The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from c. 870 CE until 1949 CE. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikyam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin, as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; the official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. King Marthanda Varma inherited the small feudal state of Venad in 1723 and built it into Travancore, one of the most powerful kingdoms in southern India. Marthanda Varma led the Travancore forces during the Travancore-Dutch War of 1739–46, which culminated in the Battle of Colachel; the defeat of the Dutch by Travancore is considered the earliest example of an organised power from Asia overcoming European military technology and tactics. Marthanda Varma went on to conquer most of the petty principalities of the native rulers who had allied with the Dutch against him.
In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire. The Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Travancore became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work, social reforms. In 1903-1904 the total revenue of the state was Rs.1,02,01,900. The regions had many small independent kingdoms. During the peak time of Chera-Chola-Pandya, this region became a part of the Chera Kingdom. During that era, when the region was part of the Chera empire, it was still known as Thiruvazhumkode, it was contracted to Thiruvankode, anglicised by the English to Travancore. In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, the land was called Aayi Desam or Aayi Rajyam, meaning'Aayi territory'; the Aayis controlled the land from present-day Kollam district in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district.
There were the major one at Kollam and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur. The kingdom was thus called Venad. Kings of Venad had, at various times, travelled from Kollam and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode and Kalkulam. Thiruvithamcode became the capital of the Thrippapur Swaroopam, the country was referred to as Thiruvithamcode by Europeans after the capital had been moved in 1601 to Padmanabhapuram, near Kalkulam; the Chera empire had dissolved by around 1100 and thereafter the territory comprised numerous small kingdoms until the time of Marthanda Varma who, as king of Venad from 1729, employed brutal methods to unify them. During his reign, Thiruvithamcode or Travancore became the official name; the Kingdom of Travancore was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore was divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands, the central midlands, the western lowlands. Venad was a former state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent, traditionally ruled by rajas known as the Venattadis.
Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Trivandrum in the north, their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon. Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century; when the Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom. An invasion of the Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama Varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of the Chera dynasty, is the founder of the Venad royal house, the title of the Chera kings, was thenceforth kept by the rulers of Venad.
Thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty and Chirava, merged in the Venad family, which set up the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While the Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles north of Thiruvananthapuram, was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad kingdom the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple; the history of Travancore began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad, expanded it into Travancore during his reign. After defeating a union of feudal lords and establishing internal peace, he expanded the kingdom of Venad through a series of military campaigns from Kanyakumari in the south to the borders of Kochi in the north during his 29-year rule; this rule included Travancore-Dutch War between the Dutch East India Company, allied to some of these kingdoms and Travancore.
In 1741, Travancore won the Battle of Colachel against the Dutch East India Company
