The Trautonium is a monophonic electronic musical instrument invented about 1929 by Friedrich Trautwein in Berlin at the Musikhochschule's music and radio lab, the Rundfunkversuchstelle. Soon afterwards Oskar Sala joined him, continuing development until Sala's death in 2002. Instead of a keyboard, its manual is made of a resistor wire over a metal plate, pressed to create a sound. Expressive playing was possible with this wire by gliding on it, creating vibrato with small movements. Volume was controlled by the pressure of the finger on the board; the first Trautoniums were marketed by Telefunken from 1933 until 1935. The sounds were at first produced by neon-tube relaxation oscillators, which produced sawtooth-like waveforms; the pitch was determined by the position at which the performer pressed the resistive wire into contact with the plate beneath it which changed its length, with suitable technique allowing vibrato, quarter-tones, portamento. The oscillator output was fed into two parallel resonant filter circuits.
A footpedal controlled the volume ratio of the output of the two filters, sent to an amplifier. On 20 June 1930 Oskar Sala and Paul Hindemith gave a public performance at the Berliner Musikhochschule Hall called "Neue Musik Berlin 1930" to introduce the Trautonium. Oskar Sala toured Germany with the Trautonium, he soloed in the debut of Hindemith's student Harald Genzmer's Concerto for Trautonium and Orchestra. Paul Hindemith wrote several short trios for three Trautoniums with three different tunings: bass and high voice, his student Harald Genzmer wrote two concertos with orchestra, one for the monophonic Trautonium and one for Oskar Sala's "Mixtur-Trautonium". One of the first additions of Sala was to add a switch for changing the static tuning, he added a noise generator and an envelope generator, formant filter and the subharmonic oscillators. These oscillators generate a main pitch and several subharmonics, which are not multiples of the fundamental tone, but fractions of it. For either of the manuals, four of these waves can be mixed and the player can switch through these predefined settings.
Thus, it was called the "Mixtur-Trautonium". Oskar Sala composed music for industrial films, but the most famous was the bird noises for Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds; the Trautonium was used in the Dresden première of Richard Strauss's Japanese Festival Music in 1942 for emulating the gongs- and bells-parts and in the 1950s in Bayreuth for the Monsalvat bells in Wagner's Parsifal. The German manufacturer Doepfer sells some devices for the commercial market to allow for Trautonium-like synthesizer control; the German manufacturer trautoniks sells. Although Oskar Sala developed the Trautonium further, he did not teach his art to any pupil. However, Peter Pichler, a Munich musician and artist, had heard the sound of the Trautonium when he was a young man and was fascinated by its emotional impact and dynamic range. Pichler found. In 1996 the two met in Sala's studio in Berlin, the result was the preservation of much of Sala's knowledge. Pichler was transformed by the experience but he had to wait fifteen long years before he could afford to commission his own Mixturtrautonium from the company Trautoniks.
He wrote a musical theater piece about the fathers of the Trautonium, "Wiedersehen in Trautonien", performed at the German Museum in Munich, for the 100th birthday of Oskar Sala in 2010. For this theater piece Pichler commissioned three "Volkstrautonien", one of, bought by the German Museum for its permanent collection. Pichler is still cooperating with the German Museum in Munich, administering Sala's estate. Since Pichler has been making regular appearances with the Mixturtrautonium in various musical genres; the classical music composed for this instrument by Paul Hindemith, Harald Genzmer and Oskar Sala for instance is challenging for an experienced musician to play. Pichler is one of the few musicians in the world who has mastered this instrument and is composing for it. Subharchord Ondes Martenot Theremin Telharmonium Continuum Fingerboard Swarmatron Klaus Ebbeke, Paul Hindemith und das Trautonium. HJb 11 Peter Donhauser, Elektrische Klangmaschinen. Die Pionierzeit in Deutschland und Österreich.
