Grant Morrison, MBE is a Scottish comic book writer and playwright. He is known for his nonlinear narratives and countercultural leanings in his runs on titles including DC Comics's Animal Man, Batman, JLA, Action Comics, All-Star Superman, Vertigo's The Invisibles, Fleetway's 2000 AD, he is the current editor-in-chief of Heavy Metal. He is the co-creator of the Syfy TV series Happy! starring Christopher Meloni and Patton Oswalt. Grant Morrison was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1960, he was educated at Allan Glen's School where his first portfolio of art was rejected by his careers guidance teacher, who encouraged him to work in a bank. His first published works were Gideon Stargrave strips for Near Myths in 1978, one of the first British alternative comics, his work appeared in four of the five issues of Near Myths and he was suitably encouraged to find more comic work. This included a weekly comic strip, Captain Clyde, an unemployed superhero based in Glasgow, for The Govan Press, a local newspaper, plus various issues of DC Thomson's Starblazer, a science fiction version of that company's Commando title.
Morrison spent much of the early 1980s touring and recording with his band The Mixers writing Starblazer for D. C. Thomson and contributing to various UK indie titles. In 1982 he submitted a proposal involving the Justice League of America and Jack Kirby's New Gods entitled Second Coming to DC Comics, but it was not commissioned. After writing The Liberators for Dez Skinn's Warrior in 1985, he started work for Marvel UK the following year. There he wrote a number of comic strips for Doctor Who Magazine, his final one a collaboration with a then-teenage Bryan Hitch, as well as a run on the Zoids strip in Spider-Man and Zoids. 1986 saw publication of Morrison's first of several two- or three-page Future Shocks for 2000AD. Morrison's first continuing serial began in 2000 AD in 1987, when he and Steve Yeowell created Zenith. Morrison's work on Zenith brought him to the attention of DC Comics, they accepted his proposals for Animal Man, a little-known character from DC's past whose most notable recent appearance was a cameo in the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series, for a 48-page Batman one-shot that would become Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth.
Animal Man put Morrison in line with the so-called "British Invasion" of American comics, along with such writers as Neil Gaiman, Peter Milligan, Jamie Delano and Alan Moore, who had launched the "invasion" with his work on Swamp Thing. After impressing with Animal Man, Morrison was asked to take over Doom Patrol, starting his surreal take on the superhero genre with issue No. 19 in 1989. Morrison's Doom Patrol introduced concepts such as dadaism and the writings of Jorge Luis Borges into his first several issues. DC published Arkham Asylum: A Serious House on Serious Earth in 1989 as a 128-page graphic novel painted by Dave McKean. Comics historian Les Daniels observed in 1995 that "Arkham Asylum was an unprecedented success, selling 182,166 copies in hardcover and another 85,047 in paperback."While working for DC Comics in America, Morrison kept contributing to British indie titles, writing St. Swithin's Day for Trident Comics. St. Swithin's Day's anti-Margaret Thatcher themes proved controversial, provoking a small tabloid press reaction and a complaint from Conservative MP Teddy Taylor.
The controversy continued with the publication of The New Adventures of Hitler in Scottish music and lifestyle magazine Cut in 1989, due to its use of Adolf Hitler as its lead character. The strip was unfinished when Cut folded, was reprinted and completed in Fleetway's 2000 AD spin-off title Crisis. Morrison returned to Batman with the "Gothic" story arc in issues 6–10 of the Batman title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight; the early 1990s saw Morrison revamping Kid Eternity for DC with artist Duncan Fegredo, Dan Dare, with artist Rian Hughes. Morrison coloured Dare's bright future with Thatcherism in Fleetway's Revolver. In 1991 Morrison wrote Bible John-A Forensic Meditation for Fleetway's Crisis, based on an analysis of possible motivations for the crimes of the serial killer Bible John. Covering similar themes to Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell's From Hell, the work utilised cut-up techniques, a Ouija board and collage rather than conventional panels to tell the story. In 1993 Morrison, fellow Glaswegian comic writer Mark Millar and John Smith were asked to reinvigorate 2000 AD for an eight-week run called "The Summer Offensive".
