Californio is a term for a Hispanic person native of California, culturally or genetically descended from the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in the Californias since 1683, of varying Criollo Spaniard and Indigenous Californian origin. Alongside Tejanos and Neomexicanos, Californios are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, which have lived in the American Southwest since the 16th century; the term "Californio" was applied to the Spanish-speaking residents of Las Californias during the periods of Spanish California and Mexican California, between 1683 and 1848. The first Californios were the children of the early Spanish military expeditions into northern reaches of the Californias which established the California presidios and subsequently allowed for the foundation of the California mission system; the primary cultural focus of the Californio population became the Vaquero tradition practiced by the landed gentry which received land grants creating the Rancho system.
In the 1820s-40s, American and European settlers came to Mexican California, married Californio women, became Mexican citizens, learning Spanish and converting to Catholicism, are also considered Californios, for their adherence to Californio language and culture. There are 11.9 million Chicanos/Mexican Americans in California, making up the largest group of 15.2 million California Hispanics. 2004 studies estimated that between 300,000 and 500,000 Californios had ancestry descended from the Mexican and Spanish eras of California. Alta California was nominally controlled by a national-government appointed governor; the governors of California were at first appointed by the Viceroy, after 1821 by the approximate 40 Mexican Presidents from 1821 to 1846. The costs of the minimum Alta California government were paid by means of a 40–100% import tariff collected at the entry port of Monterey; the other center of Spanish power in Alta California was the Franciscan friars who, as heads of the 21 missions resisted the powers of the governors.
None of the Franciscan friars were Californios and their influence waned after the secularization of the missions in the 1830s. The instability of the Mexican government, Alta California's geographic isolation, the growing ability of the Alta California's inhabitants to make a success of immigrating and an increase in the Californio population created a schism with the national government; as Spanish and Mexican period immigrants were succeeded in number by those that increasing lost an affinity with the national government, an environment developed that did not suppress disagreement with the central government. Governors had little material support from far-away Mexico to deal with Alta Californians, who were left to resolve situations themselves. Mexico-born governor Manuel Victoria was forced to flee in 1831, after losing a fight against a local uprising at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass; as Californios matured to adulthood and assumed positions of power in the Alta California government, rivalries emerged between northern and southern regions.
Several times, Californio leaders attempted to break away from Mexico, most notably Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1836. Southern regional leaders, led by Pio Pico, made several attempts to relocate the capital from Monterey to the more populated Los Angeles; the independence-minded Californios were influenced by the increasing numbers of immigrant foreigners, who integrated with the Californios, becoming Mexican citizens and gaining land either independently granted to them or through marriage to Californio women. For example, the American Abel Stearns was an ally of the Californio José Antonio Carrillo in the 1831 Victoria incident, yet sided with the southern Californians against the Californio would-be governor Alvarado in 1836. Alvarado recruited a company of Tennessean riflemen, many of them former trappers who had settled in the Monterey Bay area; the company was led by another American, Isaac Graham. When the Americans refused to fight against fellow Americans, Alvarado was forced to negotiate a settlement.
Californios included the descendants of agricultural settlers and retired escort soldiers deployed from what is modern-day Mexico. Most were of mixed ethnicities Mestizo or mixed African-American and Indian backgrounds. Despite the depictions of the popular shows like Zorro, few Californios were of "pure" Spanish ancestry. Most with unmixed Spanish ancestry were Franciscan priests, along with career government officials and military officers who did not remain in California. According to mission records as well as Presidio roster listings, several "leather-jacket" soldiers operating as escorts, mission guards, other military duty personnel were described as europeo, while most of the civilian settlers were of mixed origins; the term "mestizo" was if used in mission records, the more common terms being "indio", "europeo", "mulatto", "coyote", "castizo" and other caste terms. An example of the number of European-born soldiers is the twenty-five from Lieutenant Pedro Fages detachment of Catalan Volunteers.
