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Transvaal Colony

The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The physical borders of the Transvaal Colony were not identical to the defeated South African Republic, but was larger. In 1910 the entire territory became the Transvaal Province of the Union of South Africa. Both the Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State were defeated in the Anglo-Boer War and surrendered to the UK; the peace treaty contained the following terms: That all burghers of the ZAR and Orange Free State lay down their arms and accept King Edward VII as their sovereign. That all burghers outside the borders of the ZAR and Orange Free State, upon declaring their allegiance to the King, be transported back to their homes; that all burghers. No Civil or Criminal proceedings against burghers for acts of war, except Acts contrary to the usage of war.

In such cases, there is to be held an immediate court-martial. That High Dutch be taught in schools and that the use of the Dutch language will be allowed in law courts; that the possession of rifles be allowed under license. That Military Administration be succeeded at the earliest possible date by representative institutions leading up to self-government; that the question of granting franchise to natives not be discussed until after self-government. That no special tax be introduced to cover the costs of the war; that various Commissions be established to process and pay valid claims for war expenses and to honor script issued by the countries of the ZAR and Orange Free State during the period of the war. The Commission would feed the homeless and assist with the reconstruction of homes affected by the war. To that end, the crown agrees to a free grant of £3,000,000 as well as loans at no interest for two years to be repaid at 3 percent interest over years thereafter. In 1902, with peace following the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging, the new Transvaal colony was faced with intertwined economic and political issues that need to be resolved.

The economic issues faced included the restoration of the mining industry to pre-war levels growing it further with the need for extra labour, the restoration of the Boers to their lands and increasing the agricultural output of those farms. The political issue faced depended; the existing British administrators under Alfred Milner wished to anglicise the population through two main means. One by increasing the English speaking population of the Transvaal and secondly teach the Boer children in English with little Dutch used, followed by self-rule; the Transvaal Boers political objectives was the restoration of self-rule in the colony and the political environment to be dominated by the Boer. As the war ended the British were faced with a large proportion of Boer men as prisoners of war and their families in concentration camps; as the British followed a scorched earth policy in the Transvaal, Boer lands and farms had been destroyed. At the conclusion of the war, it was necessary to reconstruct a “government” for the new colony and this was begun with the appointment of a Resident Magistrate in every district of the colony and became District Commissioners while an Assistant Magistrate carried out the legal and magisterial duties of the area.

Roman-Dutch law was translated into English so the law courts could continue, with some old acts repealed and a considerable amount of new law promulgated by the authorities in Johannesburg. The Resident Magistrate submitted the names of three members of the district to the Governor for district commission under the magistrate, they would consist of one British subject, two Boers, one from those who had surrendered early on in the war and one who had fought until the end. The commission would have two functions, one to provide assistance and issuing of rations, equipment and plough animals to those affected by the war, secondly to investigate claims for compensation for actual damages sustained during the war. Repatriation depots were established in the districts and they were stocked with food, agricultural equipment, plough animals and stone and building material; the rail transport network struggled to compete with the transport of army requirement to maintain a garrison and civilian requirements to repair the colony.

All feed for transport animals had to be brought to the depots as the process started in the winter of 1902. Refugees from the concentration camps and prisoners of war were returned to their districts in a system of drafts. At the depots, they would receive farm equipment and rations to start again and transport to their destinations. Food rations were provided for a year. Families would receive a token grant irrespective of their ability to pay it back and additional material and equipment required were obtained via interest-free loans with small cash loans attracting no interest, with larger loans attracting four percent interest by a mortgage; the loan scheme was never going to compensate a person for the actual loss experienced by the war. Damage and the reconstruction required varied from district to district,In the larger towns, municipal or health boards were “appointed” to manage them under the resident Magistrate, they had limited functions and the only rates they levied. Within fifteen months of the end of the war, the introduction of municipal government was introduced with preparations made for fair elections ba

Bartolomeu de Gusmão

Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão was a Brazilian-Portuguese priest and naturalist, a pioneer of lighter-than-air airship design. Gusmão was born at Santos part of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, he began his novitiate in the Society of Jesus at Bahia when he was about fifteen years old, but left the order in 1701. He found a patron at Lisbon in the person of the Marquis of Abrantes, he completed his course of study at the University of Coimbra, devoting his attention principally to philology and mathematics, but received the title of Doctor of Canon Law. He is said to have had a great command of languages. In 1709 he presented a petition to King João V of Portugal, seeking royal favour for his invention of an airship, in which he expressed the greatest confidence; the contents of this petition have been preserved, together with a picture and description of his airship. Developing the ideas of Francesco Lana de Terzi, S. J. Gusmão wanted to spread a huge sail over a boat-like body like the cover of a transport wagon.