Böhlau, Vienna et al. 2007, ISBN 3-205-77593-7. Http://www.peterpichler-trautonium.com The Trautonium History: The Beginning Neumixturtrautonium VST Oskar Sala, My Fascinating Instrument. 1990 recording Perfect Sound Forever, Oskar Sala 1910-2002. Website Wolfgang Müller Pablo Freire. Oscar Sala biography The Trautonium the Trautonium on'120 years Of Electronic Music'
NCBA Bank Kenya, whose full name is NCBA Bank Kenya Plc, is a commercial bank in Kenya. It is licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya, the country's central bank and national banking regulator. NCBA Bank Kenya is part of NCBA Group Plc, a large financial services provider in East Africa, headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya; the group owns subsidiary companies in Kenya, Tanzania and the Ivory Coast. As of September 2019, NCBA Bank's total asset base was valued at about KSh487.8 billion. At that time, the bank was ranked in position number three, by total assets, behind KCB Bank Kenya Limited and Equity Bank Kenya Limited. NIC Bank Kenya Plc roots trace back to 1959 when its parent company, NIC Group, was formed as a joint venture by Standard Bank Limited of South Africa and Mercantile Credit Company Limited of the United Kingdom. NIC was a non-bank financial institution. NIC Bank Kenya Plc was incorporated in 2016 as a result of the corporate reorganization of NIC Bank Group. Prior to January 2017, NIC Bank Group operated both as a licensed bank and a holding company for its subsidiaries.
On 12 September 2016, NIC Bank Group announced its intention to incorporate a new wholly owned subsidiary, NIC Bank Kenya Plc, to which it would transfer its Kenyan banking business and liabilities. The rationale for the re-organisation is that by converting NIC Bank Group into a non-operating holding company that owns both banking and non-banking subsidiary companies in order to support the Group’s medium and long term strategy; the group reorganization was completed on 31 August 2017 upon approval from shareholders and the regulators. In 2017, the Central Bank of Kenya appointed NIC Bank as asset and liabilities consultant for Imperial Bank Limited. NIC Bank took over the responsibility of returning funds to the failed bank's deposit customers; the agreement allows NIC to acquire some of the deposits and liabilities of Imperial once its receiver manager the Kenya Deposit Insurance Corporation starts liquidating the bank. In December 2018, NIC Group announced that it would be merging with Commercial Bank of Africa Group creating the Kenya's third-biggest bank.
The Transaction was approved by the Kenyan regulators and shareholders in April 2019. As of 18 May 2019, the merged group was still operating two bank sets of banks in Kenya and Tanzania but was in the process of seeking regulatory approval to merge these business so that they can have one bank in each country and a group rebranding. On 27 September 2019, the Central Bank of Kenya approved the merger and name changes, effective 1 October 2019; the merged non-banking holding company became NCBA Group Plc and the Kenyan subsidiary of the merged entity became NCBA Bank Kenya Plc. The names of the merged entity in Tanzania, Rwanda and Ivory Coast will re-brand accordingly; as at January 2018, NIC Bank had over 41 branches in Kenya. NIC Bank's partnership with the Kenya Post Office Savings Bank enabled the provision of cash collection services for its customers through Postbank’s network of 94 branches in Kenya. NIC Bank together with its subsidiaries, which it owns, either wholly or form the NCBA Group Plc.
Members of the group include: NCBA Bank Kenya – Retail banking – Nairobi, Kenya 100% Shareholding NCBA Capital – Investment banking – Nairobi, Kenya 100% Shareholding NCBA Capital Securities – Securities brokerage – Nairobi, Kenya – 100% Shareholding NCBA Bank Tanzania – Retail banking – Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 69% Shareholding NCBA Bank Uganda – Retail banking – Kampala, Uganda 100% Shareholding. The activities of NCBA Bank Kenya are directed by eleven board of directors; the Managing Director is assisted by seven other 10 other senior Officers in supervising the day-to-day activities of the Bank. List of banks in Kenya Central Bank of Kenya Economy of Kenya
Dimitris Petkakis is a Greek footballer. He plays for Irinoupoli F. C. in A1 EPS Imathias. He started his career playing for Apollon Kalamarias F. C. and Veria F. C.. In summer 2008 he moved to Kavala F. C.. He scored his first goal against his former team Apollon Kalamarias F. C. in a 2-0 home win. He completed 32 appearances having scored 1 goal. In summer 2011 he moved to Panionios G. S. S.. He stayed there for one whole season, he completed this season having made 21 appearances but he did not manage to score any goal in the league. In summer 2012 he moved to AEP Paphos, he completed 10 appearances. In winter 2013 he moved to Olympiakos Volou 1937 F. C.. He made his debut against Asteras Tripolis F. C.. He scored his first goal against Pierikos F. C. in a 4-1 home win. At the beginning of 2013/14 season he signed a one-year contract with Aiginiakos F. C.. Dimitris Petkakis at epae.org Dimitris Petkakis at Guardian Football