Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
West Palm Beach, Florida
West Palm Beach is a city in and the county seat of Palm Beach County, United States. It is located to the west of the adjacent Palm Beach, situated on a barrier island across the Lake Worth Lagoon; the population was 99,919 at the 2010 census. West Palm Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017, it is the oldest incorporated municipality in Greater Miami, having been incorporated as a city two years before Miami in November 1894. West Palm Beach is located 68 miles north of Downtown Miami; the beginning of the historic period in south Florida is marked by Juan Ponce de León's first contact with native people in 1513. Europeans found a thriving native population, which they categorized into separate tribes: the Mayaimi in the Lake Okeechobee Basin and the Jaega and Ais people in the East Okeechobee area and on the east coast north of the Tequesta; when the Spanish arrived, there were about 20,000 Native Americans in south Florida. By 1763, when the English gained control of Florida, the native peoples had all but been wiped out through war, enslavement, or European diseases.
Other native peoples from Alabama and Georgia moved into Florida in the early 18th century. They were of varied ancestry, but Europeans called them all "Creeks." In Florida, they were known as the Miccosukee Indians. The Seminoles clashed with American settlers over land and over escaped slaves who found refuge among them, they resisted the government's efforts to move them to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi. Between 1818 and 1858, three wars were fought between the United States government. By 1858, there were few Seminoles remaining in Florida; the area, to become West Palm Beach was settled in the late 1870s and 1880s by a few hundred settlers who called the vicinity "Lake Worth Country." These settlers were a diverse community from different parts of the world. They included founding families such at the Potters and the Lainharts, who would go on to become leading members of the business community in the fledgling city; the first white settlers in Palm Beach County lived around Lake Worth an enclosed freshwater lake, named for Colonel William Jenkins Worth, who had fought in the Second Seminole War in Florida in 1842.
Most settlers engaged in the growing of tropical fruits and vegetables for shipment the north via Lake Worth and the Indian River. By 1890, the U. S. Census counted over 200 people settled along Lake Worth in the vicinity of what would become West Palm Beach; the area at this time boasted a hotel, the "Cocoanut House", a church, a post office. The city was platted by Henry Flagler as a community to house the servants working in the two grand hotels on the neighboring island of Palm Beach, across Lake Worth in 1893, coinciding with the arrival of the Florida East Coast railroad. Flagler paid two area settlers, Captain Porter and Louie Hillhouse, a combined sum of $45,000 for the original town site, stretching from Clear Lake to Lake Worth. On November 5, 1894, 78 people met at the "Calaboose" and passed the motion to incorporate the Town of West Palm Beach in what was Dade County; this made West Palm Beach the first incorporated municipality in South Florida. The town council addressed the building codes and the tents and shanties were replaced by brick, brick veneer, stone buildings.
The city grew during the 1890s and the first two decades of the 20th century, most residents were engaged in the tourist industry and related services or winter vegetable market and tropical fruit trade. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed by the Florida State Legislature and West Palm Beach became the county seat. In 1916, a new neo-classical courthouse was opened, painstakingly restored back to its original condition, is now used as the local history museum; the city grew in the 1920s as part of the Florida land boom. The population of West Palm Beach quadrupled from 1920 to 1927, all kinds of businesses and public services grew along with it. Many of the city's landmark structures and preserved neighborhoods were constructed during this period. Flagler intended for his Florida East Coast Railway to have its terminus in West Palm, but after the area experienced a deep freeze, he chose to extend the railroad to Miami instead; the land boom was faltering when city was devastated by the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.
The Depression years of the 1930s were a quiet time for the area, which saw slight population growth and property values lower than during the 1920s. The city only recovered with the onset of World War II, which saw the construction of Palm Beach Air Force Base, which brought thousands of military personnel to the city; the base was vital to the allied war effort, as it provided an excellent training facility and had unparalleled access to North Africa for a North American city. During World War II, German U-Boats sank dozens of merchant ships and oil tankers just off the coast of West Palm Beach. Nearby Palm Beach was under black out conditions to minimize night visibility to German U-boats; the 1950s saw another boom in population due to the return of many soldiers and airmen who had served in the vicinity during the war. The advent of air conditioning encouraged growth, as year-round living in a tropical climate became more acceptable to northerners. West Palm Beach became the one of the nation's fastest growing metropolitan areas during the 1950s.
