Thomas Blacket Stephens
Thomas Blacket Stephens was a wealthy Brisbane businessman and newspaper proprietor who served as an alderman and mayor of Brisbane Municipal Council, a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland and a Member of the Queensland Legislative Council. Thomas Blacket Stephens was born on 5 January 1819 at Rochdale, England, the son of Rev. William Stephens and his wife Elizabeth. On 6 September 1848 Thomas emigrated from Liverpool on the ship'Bengal' arriving in Sydney, New South Wales on 12 February 1849, his cousin Edmund Blacket was the Colonial Architect in Sydney. Thomas married Anne Connah in Balmain, Sydney at the home of his cousin, Edmund Blacket, in 1856; the couple had 12 children in Brisbane. Their children were: William, a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland Emily Marian Elizabeth Richard Laura Thomas Connah Henry Sophia Anne Llewellyn Stephen In 1860, Thomas erected a two-storey house in South Brisbane called'Cumbooquepa' from the Aboriginal name for the waterholes on the land.
In November 1874, Thomas became ill cholera acquired from a ship visiting from India. Although he recovered somewhat from his illness, he remained weak and in May 1875 retired from many of his duties and made his will. Thomas died from congestion of the lungs, following some years of poor health following a serious illness in 1874, at his residence'Cumbooquepa' on 26 August 1877 and was buried in South Brisbane Cemetery the following day. In 1890, his widow Anne built a newer home'Cumbooquepa' above Vulture Street on the property at South Brisbane; this house was purchased in 1919 as the boarding school for the Brisbane girls' school Somerville House and is now heritage-listed. It is stated that Thomas built or occupied this'Cumbooquepa', but he is only associated with the earlier house. Widow Anne died on 12 July 1904 at'Cumbooquepa' and was buried with her husband in South Brisbane Cemetery, he had a number of companies as well as interest in land development. His first business in Brisbane is believed to be a woolscour at Ormiston near Moreton Bay.
In 1856 he established a woolscour. The following year he purchased some adjacent land at Annerley and established a fellmongery and tanning business in Essie Street. Thomas purchased The Moreton Bay Courier sometime in late 1859 and he soon turned it into a daily newspaper, the Courier. In 1864 it became the Brisbane Courier. In June–July 1868, he floated the Brisbane Newspaper Company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to it, he was the managing director. Thomas was mayor in 1862 of the Brisbane Municipal Council, he served on a number of committees: Finance Committee 1860, 1861 Improvement Committee 1860–1863 Incorporation Committee 1862,1864 Water Committee 1862–1864 Bridge Committee 1862–1864 Legislative Committee 1863, 1864 Brisbane Board of Waterworks 1866–1877From 10 June 1863 to 13 May 1875 Thomas was the elected Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for the electorate of the Town of South Brisbane. He held many senior positions in the government including" Colonial Treasurer: 21 May 1867 – 15 August 1867 Secretary for Trade and Finance: 21 May 1867 - Colonial Secretary: 25 November 1868 – 28 January 1869 Colonial Treasurer: 27 January 1869 – 3 May 1870 Postmaster-General: 13 November 1869 – 28 January 1870 Secretary for Public Lands: 8 January 1874 – 27 May 1875In May 1875, he retired from public life due to an ongoing illness contracted in November 1874.
On 22 July 1876, he was appointed a life Member of the Legislative Council of Queensland until his death on 26 August 1877. Around 1864 to 1875 he served on the various education boards, retiring due to his illness in May 1875, he was one of the first people on the board of trustees at Brisbane Grammar School. He was a director of the South Brisbane Good Templars' Weekly Penny Savings Bank in 1874, he was one of the original trustees of South Brisbane Cemetery and was buried there upon his death in 1877. List of mayors and lord mayors of Brisbane Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 1863–1867; the Queensland Book of Memories. National Trust of Queensland. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011
Sir Robert Philp, was a Queensland businessman and politician, Premier of Queensland from December 1899 to September 1903 and again from November 1907 to February 1908. Philp was born in Glasgow, the second son of John Philp, a lime-kiln operator, Mary Ann Philp, he emigrated to Brisbane with his parents and siblings in 1862, where his father took a lease on the municipal baths, became involved in the cattle and sugar industries. Philp was educated at the National School until 1863 when he started work at Bright Bros & Co shipping company, before moving to Townsville in 1874 to take up the position of junior partner in the trading company Burns and Company. Burns, Philp & Co acted as agents and provisioners for the sugar cane and pastoral industries that sustained Northern Queensland, Philp served as manager of the Townsville office. Beginning in 1881, Philp diverted some of the company's vessels to the labour trade, recruiting South Pacific Islanders to work as indentured labourers on the canefields, despite the reservations of his business partner James Burns.
A royal commission into recruiting practices in 1885 coincided with a downturn in the sugar industry, as a result the company's vessels were returned to other commercial operations. While this affair had been profitable for Burns, Philp, it did not contribute to commercial success, although it would not be Philp's last interest in the South Pacific labour trade. Despite the success of Burns, Philp & Co, Philp made some poor personal investments, such as his loss of £5000 on the "Comet" mine. Like many others he was affected by the economic depression of the 1890s, borrowing £20,000 to purchase property in Brisbane which three years was valued at only £16,230, he owed considerable sums of money to the North Queensland Mortgage & Investment Co. as well as holding a £5000 mortgage with respect to other properties. Although Burns tried to assist him, Philp was forced to sell his shares in Burns, Philp & Co in 1893, was still in financial difficulty as late as 1898, although by this stage he had restricted his business ventures to more conservative investments.