Morrison wrote Judge Dredd and Really and Truly, co-wrote the controversial Big Dave with Millar. DC Comics launched its Vertigo imprint in 1993, publishing several of Morrison's creator-owned projects, such as the steampunk mini-series Sebastian O and the graphic novel The Mystery Play. 1995 saw the release of Kill Your Boyfriend, with artist Philip Bond published as a Vertigo Voices one-shot. In 1996 Morrison wrote Flex Mentallo, a Doom Patrol spin-off with art by Frank Quitely, returned to DC Universe superheroics with the short-lived Aztek, co-written with Mark Millar. In 1996, Morrison was given the Justice League of America to revamp as JLA, a comic book that gathered the "Big Seven" superheroes of the DC universe into one team; this run returned the title back to best-selling status. Morrison wrote several issues of The Flash with Mark Millar, as well as DC's crossover event of 1998, the four-issue mini-series DC One Million, in addition to plotting many of the multiple crossovers. With the three volumes of the creator-owned The Invisibles, Morrison started his largest and most important work.
The Invisibles combined political, pop- and sub-cultural references. Tapping into pre-millennial tension, the work was influenced
New York Comic Con
The New York Comic Con is an annual New York City fan convention dedicated to Western comics, graphic novels, manga, video games, toys and television. It was first held in 2006; the New York Comic Con is a for-profit event produced and managed by ReedPOP, a division of Reed Exhibitions and Reed Elsevier, is not affiliated with the long running non-profit San Diego Comic-Con, nor the Big Apple Convention known as the Big Apple Comic-Con, owned by Wizard Entertainment. ReedPOP is involved with other events, including Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo and PAX Dev/PAX East/PAX Prime. ReedPop and New York Comic Con were founded by Greg Topalian, former senior vice president of Reed Exhibitions; the first con was held in 2006 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. Due to Reed Exhibitions' lack of experience with comic conventions, attendance was far more than anticipated, the main exhibition hall could only hold 10,000. Despite crowding on Friday afternoon, tickets continued to be sold due to low pre-reg numbers, the non-counting of professionals and exhibitors.
The main exhibition hall hit capacity Saturday morning and was locked by the fire marshals until people left, with the lockdown ending in the afternoon. Major guests, including Kevin Smith and Frank Miller, could not enter the main hall; the line to enter the convention wrapped around the building with waits of two hours to enter, many were turned away. Ticket sales for Sunday were suspended. Reed announced; the second con was held in 2007, with the convention organizer booking double the floor space than the previous year's space, moving to the upper level of the Javits Center. The show on Friday was again only open to industry and press until 4 p.m. when it opened to the public. Due to better planning, advance ticket sales were controlled, the convention sold out for Saturday. Lines started forming at midnight Saturday to enter the convention, by Saturday morning, there was a 2-hour wait in 20 degree temperatures to enter. Crowding was a problem in the Artists Alley, off the main convention floor, causing it to be moved to the main floor for 2008.
The American Anime Awards, hosted by New York Comic Con, was held on February 24 at the New Yorker Hotel, during the Comic Con. The third con held in 2008 moved to April, continued to grow, occupied most of the main level in the Javits Center. Stan Lee was awarded the inaugural New York Comics Legend Award at the Times Square Virgin Megastore before the Comic Con. Kids' Day programming was added to the convention on Sunday with the help of Kids's Comic Con; the fourth con held in 2009 returned to February and featured a charity art auction to support The Hero Initiative. Due to scheduling conflicts with the Javits Center for spring dates and the creation of the Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo by Reed, New York Comic Con was moved to October for Halloween starting in 2010; the New York Anime Festival a separate event created by Reed, was merged into Comic Con. Registration for the combined events was 190 percent ahead of 2009's numbers, convention space was increased by an additional 40 percent, the anime festival was moved to the lower level of the Javits.