However, many of the city's residents
South Florida is a geographic and cultural region that comprises Florida's southernmost counties, including Miami-Dade and Palm Beach. It is the fourth most populous urban agglomeration in the United States, it is one of Florida's three most common "directional" regions, the others being Central Florida and North Florida. It includes the populous Miami metropolitan area, the Everglades, the Florida Keys, Treasure Coast, other localities. South Florida is the only part of the continental United States with a tropical climate; as with all vernacular regions, South Florida has no official boundaries or status and is defined differently by different sources at different times. A 2007 study of Florida's regions by Ary Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that Floridians surveyed identified "South Florida" as comprising the southernmost sections of peninsular Florida; that area includes the Miami metropolitan area, the Florida Keys included in Monroe county, the interior region known as the Glades.
Additionally, Southwest Florida, representing the state's southern Gulf Coast, has emerged as a directional vernacular region. Some respondents from as far northwest as the southern Tampa Bay area identified their region as being in South Florida rather than Southwest or Central Florida. However, the University of South Florida, founded in 1956, is located in Tampa. At that time, prior to the changes brought by the Florida Constitution of 1968, south Florida was much less important politically, the term was used more loosely. Tampa is not considered part of south Florida. Enterprise Florida, the state's economic development agency, identifies "Southeast Florida" as one of eight economic regions used by the agency and other state and outside entities, including the Florida Department of Transportation; some entities alternately designate this region "South Florida". Its definition includes much of the same territory as Lamme and Oldakowski's report as well as additional area, it includes Monroe County and the three metropolitan counties of Miami-Dade and Palm Beach.
The demographics of South Florida residents can be segmented as following: Over 87.2% of all foreigners residing in South Florida come from Latin America. Largest cities in South Florida by population: The Miami accent is a regional accent of the American English dialect spoken in South Florida in Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, Monroe counties; the accent was born in central Miami, but has expanded to the rest of South Florida in the decades since the 1960s. The Miami accent is most prevalent in American-born South Floridian youth; the Miami accent is based on a standard American accent but with some changes similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, Northeast American dialects, the "Miami accent" is rhotic. Lamme and Oldakowski identify several demographic and cultural elements that characterize South Florida and distinguish it from other areas of the state. Many of its differences appear to be driven by its proportionately higher level of migration from the northern U.
S. states and from the Caribbean and Latin America in the densely populated Miami area. Politically, South Florida is more liberal than the rest of the state. While less than 10% of people in either North or Central Florida felt their area was liberal, over a third of South Floridians described their region as such. 38% characterized the area as conservative. This tracks with South Florida's demographics, Lamme and Oldakowski's findings parallel Barney Warf and Cynthia Waddell's research on Florida's political geography during the 2000 Presidential election; the economy in South Florida is similar to that in Central Florida. Compared to the more diversified economy in North Florida, tourism is by far the most significant industry in South and Central Florida, with a much smaller but vibrant agricultural industry. Lamme and Oldakowski's survey found some cultural indicators distinguishing South Florida. South Florida is the only region of the state where ethnic foods are as popular as general American cuisine.
Additionally, while there was little geographical variation for most styles of music, there was regional variation for both country and Latin music. Country was less popular in South Florida than in North or Central Florida, while Latin was more popular than in the other regions; the Anthony J. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions at Florida Atlantic University notes the unusual growth pattern of South Florida. Unlike many areas with centralized cities surrounded by development, most of South Florida is preserved natural area and designated agricultural reserves, with development restricted to a dense, narrow strip along the coast; the developed area is urbanized and continuous and decentralized, with no particular dominant core cities. The center projects this pattern to continue in the future. Over time, there have been numerous proposals for partitioning the state of Florida to form a separate state of South Florida; such proposals have been made as political statement rather than serious attempts at secession.