The vessel was to be propelled by the agency of magnets which were to be encased in two hollow metal balls. The public test of the machine, set for 24 June 1709, did not take place, it is known that Gusmão was working on this principle at the public exhibition he gave before the Court on 8 August 1709, in the hall of the Casa da Índia in Lisbon, when he propelled a ball to the roof by combustion. The king made him a canon, he was one of the fifty selected as members of the Academia Real de História, founded in 1720. Gusmão busied himself with other inventions, but in the meantime continued his work on his airship schemes, the idea for which he is said to have conceived while a novice at Bahia, his designs included a ship to sail in the air consisting of a triangular gas-filled pyramid, but he died without making progress. One account of Gusmão's work suggests that the Portuguese Inquisition forbade him to continue his aeronautic investigations and persecuted him because of them, but this is a invention.

It dates, from at least the end of the 18th century, as the following article in the London Daily Universal Register of 20 October 1786, makes clear: By accounts from Lisbon we are assured, that in consequence of the experiments made there with the Montgolfier balloon, the literati of Portugal had been incited to make numerous researches on the subject. They say that in 1720, a Brazilian Jesuit, named Bartholomew Gusmao, possessed of abilities and address, by permission of John V. fabricated a balloon in a place contiguous to the Royal Palace, one day, in presence of their Majesties, an immense crowd of spectators, raised himself, by means of a fire lighted in the machine, as high as the cornice of the building. The balloon was in the form of a bird with wings; the inventor proposed to make new experiments, chagrined at the raillery of the common people, who called him wizzard, terrified by the Inquisition, he took the advice of his friends, burned his manuscripts, disguised himself, fled to Spain, where he soon after died in an hospital.

They add, that several learned men and English, at Lisbon to verify the fact, had made enquiries at the Carmelite monastery, where Gusmao had a brother, who had preserved some of his manuscripts on the manner of constructing aerostatic machines. Various living persons affirm that they were present at the Jesuit's experiments, that he received the surname of Voador, or Flying-man. Contemporary documents do attest that information was laid before the Inquisition against Gusmão, but on quite another charge; the inventor fell ill of a fever, of which he died in Toledo. He wrote: Manifesto summário para os que ignoram poderse navegar pelo elemento do ar. In 1936, the Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport was built in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin to operate with the rigid airships Graf Zeppelin and Hindenburg. In 1941, it was renamed Santa Cruz Air Force Base. Presently, the airport serving Araraquara, Brazil is named Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport. Passarola Rising by Azhar Abidi Baltasar and Blimunda by José Saramago Seen on a fresco in the queue for Tokyo DisneySea's Soaring: Fantastic Flight attraction.

List of firsts in aviation Adelir Antônio de Carli, aka Padre Baloeiro, a Brazilian priest who died during an attempt at cluster ballooning in 2008 List of Catholic clergy scientists Daily Universal Register, Oct 20, 1786. Reproduction fac-similé d'un dessin à la plume de sa description et de la pétition adressée au Jean V. en langue latine et en écriture contemporaine retrouvés récemment dans les archives du Vatican du célèbre aéronef de Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmão "l'homme volant" portugais, né au Brésil précurseur des navigateurs aériens et premier inven

Vasyl Khmelnytsky

Vasyl Khmelnytsky is a Ukrainian entrepreneur and founder of holding company UFuture. Khmelnytsky was born in the village of Bayanaul, Pavlodar Region, his father was a tractor driver, his mother was a house-painter. In 1984 he graduated from the technical vocational school majoring in "fitter welder" in the city of Vatutine, Cherkasy region. In 1987-1991, after a military service in the Soviet Army, he worked as a gas electric welder and a foreman at the construction and assembly department in Leningrad. In 1991-1998 he worked as: Head of the Information-Analytical Department at the Orimi Wood Soviet-American Joint Venture, CEO at JSC Danapris, Head of the Information-Analytical Department at JSC Real-Group. In 2002 he graduated from the Faculty of Law of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Khmelnytsky began creating his business empire from traditional sectors, such as real estate and infrastructure he started investing in pharmaceutical production, renewable energy and high technologies and innovations.

From 2004 to 2008 he extensively invested and selling his own assets. In 2006, an effective sale of a majority stake in the Zaporizhstal metallurgical plant took place; this transaction brought Khmelnytsky $400 million. Explaining the reasons for the sale of Zaporizhstal, Vasyl Khmelnytsky said: “When I realized that China chose the option of steel production development, it became apparent that before long there would be no place left for anyone else in this business. In 2013, the Focus magazine estimated Vasily Khmelnytsky’s wealth at $888.6 million. In 2015 Forbes ranked Khmelnytsky 35th on Forbes Top 100 Richest with a fortune of $148 million. According to the rating of the Korrespondent magazine he takes 73rd place on the list of the most influential people of Ukraine. Vasyl Khmelnytsky joined the Ukrainian League of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs in a position of a Vice-president in 2014. Since 2015, as the First Vice-president of ULIE, he has been involved in the promotion of Ukraine in the global arena, attracting foreign investments and expertise to Ukraine, developing manufacturing and regional projects.