The main floor of the convention center was split by a large construction area due to repairs to the Javits Center. Intel Extreme Masters Global Challenge – New York took place in Comic Con 2011, it featured eSport tournaments for games such as StarCraft II, League of Legends, Counter-Strike. In 2011, the convention was expanded to four days; the first day of the convention was limited to press and fans that purchased a four-day pass. This changed in 2013. With this addition, attendance at New York Comic Con grew to over 130,000, which placed the attendance of the convention on par with San Diego Comic-Con for the first time ever. In 2014, NYCC's attendance reached 151,000, surpassing SDCC to become the largest comic book convention in North America. In 2016, it was announced that everyone attending NYCC 2016 would be required to complete a "Fan Verification" profile; the event organizers explained that this step was implemented in an attempt to reduce the amount of scalpers and resellers who purchase tickets.
Fan Verification would only be open from May 20 - June 14, tickets purchased could only be assigned to someone with a profile. It was announced that NYCC would no longer be selling VIP tickets, that show tickets would not be sold at any retailers or events leading up to NYCC 2016. In 2017, the sale of 3-day and 4-day passes to the event were discontinued. Only single day Thursday, Saturday and Sunday kids tickets would be sold for the event. In 2018, the event organizers announced a partnership with Anime Expo for show called Anime Fest @ NYCC X Anime Expo; the four-day event would be held at Pier 94 in New York City, concurrent with the NYCC convention dates. The New York Anime Festival was an anime and manga convention held annually from 2007 to 2011 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center on the West Side of Manhattan in New York City. Produced by Reed Exhibitions, the people behind New York Comic Con, the inaugural event was held from December 7 through December 9, 2007. Starting in 2010 the New York Anime Festival has been held with the New York Comic Con, bringing the two cultures together.
In 2012, the New York Anime festival was absorbed into Comic Con. The Eastern Championships of Cosplay have been held at New York Comic Con since 2014. They
Matt Wagner is an American comics artist and writer, best known as the creator of the series Mage and Grendel. Matt Wagner's first published comic book work was Comico Primer #2, the first appearance of Grendel. In addition to his creator-owned series Mage and Grendel, he has worked on comics featuring the Demon and Batman as well as such titles as Sandman Mystery Theatre. In 1991, he illustrated part of the "Season of Mists" story arc in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series, he wrote and drew Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity a limited series featuring DC's three major heroes in 2003. He followed it with Batman and the Monster Men and Batman and the Mad Monk in 2006, his other projects include Madame Xanadu for Vertigo, with artist Amy Reeder Hadley. He has produced numerous comics covers, including painted ones for Green Arrow and has written several Green Hornet limited series for Dynamite Entertainment. Outside comics, Wagner provided art for the 1984 Villains & Vigilantes adventure Battle Above the Earth written by Steven Crow.
Wagner resides in Portland, Oregon with his wife Barbara Schutz. Wagner is an atheist. 1988: Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Grendel Won an Inkpot Award 1993: Won "Best Finite Series/Limited Series" Eisner Award, for Grendel: War Child Nominated for "Best Writer/Artist" Eisner Award, for Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight: "Faces" Nominated for "Best Cover Artist" Eisner Award, for Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight: "Faces" Nominated for "Best Inker" Eisner Award, for Grendel: War Child 1995: Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Sandman Mystery Theatre 1999: Won "Best Anthology" Eisner Award, for Grendel: Black and Red Won "Best Short Story" Eisner Award, for "Devil's Advocate" in Grendel: Black and Red #1 Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Grendel: Black and Red Official website Matt Wagner at the Comic Book DB Matt Wagner at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Matt Wagner at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
Robert Schreck is an American comic book writer and editor. A co-founder of Oni Press, Schreck worked for long stretches at both Dark Horse Comics and DC Comics, he is editor-in-chief of Legendary Comics. In 1977, Bob Schreck began working for Creation Entertainment running conventions around the country, where he got to know most of the era’s comic book professionals, met aspirants and up-and-comers such as Matt Wagner, who has called Schreck "a major force in the comics industry." In the early 1980s he worked in marketing at Marvel Comics. In 1985 Schreck and his future wife Diana Schutz were hired as administrative director and editor of Comico Comics. Under their stewardship Comico rose to the third best-selling comics publisher, after Marvel and DC. After a brief stint at Graphitti Designs, Schreck worked at Dark Horse Comics from 1990-97, where he served as marketing director and group editor. During this time Dark Horse became the third best-selling comics publisher in the country; as editor, Schreck brought several talents to a wider audience, including Mike Allred and Paul Pope, who credits Schreck as an important factor in his career, was the editor of, among other titles, Frank Miller's Sin City, The Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot, Art Adams’s Monkeyman and O'Brien, the anthology title Dark Horse Presents.