Reasons stated are cultural, ethnic and financial frustrations with the state government in Tallahassee, in North Florida. In 2008, the North Lauderd
1715 Treasure Fleet
The 1715 Treasure Fleet was a Spanish treasure fleet returning from the New World to Spain. At two in the morning on Wednesday, July 31, 1715, seven days after departing from Havana, eleven of the twelve ships of this fleet were lost in a hurricane near present-day Vero Beach, Florida; because the fleet was carrying silver, it is known as the 1715 Plate Fleet. Some artifacts and coins still wash up on Florida beaches from time to time. Around 1,500 sailors perished. Many ships, including pirates, took part in the initial salvage. A privateer, Henry Jennings was first accused of piracy for attacking such salvage ships and claiming their salvages. Treasure hunter Kip Wagner's team built an exhibit held at National Geographic "Explorers Hall" in Washington, D. C., featured in the January 1965 issue of National Geographic. This was the beginning of a fine collection of 1715 plate fleet treasure that brought hundreds of visitors from around the world. Wagner published his book Pieces of Eight in 1966.
This is a detailed account of the finding and exploration of many of these shipwrecks along the Florida "Treasure Coast." An exhibit was set up with a grand opening on May 1, 1967, at the First National Bank of Satellite Beach, Florida. In 1987, another ship in the fleet, the Urca de Lima, became the first shipwreck in the Florida Underwater Archaeological Preserves. Fisher's company, Mel Fisher's Treasures, sold the rights to the 1715 Fleet shipwreck to Queens Jewels, LLC. In 2015, 1715 Fleet - Queens Jewels, LLC and their founder Brent Brisben discovered $4.5 million in gold coins off the coast of Florida. Urca de Lima former HMS Hampton Court Santo Cristo de San Roman Nuestra Señora de las Nieves Nuestra Señora del Rosario y San Francisco Xavier Nuestra Señora de Carmen y San Antonio In the 2008 movie Fool's Gold, the protagonists are searching for the location of one of the sunken ships of the treasure fleet; the treasure fleet was used as the backdrop for a scene in the video game Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag.
The main character, Edward Kenway, is aboard one of the ships in the fleet as a prisoner, manages to escape with the help of his future quartermaster, Adéwalé, recruiting other captive pirates as a crew. The pirates manage to escape the fleet and the hurricane by stealing the twelfth ship, the brig El Dorado, which Edward keeps and renames the Jackdaw, becoming the player's ship for the rest of the game. Edward makes reference to the event when Blackbeard inquires as to how he got the Jackdaw, the latter suggests visiting the site to salvage some of the lost treasure. In the 1977 movie The Deep "David Sanders and his British girlfriend Gail Berke recover a number of artifacts, including an ampule of amber-colored liquid and a medallion bearing the image of a woman and the letters "S. C. O. P. N" and a date, 1714. St. David's Lighthouse keeper and treasure-hunter Romer Treece, believes the coin has come from the wreckage of a twelfth ship, a French tobacco ship, being protected by the 1714 fleet and named Grifon, returning to Havana for repairs but sank off the coast of Bermuda.
The plot of the Starz show Black Sails revolves around the 1715 Treasure Fleet in its first season. The largest of the ships, the Urca de Lima, is wrecked during the hurricane off the coast of Florida, carrying five million Spanish dollars' worth in gold and other precious materials, pursued by Captain Flint and his crew; the treasure, colloquially referred to as "the Urca gold", is an important plot device throughout the series. McLarty Treasure Museum Mel Fisher's Treasure Museum Piracy in the Caribbean St. Lucie County Historical Museum Survivors' and Salvagers' Camp – 1715 Fleet Treasure hunting 1715 Treasure Fleet – website of the official salvors of the wrecks History of the 1715 Treasure Fleet; the Practical Book of Cobs 4th Ed. Sedwick – The Treasure of Cape Canaveral published in Indian River Journal by Brevard Historical Commission. Sunken Treasure: Six Who Found Fortunes, Robert F. Burgess, Mead & Co. 1988
Fort Pierce, Florida
Fort Pierce is a city in and the county seat of St. Lucie County, United States; the city is part of the Treasure Coast region of Atlantic Coast Florida. It is known as the Sunrise City, sister to San Francisco, the Sunset City; the population was 41,590 at the 2010 census. As of 2012, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 42,645, it was named after the Fort Pierce Army post, built nearby in 1838 during the Second Seminole War. The military post had been named for Benjamin Kendrick Pierce, a career United States Army officer and the brother of President Franklin Pierce. Fort Pierce was awarded the 2005 City of Excellence Award by the Florida League of Cities for overall excellence in city government and in 2011, Main Street Fort Pierce, Inc. received the Great American Main Street Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation in downtown. Fort Pierce is located at 27°26′20″N 80°20′8″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 mi², of which 14.7 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water.