At the beginning of 2019 he gave up his power in the ULIE in order to concentrate on the development of business and social projects of his holding company UFuture. At the European Business Summit on June 2, 2016, Vasyl Khmelnytsky presented a strategy for the development of Ukrainian regions exemplified by Bila Tserkva, until 2025; the project involves attracting $250 million investment, creating seven thousand jobs, an industrial park, a technological cluster and a business incubator. On June 16, 2016 in Beijing, he took part in establishing the Belt & Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance. «We always preferred working in partnership. We believe that this reduces increases revenue. In all projects from 25% to 60% belongs to our partners» – V. Khmelnytsky, Kommersant Ukraine. “It is our intention that our partners view our country not only as a transit zone for the supply of goods to Europe, but as a platform for the creation of new industries”, said Vasyl Khmelnytsky, the First Vice President of ULIE, in Beijing.

In the ULIE Khmelnytsky supervises the promotion of the investment potential of Ukraine, in particular, the attraction of foreign capital and solutions and the development of regional projects. He is a proponent of construction of new modern industrial production entities and creation of industrial parks in the country.“When the country’s economy starts to grow, all assets, including mine and other businessmen’s, will become more costly. We will become richer; this is the business model. Our projects have longer than a ten-year horizon”, stated Vasyl Khmelnytsky, he is the majority shareholder at the UDP company. As of 2018, the UDP company has launched construction projects with an area of more than 3 million square meters and has become one of the largest real estate developers and infrastructure enterprises in the country. Among its most famous projects are the construction of Ocean Plaza Mall, Novopecherski Lypky, Boulevard of Fountains, RiverStone and Parkove Misto residential complexes.

In addition to UDP, the group owns or operates Igor Sikorsky Kyiv International Airport, the RTM-Ukraine Group, Ukrainian national operator of outdoor advertising, Bila Tserkva industrial park. Apart from commercial projects, Vasyl Khmelnytsky supports numerous social initiatives in the fields of education and economy whose objective is to promote Ukraine's competitiveness in world markets, for example, UNIT. City and LvivTech. City innovation parks, the unique educational UNIT Factory. Fund Books publishing project. Fund Media as information resource about new opportunities. Vasyl Khmelnytsky is the Chairman of the Supervisory Board at National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”. "Every year, our top managers and I visit the world top universities and the most innovative companies to adopt the unrivalled expertise and breakthrough approaches and apply them in Ukraine”, he notes. The entrepreneur is sure that only education and a different way of thinking of Ukrainian citizens can speed up the country's development, helps achieve prosperity and take a proper place in the modern world.

In 2017, the Ukrainian journal No

South African Class 39-000

The Spoornet Class 39-000 of 2006 is a South African diesel-electric locomotive from the Spoornet era. In 2005, Transwerk commenced a project of rebuilding one hundred existing locomotives to new Class 39-000 Electro-Motive Diesel type GT26CU-3 locomotives for Spoornet. Only five were rebuilt and placed in service between April 2006 and 2009. In 2005, a project commenced to rebuild one hundred Class 39-000 Electro-Motive Diesel type GT26CU-3 diesel-electric locomotives for Spoornet from Classes 34-600 and 34-800 type GT26MC and Class 37-000 type GT26M2C locomotives; the original locomotives had all been designed by General Motors Electro-Motive Division and had been built by General Motors South Africa in Port Elizabeth between 1974 and 1981. Suitable frames from wrecked locomotives were to be used. Two companies were invited to produce prototypes for the project. One was Electro-Motive Sibanye, a joint venture between the established Electro-Motive Diesel and Sibanye Trade and Services, a South African Black Economic Empowerment company which dealt in locomotives and spare parts.

The Sibanye venture produced only one locomotive, rebuilt from Class 37-000 no. 37-010 in 2008 and numbered 39-251. The locomotive was tested, but rejected by Transnet due to poor quality. Furthermore, when serious tender irregularities came to light, the locomotive rebuilding deal between Transnet and Sibanye was cancelled. Though it was painted in the red Transnet Freight Rail livery, no. 39-251 never worked for Transnet. The locomotive did have the distinctive cab roof profile of other locomotives in the EMD family, unlike the different rounded cab roof profile of its successful competitor; when the Electro-Motive Sibanye joint venture was dissolved, the locomotive remained in the possession of Sibanye Trade and Services and was renumbered STS 001. It was hired or leased to the Khumani iron ore mine in the Northern Cape, where it was renumbered again to LC9-1; the other company was Transwerk Transnet Rail Engineering and Transnet Engineering, who produced five locomotives at its Bloemfontein shops between 2005 and 2008, rebuilt from three wrecked Class 34-600 and two Class 34-800 locomotives.

