse range of products on offer, a new brand was sought that would fit better with the company's ambitions, in November 2008, the business was relaunched as Mighty Ape and began selling books and toys.
The database and applications running the web site had to be redesigned to handle an increase in the number of products sold from some tens of thousands of games to now listing over six million products including games, movies and office products and collectibles, music and computers. In early 2011 Mighty Ape launched a new feature called Mighty Ape Marketplace, which allows users to sell second hand items to other customers on the site; the used items appear on Mighty Ape product pages together with items sold by the company, but are shipped from the user selling the item directly to the customer. When a user purchases a Marketplace item, Mighty Ape handles payment processing and holds the money in pseudo-escrow until the purchaser confirms they have received the item successfully; this allows Mighty Ape to offer a "Marketplace Safety Guarantee" with a 100% refund under certain conditions. Mighty Ape takes a 9% commission on each sale. In 2013 Mighty Ape launched a new online shopping site specialising in everyday household items.
Mighty Mart stocks over 200 items such as bathroom and cleaning products, baby-care products, pet food, non-perishable food items such as pasta, pasta sauces etc. It offers Featured Deals. In 2014 Mighty Ape launched its Same Day Delivery service in New Zealand's main centres: Auckland and Christchurch; the company continued to grow at a healthy rate and went on to win the Westpac Supreme Business Excellence Award and Excellence in Customer Service Delivery Award