According to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Fort Pierce Beach Shore Protection project includes 1.3 miles of shore line running from south of the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Surfside Park. The project is on a two-year renourishment cycle due to impacts to the beach from the federal navigation project at Fort Pierce Inlet; this two-year renourishment cycle is a much shorter renourishment interval than what is typical for other projects along the east coast of Florida. The initial construction of the project occurred in 1971 and the ninth nourishment was completed in May 2013. Completion of plans and specifications and award for the 10th renourishment contract were completed in FY 2014; the project was scheduled to start mid-February 2015. Sand for the project is dredged from an approved offshore borrow area known as the Capron Shoal and pumped via a pipeline onto the 1.3 miles of beach south of the Fort Pierce Inlet. The sponsor, St. Lucie County, is preparing a General Reevaluation Report for the project at their own expense that will evaluate extending Federal participation for an additional 50 years.
Current Federal participation expires in 2020. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates the total cost of the project to be $75.9 million, with an estimated U. S. Federal Government share of $46.4 million. No funding for the project was requested by the U. S. President from the U. S. Congress in Fiscal Year 2016; the Experimental Oculina Research Reserve preserves the Oculina Banks, a reef of ivory bush coral off the coast of Fort Pierce, Florida. In 1984, a 92 square-nautical-mile portion of these reefs was designated the "Oculina Habitat Area of Particular Concern". In 1994, the area was closed to all manner of bottom fishing and was redesignated as a research reserve. In 2000, the marine protected area was expanded to 300 square nautical miles and prohibited all gears that caused mechanical disruption to the habitat; the city is known for its large manatee population. Due to the devastation caused at the Fort Pierce City Marina by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004, FEMA mandated a plan to ensure that the rebuilt facility would be protected from future such events before FEMA would release funding for the repairs.
Starting in 2012, construction began to create 12 artificial barrier islands including oyster beds, lime rock artificial reefs, mangrove fringes and coastal dune. The "core" of the islands was constructed of TITANTubes, sometimes referred to as geotextile tubes or geotubes, manufactured by Flint Industries and covered by a coastal marine mattress and armor stone; the project was completed in 2013 after six years of planning and construction and a cost of $18 million. As of the census of 2010, there were 41,910 people, 15,170 households, 9,418 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,021.9 people per square mile. There were 17,170 housing units at an average density of 1,164.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 40.9% African American, 45.3% White, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 21.6% of the population. There were 15,170 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families.
32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.50. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 20 to 24, 13.3% from 25 to 34, 13.0% from 45 to 54, 9.8% from 55 to 64 and 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,869, the median income for a family was $36,337. Males had a median income of $32,412 versus $26,349 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,782. 30.2% of the population were below the poverty line. The city of Fort Pierce has a council–manager government form of local government; the offices of commissioner and mayor are nonpartisan, have a term of four years. The climate of Ft. Pierce is a humid subtropical climate, although it borders a tropical savanna climate.
Summertime temperatures range between 80 and 100 degrees F. Temperatures in the winter range between 55 and 80 degrees F, although some winter days can drop down below 40 degrees, bu
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami. Founded in 1903, it is the second largest newspaper in South Florida, serving Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, it circulates throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The newspaper employs over 800 people in Miami and across several bureaus, including Bogotá, Tallahassee, Vero Beach, Key West, another shared space in McClatchy's Washington bureau, its newsroom staff of about 450 includes 144 reporters, 69 editors, 69 copy editors, 29 photographers, five graphic artists, 11 columnists, sixteen critics, 48 editorial specialists, 18 news assistants. The newspaper has been awarded 22 Pulitzer Prizes since beginning publication in 1903. Well-known columnists include Pulitzer-winning political commentator Leonard Pitts, Jr. Pulitzer-winning reporter Mirta Ojito, humorist Dave Barry and novelist Carl Hiaasen.