Kasma Science Fiction Magazine is a free online science fiction magazine based in Ottawa, Canada, founded in 2009 by Alex Korovessis. Some notable contributors include Ken Liu, Tom Doyle and Douglas Smith. 10 Years of SF! Volume 1 10 Years of SF! is an anthology featuring the best science fiction published by Kasma SF from 2009 through to 2018. The anthology features short science fiction from: Ken Liu, Tom Doyle, Alex Shvarstman, Nancy Fulda, Colum Paget, Nancy Fulda, Sean Patrick Hazlett, Jeremy Szal, Manfred Gabriel, Anatoly Belilovsky, Alexis A. Hunter, Alan Baxter, Mitch Edgeworth, Steve Stanton, Dwayne Minton, KC Ball, Steve Stanton, Tendai Huchu, Natalia Theodoridou, Robert Drake, Lee Beavington, Ashanti Luke, Matthew Johnson. Cover art contributed by Jose Baetas. 2017Dependent Assemblies by Philip A Suggars Roses in Winter by Sean Patrick HazlettOur Most Esteemed Scientists by Kris Ashton Worm Problem by Jason Palmer Fresnel Day by Josh Pearce When the INVADER Comes: What to Do and How to Do It by Alexis A Hunter The Gates of Hell by Aaron Wilson Cinnamon Twist by Chris Dean Inversions by Tom Doyle The Galaxy's Cube by Jeremy Szal Astra, the Falling Star by Sarena Ulibarri A Man More Ordinary by Manfred Gabriel 2016Pinned by Sean Patrick Hazlett Images Across a Shattered Sea by Stewart C Baker Invocation of the Lurker by CJ Paget Strictly Business by Gary Cuba Eorapter, the Dawn-Plunderer by Alexis A Hunter Skingame by Jeremy Szal Close Encounter in Coyote Canyon by Sean Patrick Hazlett Mountain of the Dead by Aaron Wilson Consensus Building by Tom Doyle Text Based by Josh Pearce Tunguska by Sean Patrick Hazlett 2015The Wayfarer by Mitchell Edgeworth Skin by Sean Patrick Hazlett Sea of Photons by TL Huchu All the Things We Gave You by CJ Paget Art's Appreciation by Tom Doyle The Taking of IOSA-2083 by CJ Paget Sleep, Eidolon by Matthew Allan Garcia Theft by Sviatoslav Loginov/Anatoly Belilovsky To Bear Fruit by Alexis A Hunter Item Not as Described by JW Alden Milk Man by Cornelius Fortune 2014Shadows Among the Jewels by Sarah Hendrix Hoodoo by D Thomas Minton Crossing Borders by Tom Doyle The Kyne Extraction by Fi Michell Pink Ice in the Jovian Rings by CJ Paget Love Thy Neighbors by Ken Liu That Tear Problem by Natalia Theodoridou What Do Bots Know About Hope by JC Piech As Dust Rolls Toward the Mountains by Serena Ulibarri No Longer a Fragment by Alexis A Hunter Colluding with Pulsars by CJ Paget Forget the Rain by D Thomas Minton 2013Sean and Kitty in Love by Gary Cuba Here-and-Now by Ken Liu Speaking to Mother by Tom Doyle The Glass Tunnel by Tim W Boiteau HVC 541-35-1998 by Bernard J Hughes Beyond Orion's Belt by Steve Simpson The Way Home by Gary Cuba Sungrazers by Ken Liu Memory File #006 by Alexis A Hunter Three Roads to Jerusalem by Anatoly Belilovsky Ship of Fools by Mjke Wood Consequences of a Clockwork Theology by CJ Paget 2012Salvage in the Void by Alan Baxter The Unfortunate Necessity of Regular Upgrades by CJ Paget Drilling by Ken Liu The Pleasing Shapes by Franco Raud Coward's Steel by KC Ball Parting is Such Sweet Sorrow by Sandra M Odell Nuclear Family by Alex Shvartsman Adrift by Willis Couvillier The Choir Invisible by Anatoly Belilovsky The Breath of Heaven by Nancy Fulda Messenger by Steve Stanton Karlsson by Anatoly Belilovsky Evolution's End by Lee Beavington 2011Life Plus Seventy by Ken Liu Penrose by Ashanti Luke The Floating Otherworld by Tom Doyle Mars Rising by Mark David Major Where Even Fools Fear to Tread by Ashanti Luke Influx Capacitor by Eric J Juneau Manifest Error by Gary Cuba Messenger by Steve Stanton To Be the Queen by Shelly Li Fulghum's Synthitar by Kevin Kvas Ad Block by Ken Liu For a Song by Sunny Moraine Hull Breach by Robert Drake Mistaken Identity by Alan Baxter Promise by David Hebden Forever by Robert J Sawyer 2010The Dragon's Lesson by Matthew Johnson Dial Tone by KC Ball Perfect Match by Steve Stanton The Uploaded by CJ Paget Leaving Town by Gary Cuba Levels by Lawrence Buentello The Dance by Glyn Hedeg Consolation Prize by Cory L Calcutt God Save the Queen by Dale Phillips Reactivation Subroutine by Melissa Marriott 2009The Transmigration of Herakles Duncan by D Thomas Minton The Quality of Free Air by Aaron Polson Dotted Lines by Adriana W. Van Leeuwen duotrope.com Official website
Milan Pavlović is a Serbian retired footballer, who played as a defender. Pavlović began playing football with FK Željezničar Sarajevo in the Yugoslav First League. Pavlović moved to Greece in July 1992 joining Greek third division side Nigrita F. C. before spending two years with Anagennisi Karditsa F. C. in the second division. He would move up to play for Iraklis F. C. during the 1995–96 Greek first division season. After another season with Anagennisi Karditsa in the second division, he moved to first division side Ethnikos Asteras F. C. for four seasons. In total, Pavlović made 132 appearances in the Greek top flight. Pavlović became world champion with Yugoslavia at the 1987 FIFA World Youth Championship in Chile, he was the national team captain at that World Cup. Yugoslavia Youth FIFA World Youth Championship: 1987 Profile at Strukljeva.net