Schreck was instrumental in compelling Frank Miller to work with director Robert Rodriguez on a film version of Sin City. He shortly thereafter co-founded Oni Press with Joe Nozemack. Oni's goal was publishing graphic novels the founders would want to read. Unsatisfied with the material, dominating the industry, they believed that sequential art could be used to tell any story. Oni titles Schreck edited include Kevin Smith's Clerks and Jay and Silent Bob comics, Bad Boy by Frank Miller and Simon Bisley, the award-winning Oni Double Feature. After having been courted by DC Comics for over a decade, Schreck left Oni to join them as editor of the Batman titles, which included the acclaimed storyline Hush, the mini-series The Dark Knight Strikes Again, Batman: Year 100 as well as recruitment of writers Judd Winick, David Lapham, Brad Meltzer with his first work in comics. Schreck was the editor of Green Lantern, the acclaimed Quiver, All-Star Superman and All-Star Batman. For DC's Vertigo imprint he produced the award-winning Daytripper, Sweet Tooth, the horror anthology Toe Tags, which featured a story by film director George RomeroAfter leaving DC in January 2009, Schreck joined IDW Publishing as a senior editor, where he wrote the comic book series Jurassic Park: Redemption.
In 2011, he was named editor-in-chief of Legendary Comics, with whom he brought out Holy Terror by Frank Miller, The Tower Chronicles by Matt Wagner and Simon Bisley, Shadow Walk by Mark Wade and Shane Davis, Annihilator by Grant Morrison and Frazer Irving, Cops for Criminals by Steven Grant and Pete Woods, as well as tie-ins to Warcraft, Pacific Rim and King Kong. Schreck credits his editorial philosophy in part to the influence of Archie Goodwin, explaining: "I try to provide fertile topsoil. A place for these people to take root and grow... a certain amount of stepping back and compassion, just being able to listen to what it is... many times the writer or the artist you’re working with, they’re not quite sure what it is they want to say at this juncture. So you’re there to hear things that they’re not picking up on and help them see it." Bob Schreck grew up in New York. He resides in Oregon with his husband Randy. 1990: Won Inkpot Award 1995: Won "Best Anthology" Harvey Award for Dark Horse Presents Nominated for "Best Editor" Eisner Award, for Madman, Dark Horse Presents, Rascals in Paradise Nominated for "Best Anthology" Eisner Award, for Dark Horse Presents 1997: Won "Best Anthology" Harvey Award for Dark Horse Presents 1998: Won "Best Anthology" Harvey Award for Dark Horse Presents 1999: Won "Best Anthology" Harvey Award for Oni Double Feature Nominated for "Best Anthology" Eisner Award, for Oni Double Feature 2002: Nominated for "Favorite Editor" Eisner Award, for Batman and Green Arrow Bob Schreck at the Comic Book DB Official website
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
Nelson Alexander Ross is an American comic book writer/artist known for his painted interiors and design work. He first became known with the 1994 miniseries Marvels, on which he collaborated with writer Kurt Busiek for Marvel Comics, he has since done a variety of projects for both Marvel and DC Comics, such as the 1996 miniseries Kingdom Come, which Ross co-wrote. Since he has done covers and character designs for Busiek's series Astro City, various projects for Dynamite Entertainment, his feature film work includes concept and narrative art for Spider-Man and Spider-Man 2, DVD packaging art for the M. Night Shyamalan film Unbreakable, he has done covers for TV Guide, promotional artwork for the Academy Awards and packaging design for video games, his renditions of superheroes have been merchandised as action figures. Ross' style has been said to exhibit "a Norman-Rockwell-meets-George-Pérez vibe", has been praised for its realistic, human depictions of classic comic book characters, his rendering style, his attention to detail, the perceived tendency of his characters to be depicted staring off into the distance in cover images has been satirized in Mad magazine.