Other columnists sportswriters Edwin Pope, Dan Le Batard and Greg Cote. Alexandra Villoch is the publisher, Aminda Marqués Gonzalez is the executive editor; the newspaper averages 88 pages 212 pages on Sundays. The Miami Herald's coverage of Latin American and Hispanic affairs is considered among the best of U. S. newspapers. The Miami Herald participates in "Politifact Florida", a website that focuses on the truth about Florida issues, along with the Tampa Bay Times, which created the Politifact concept; the Herald and the Times share resources on news stories related to Florida. The first edition was published September 1903, as The Miami Evening Record. After the recession of 1907, the newspaper had severe financial difficulties, its largest creditor was Henry Flagler. Through a loan from Henry Flagler, Frank B. Shutts, the founder of the law firm Shutts & Bowen, acquired the paper and renamed it the Miami Herald on December 1, 1910. Although it is the longest continuously published newspaper in Miami, the earliest newspaper in the region was The Tropical Sun, established in 1891.
The Miami Metropolis, which became The Miami News, was founded in 1896, was the Herald's oldest competitor until 1988, when it went out of business. During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the Miami Herald was the largest newspaper in the world, as measured by lines of advertising. During The Great Depression in the 1930s, the Herald recovered. On October 25, 1939, John S. Knight, son of a noted Ohio newspaperman, bought the Herald from Frank B. Shutts. Knight became editor and publisher, made his brother, James L. Knight, the business manager; the Herald had 383 employees. Lee Hills arrived as city editor in September 1942, he became the Herald's publisher and the chairman of Knight-Ridder Inc. a position he held until 1981. The Miami Herald International Edition, printed by partner newspapers throughout the Caribbean and Latin America, began in 1946, it is available at resorts in the Caribbean countries such as the Dominican Republic, though printed by the largest local newspaper Listín Diario, it is not available outside such tourist areas.
It was extended to Mexico in 2002. The Herald won its first Pulitzer Prize for its reporting on Miami's organized crime, its circulation was 204,000 on Sundays. On August 19, 1960, construction began on the Herald building on Biscayne Bay. On that day, Alvah H. Chapman, started work as James Knight's assistant. Chapman was promoted to Knight-Ridder chairman and chief executive officer; the Herald moved into its new building at One Herald Plaza without missing an edition on March 23–24, 1963. The paper won a landmark press freedom decision in Miami Herald Publishing Tornillo. In the case, a political candidate, Pat Tornillo Jr. had requested that the Herald print his rebuttal to an editorial criticizing him, citing Florida's "right-to-reply" law, which mandated that newspapers print such responses. Represented by longtime counsel Dan Paul, the Herald challenged the law, the case was appealed to the Supreme Court; the Court unanimously overturned the Florida statute under the Press Freedom Clause of the First Amendment, ruling that "Governmental compulsion on a newspaper to publish that which'reason' tells it should not be published is unconstitutional."
The decision showed the limitations of a 1969 decision, Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission, in which a similar "Fairness Doctrine" had been upheld for radio and television, establishing that broadcast and print media had different Constitutional protections. Publication of a Spanish-language supplemental insert named El Herald began in 1976, it was renamed El Nuevo Herald in 1987, in 1998 became an independent publication. In 2003, the Miami Herald and El Universal of Mexico City created an international joint venture, in 2004 they together launched The Herald Mexico, a short-lived English-language newspaper for readers in Mexico, its final issue was published in May 2007. On July 27, 2005, former Miami city commissioner Arthur Teele walked into the main lobby of the Herald's headquarters and phoned Herald columnist Jim DeFede to say that he had a package for DeFede, he asked a security officer to tell his wife Stephanie that he loved her, before pulling out a gun and committing suicide.
This happened the day the Miami New Times, a weekly newspaper, published salacious details of Teele's alleged affairs, including allegations that he had had sex and used cocaine with a transsexual prostitute. The day before committing suicide, T
Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, United States, first incorporated on August 2, 1924 as "Bocaratone," and incorporated as "Boca Raton" in 1925. The 2015 population estimated by the U. S. Census Bureau was 93,235; however 200,000 people with a Boca Raton postal address reside outside its municipal boundaries. Such areas include newer developments like West Boca Raton; as a business center, the city experiences significant daytime population increases. It is one of the wealthiest communities in South Florida. Boca Raton is 43 miles north of Miami and is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which had a population of 6,012,331 people as of 2015. Boca Raton is home to the main campus of Florida Atlantic University and the corporate headquarters of Office Depot, ADT, Lynn University, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Bluegreen Corporation, the Gift of Life Marrow Registry, it is home to the Evert Tennis Academy, owned by former professional tennis player Chris Evert.