When the business-friendly McIlwraith government lost office in 1883 it was succeeded by the Liberal government of Samuel Griffith that sought to end the trade in Kanakas. As a prominent businessman who had served several times on the local council Philp was active in bankrolling and supporting candidates in opposition to Griffith, he supported the growing movement for the separation of North Queensland from the rest of the colony. Philp entered the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in 1886 as Member for Musgrave, he supported the North Queensland separatists in their unsuccessful attempts to gain independence, but spent most of his early parliamentary career preoccupied with his business affairs. His seat of Musgrave was abolished and in 1888 he was returned as one of the two members for the electorate of Townsville, his parliamentary activity was in support of North Queensland and his business interests - extending railway links to North Queensland, the abolition of import tariffs. When the import of Pacific islanders was temporarily halted in 1892 Philp was instrumental in securing its resumption.
Philp was a prolific speculator and in 1893 he was forced by debt to resign from the board of directors of Burns, Philp. In May of the same year McIlwraith, now governing in coalition with Griffith in what was known as the "Continuous Ministry", appointed Philp as Minister for Mines, he held several other ministerial posts, such as Public Instruction, Public Works and Treasurer until 1899. When the Continuous Ministry was unseated by the Labor government of Anderson Dawson. Philp was an able administrator, he codified mining regulations and encouraged the private development of railways throughout the colony. The railway construction process was alleged to be corrupt by the Labor members, after narrowly winning a vote of confidence in November 1899 James Dickson resigned as Premier. Dawson's government lasted a week before losing Parliamentary support and Philp, despite his protestations in support of Dickson, was chosen as Premier by his colleagues; the Australian colonies federated in 1901 and the new Prime Minister Edmund Barton ended the trade in Kanakas.
By this stage Queensland was depleted in revenue, Federation exacerbated this situation by depriving Queensland of excise and customs funds. Despite a severe drought and the dire state of the state's finances, Philp was re-elected in 1902. Discontent brewed among Ministerialists who were bitter at missing out on Cabinet positions, in August 1903 Digby Denham crossed the floor with supporters to bring down the government and form a coalition led by Arthur Morgan. Philp, with his genial nature, was ill-suited to the position of Opposition Leader, showed little enthusiasm in attacking the new government. Morgan lost control of the Legislative Assembly in 1904 and Philp was called upon by Governor Sir Herbert Chermside to form a ministry, but could not secure sufficient support from among his colleagues; the end result was a solid defeat of the Opposition. Philp resumed his position as Leader and his conciliatory treatment of the government continued when fellow Scot William Kidston became Premier.
Philp cultivated good relations with Kidston and helped foster the increasing gap between Kidston and the Labor movement. Philp's party was again unsuccessful in the elections of 1907. Kidston was encountering difficulties in securing the passage of his legislation through the intransigent Legislative Council and after Lord Chelmsford as Governor re
Ned Hanlon (politician)
Edward Michael Hanlon was an Australian politician, Premier of Queensland from 1946 to 1952. Hanlon was born in Brisbane. After leaving school, he worked in the railways, soon became a union official. In the 1912 Brisbane General Strike he played a prominent part as a militant. Between 1915 and 1919 Hanlon served in the 9th Battalion, 3rd Brigade, 1st Division of the Australian Imperial Force, whose traditions and battle honours are proudly carried by the modern 9th Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment, he served under Captain Cec Carroll during the war, who in 1934 Hanlon would appoint as the Queensland Police Commissioner. He entered parliament in 1926. After two decades and several cabinet portfolios, he became Queensland's Premier, once the septuagenarian Frank Cooper had retired. Over the years Hanlon's outlook mellowed, he shifted to the political right. Having begun as a union militant, he ended up, as Premier, sending the police to suppress union demonstrations during the 1948 Queensland Railway strike.
He died in office, was succeeded by Vince Gair, the last leader of the state Labor Party administration, in power continuously since 1932. Hanlon was accorded a State funeral which took place from St Stephen's Cathedral to the Toowong Cemetery. Gregory, Edward Michael – Australian Dictionary of Biography
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece
John Donald McLean
John Donald McLean was a politician and colonial Treasurer of Queensland. McLean was born in Kilmuir, Inverness-shire, the youngest son of Donald McLean and his wife Flora née Nicholson. McLean emigrated to New South Wales in 1837, went into squatting pursuits, being at one time interested in no less than forty stations. Latterly he resided on his property at Darling Downs, Queensland. On 2 May 1862 McLean was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Eastern Downs, a seat he held until his death. McLean was Colonial Treasurer from 21 Jul 1866 until his death. Maclean took office in the midst of a monetary crisis, but restored the equilibrium of the finances, when his career was cut short by a fall from his horse which ended fatally on 16 December 1866 in Westbrook, Queensland
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and