Because of the time it takes Ross to produce his art, he serves as a plotter and/or cover artist. Comics Buyer's Guide Senior Editor Maggie Thompson, commenting on that publication's retirement of the Favorite Painter award from their CBG Fan Awards due to Ross' domination of that category, stated in 2010, "Ross may be the field's Favorite Painter, period. That's despite the fact that many outstanding painters are at work in today's comic books." Alex Ross was born in Portland and raised in Lubbock, Texas, by his minister father and his mother, Lynette, a commercial artist from whom he would learn many of the trademarks of his artistic style. Ross first began drawing at age three, was first influenced by superheroes when he discovered Spider-Man on an episode of the children's TV series The Electric Company, he would be influenced by comics artists such as John Romita Sr. Neal Adams, George Pérez and Bernie Wrightson, attempted to imitate Pérez' style when he did superhero work, Wrightson's when he did what he calls "serious" work.
By age 16, Ross discovered the realistic work of illustrators such as Andrew Loomis and Norman Rockwell, envisioned one day seeing such styles applied to comic book art. At age 17, Ross began studying painting at the American Academy of Art in Chicago, where his mother had studied. During his years there, Ross discovered the work of other artists like J. C. Leyendecker and Salvador Dalí, whose "hyper-realistic quality", Ross saw, was not that far removed from that of comics, it was during this time. Ross graduated after three years. After graduating, Ross took a job at an advertising agency as a storyboard artist. Ross' first published comic book work was the 1990 five-issue miniseries, Terminator: The Burning Earth, written by Ron Fortier and published by NOW Comics. Ross created all of the art, from pencils through coloring for the series, he performed similar work on a variety of titles over the next few years. His first work for Marvel Comics was to have been printed in the science-fiction anthology series Open Space #5 but the title was cancelled with issue #4.
Ross' story was printed in 1999 as a special supplement to Wizard's Alex Ross Special. In 1993, he completed his first painted superhero assignment, the cover of a Superman novel, Superman: Doomsday & Beyond. During this time, Ross met writer Kurt Busiek, the two began submitting proposals for series that would feature paintings as their internal art. Marvel agreed to a project that would tell much of the history of the Marvel Universe from the perspective of an ordinary person; that limited series, was released in 1994, chronicled the life of a photojournalist, as he reacted to living in a world of superheroes and villains. Busiek and penciller Brent Anderson created Astro City, first published by Image Comics in 1995 and by WildStorm Comics; the series features an original superhero world and continues the theme of Marvels, exploring how ordinary people and villains react to a world where the fantastic is commonplace. Ross paints the covers and helps set the costumes and the general look and feel for the series, published sporadically in recent years.
In 1996, Ross worked with writer Mark Waid on the DC Comics limited series Kingdom Come, which presents a possible future for the DC Universe, in which Superman and several other classic superheroes return from retirement to tame a generation of brutal anti-heroes. The work featured Ross' redesigned versions of many DC characters, as well as a new generation of characters. Ross co-created the original character Magog, patterning his appearance and costume on Cable and Shatterstar, two characters created by Rob Liefeld. DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz observed that "Waid's deep knowledge of the heroes' pasts served them well, Ross' unique painted art style made a powerful statement about the reality of the world they built."Ross followed Kingdom Come with Uncle Sam, a non-superhero work for DC's Vertigo line, an experimental work that examined the dark side of American history. Ross drew the lenticular covers for Superman: Forever #1 and Batman: No Man's Land #1. Between 1998 and 2003, writer Paul Dini and Ross produced annual tabloid-sized editions celebrating the 60th anniversaries of DC Comics' Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman, as well as two specials featuring the Justice League, Secret Origins and Liberty and Justice
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co