Town Center Mall, an upscale shopping center in Central Boca Raton, is the largest indoor mall in Palm Beach County. Another major attraction to the area is Boca Raton's downtown, known as Mizner Park. Many buildings in the area have a Mediterranean Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival architectural theme inspired by Addison Mizner, a resort architect who influenced the city's early development. Still today, Boca Raton has a strict development code for the size and types of commercial buildings, building signs, advertisements that may be erected within the city limits. No outdoor car dealerships are allowed in the municipality. No billboards are permitted; the strict development code has led to several major thoroughfares without large signs or advertisements in the traveler's view. Labeled in the first European maps of the area as "Boca de Ratones", many people mistakenly translate the name in English as "Rats' Mouth". Although incorrect, this translation continues to be popularized by several residents of the area itself.
For example, tailgating for football games at Florida Atlantic University is done in an area known as the "Rat's Mouth"."Boca", meaning mouth in Spanish, was a common term to describe an inlet on maps by sailors. The true meaning of the word "ratones" for the area is more controversial; some claim that the word "ratones" appears in old Spanish maritime dictionaries referring to "rugged rocks or stony ground on the bottom of some ports and coastal outlets, where the cables rub against." Thus, one possible translation of "Boca Raton" is "rugged inlet". Still other people claim that "ratones" referred to thieves who hid out in the area, thus the name could translate to "thieves' inlet". Residents of the city have kept the pronunciation of Boca Raton similar to its Spanish origins. In particular, the "Raton" in "Boca Raton" is pronounced as instead of; the latter is a common mispronunciation by non-natives to the region. The area where Boca Raton is now located was occupied by the Glades culture, a Native American tribe of hunter/gatherers who relocated seasonally and between shellfish sources, distinct from the Tequesta to the south and the Jaega to the north, a people that occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida.
What Spanish voyagers called "Boca de Ratones" was to the south, in present-day Biscayne Bay in Miami-Dade County. The area of Boca Raton was labeled meaning "Dry River", during this time. By mistake during the 19th century, mapmakers moved this location to the north and began referring to the city's lake, today known as Lake Boca Raton, as "Boca Ratone Lagoon" and "Boca Ratone Sounde." An inland stream near the lake was renamed Spanish River, became part of the Intracoastal Waterway. When Spain surrendered Florida to Britain in 1763, the remaining Tequestas, along with other Indians that had taken refuge in the Florida Keys, were evacuated to Cuba. In the 1770s, Bernard Romans reported seeing abandoned villages in the area, but no inhabitants; the area remained uninhabited for long afterwards, during the early years of Florida's incorporation in the United States. The first significant European settler to this area was Captain Thomas Moore Rickards in 1895, who resided in a house made of driftwood on the east side of the East Coast Canal, south of what is now the Palmetto Park Road bridge.
He surveyed and sold land from the canal to beyond the railroad north of what is now Palmetto Park Road. Early settlement in the area increased shortly after Henry Flagler's expansion of the Florida East Coast Railway, connecting West Palm Beach to Miami. Boca Raton as a city was the creation of architect Addison Mizner. Prior to him, Boca Raton was an unincorporated farming town with a population of 100 in 1920. In 1925, Mizner announced his plan for “the foremost resort city on the North American continent,” “a new exclusive social capital in America.” After spending several years in Palm Beach, where, in his own words, he “did more than any one man to make the city beautiful,” and designed the Everglades Club among many other buildings, in Boca Raton his plan was to create from scratch “a resort as splendid in its entirety as Palm Beach is in spots.”Activity in that area began at least a year, more, before Mizner's announcement. Land acquisition, tens of thousands of acres, was the largest part.
But it is hard not to see Mizner's hand in the incorporation of Boca Raton in 1924. The Mizner Development Company was incorpo