These five were tested and approved by Transnet and placed in service between April 2006 and 2009 as the Class 39-000, numbered in the range from 39-001 to 39-005. It was intended to produce one hundred Class 39-000 locomotives, but in spite of the technical success of the TRE part of the project rebuilding was halted after completing five locomotives due to higher than anticipated cost. Instead of rebuilding one hundred old locomotives, it was decided to rather continue the program by building fifty new Class 39-200 locomotives from imported and locally produced components; this was to take place at the Koedoespoort shops of TRE. The original Class identity of each Class 39-000 locomotive can be visually determined by the difference between their left side sills; the three ex Class 34-600 locomotives have thicker fishbelly-shaped left sills, compared to the thinner straight left sills of the two ex Class 34-800 locomotives. Improvements over the pre-rebuilt locomotives which were realised in the Class 39-000 include microprocessor control, 26% more maximum continuous tractive effort and 15% more tractive horse-power, a Knorr-Bremse electronic brake rack to replace the old pneumatic braking controls.

The original Classes 34-600, 34-800 and 37-000 numbers and works numbers of the Class 39-000 locomotives are listed in the table. The five Class 39-000 locomotives were placed in service on the Pretoria-Komatipoort section of the line to Maputo in Mozambique to work in conjunction with Class 37-000 locomotives on the heavy grades of the Belfast-Steelpoort section in Mpumalanga. By 2013, once the Class 39-200 locomotive fleet had entered service, they were redeployed to the Thabazimbi iron ore line and shedded at Pyramid South; the main picture shows no. 39-002 at Pyramid South, north of Pretoria, as delivered in Transnet Freight Rail livery. Of the five Class 39-000 locomotives, only no. 39-001 was delivered in Spoornet’s blue livery with outline numbers

Giuliana Olmos

Giuliana Marion Olmos Dick is an Austrian–born Mexican tennis player. At the 2018 Monterrey Open, she became first Mexican player in the open era to reach a WTA final. Olmos who graduated from the University of Southern California in 2016, she has a career-high singles ranking of world No. 343, achieved on 4 March 2019, a career-high doubles ranking of No. 65, set on 30 September 2019. She has won two doubles titles on the WTA Tour, as well as four singles and ten doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. Olmos has represented Mexico in the Fed Cup, where she has a win-loss record of 13–11. Giuliana Olmos at the Women's Tennis Association Giuliana Olmos at the International Tennis Federation Giuliana Olmos at the Fed Cup University of Southern California profile

Milanuncios is a popular website for online classified advertisements in SpainThe service of Milanuncios consists in the insertion of ads, created by the users of the website, in the portal This way Milanuncios helps to connect advertisers with those interested in the ad. So far, the company has only focused on the Spanish market. In 2014, Milanuncios SL was acquired by Schibsted. Milanuncios is divided into 16 different sections: Motor Jobs Real Estate Pets Services Businesses Computers Phones House and Garden Sports Image and Sound Fashion Hobbies Books and Education Contacts; the posting of ads on the website is free of charge both for individuals and for professionals/companies. There is no limit as to how many ads can be posted as long as the Terms and conditions are being respected. Milanuncios' most important section is Motor followed by Goods. With 372k vehicle ads in August 2012, Milanuncios has the most complete offering in the Spanish market, well ahead of its competitors with 246k ads, the specialized motors vertical

Milanuncios helps to connect advertisers with those interested in the ad but does not mediate between the parties. Therefore, users need to be cautious in their transactions; as a general norm, the webpage recommends not to pay before receiving the product or service and users should meet in person to close the transaction. The website offers a series of simple filters to facilitate local searches; the main competitors of Milanuncios are,,,,, and has a market share of around 50% followed by with a share close to 30% in June 2012. Segundamano was bought by Schibsted in a Norwegian media group. In Spain, the brand Milanuncios became strong among internet users and has overtaken not only segundamano, but eBay. Since its creation in September 2005, Milanuncios' growth was fundamentally organic focusing on a good user experience. In that regard it is a unique example in the online classifieds market of how a small startup without funds become the number one market place in its local market.

By 2012, had become the most popular Spanish website for online classifieds: 11 million visitors per month compared to 8.2 M of 23 million visits per month, 64% more than The users of were spending a total of 364 million minutes on the site in the month of June 2012 — doubling the time spent on the site by users of segundamano.esThe portal belongs 100% to Milanuncios SL, a Spanish company, financed without any external capital injection. In early 2014, SCM Spain announced the agreement to acquired Milanuncios; the acquisition was completed in the end of 2014. Official website Blog of Milanuncios