Most of the soldiers on the Portola-Serra expedition of 1769 and the de Anza
The California Battalion was formed during the Mexican–American War in present-day California, United States. It was led by U. S. Army brevet lieutenant colonel John C. Fremont and composed of his cartographers and hunters and the California Volunteer Militia formed after the Bear Flag Revolt; the battalion's formation was authorized by Commodore Robert F. Stockton, commanding officer of the U. S. Navy Pacific Squadron. Hostilities between U. S. and Mexican forces had been underway in Texas since April 1846 resulting in a formal declaration of war on 13 May 1846, by the U. S. Congress. On 17 May 1846, unofficial word reached the U. S. Navy fleet of four vessels at anchor in the harbor of Mazatlán, that hostilities had begun between Mexico and the United States. Commodore John D. Sloat, commander of the U. S. Navy's Pacific Squadron, dispatched his flagship, the frigate USS Savannah, the Sloop USS Levant to Monterey harbor where they arrived on 2 July 1846; the U. S. Navy's Pacific Squadron captured Monterey, California on 7 July 1846 and began taking over the ports in Alta California.
The Bear Flag Revolt was converted into a U. S. occupation of California and the Bear Flag was replaced by the Stripes. In 1846, U. S. Marine Lieutenant Archibald H. Gillespie was sent by President James K. Polk with secret verbal messages to the U. S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin in Alta California's Capital in Monterey, Commodore John D. Sloat commanding the Pacific Squadron and U. S. Army Captain John C. Frémont doing cartography work in California. Traveling secretly across Mexico, Lt. Gillespe caught a ship from Mexico to Monterey, California where he delivered his messages to Thomas Larkin and Sloat. Finding that Fremont was on his way to Oregon he borrowed a horse and hurried north where he caught up with Fremont's party near what is now the Oregon border. After delivering his messages and John C. Frémont with his about 30 U. S. Army Cartographers, etc. and 30 scouts and hunters turned around and headed back to California where Frémont spurred on and took over the command of the Bear Flag Revolt of California.
Frémont signed up American immigrants into California at Sutter's Fort who were willing to fight for independence from Mexico. Frémont was the only army officer in California after the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, he and his volunteer California battalion took over Sonoma, followed by the creation of the Bear Flag Republic. When it became clear that the U. S. Navy was taking action to secure California, the Bear Flag Revolt was converted into a U. S. military action. Since there was no U. S. Army present in Alta California except Fremont's few cartographers, Stockton needed additional men to garrison and help keep the peace in the various California towns coming into U. S. control. Stockton had three frigates with a crew of 480 each, three to four sloops with a crew of 200 men each plus three store ships at his disposal; the marines on his ships were used to board or repel boarders or engage in close in ship to ship fighting and were trained in infantry tactics. The U. S. Marines and some sailors could be reassigned shore duties and while leaving the ships short handed but still functional.
He looked to employ blue-jacket sailors only where needed. The California Battalion was authorized a few days on 23 July 1846 under Commodore Robert F. Stockton, the senior military officer in California who replaced Sloat in July 1846. Frémont was given the rank of Lieutenant Colonel with U. S. Marine Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, second in command, promoted to major. Commodore Stockton was in charge of the Pacific Squadron of the U. S. Navy that occupied Monterey, California on 7 July 1846 and Yerba Buena on 9 July 1846. A compact was drawn in early July 1846 for all volunteers to sign, which in part read: "Not to violate the chastity of Women. With the signatures or marks of the men, the California Battalion was formed. On formation of the battalion, Frémont requested the Battalion's volunteers to elect their officers from the ranks. Most were emigrants over the California Trail of 1845 and members of Fremont's own exploration party. Frémont's men were mustered into the armed forces on 23 July 1846 and authorized $25.00/month pay.
The approximate 34 Mission Indians part of the battalion's roster were paid with trade goods as was customary then. The men in the battalion were all volunteers formed from the 60 men of Captain Frémont's Corps of Topographical Engineers and from the Bear Flag Republic members from Sutter's Fort who had started the rebellion in California. There were volunteers from several nationalities including several Californios and a company of Indians from Sutter's Fort who were more than happy to get rid of the dysfunctional Mexican and Californios government; the first job given to the California Battalion and was to assist in the capture of San Diego and Pueblo de Los Angeles. On 26 July 1846 Lt. Col. J. C. Frémont's California Battalion of about 160 boarded the sloop USS Cyane, under the command of Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont, sailed for San Diego, they landed 29 July 1846 and a detachment of Marines and blue-jackets, followed shortly by Frémont's California Battalion from Cyane and took possession of the town without firing a shot.
Leaving about 40 men to garrison San Diego, Fremont continued on to Los Angeles where on 13 August, with the Navy band playing and colors flying, the combined forces of Stockt
Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824; the claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico. Neither Spain nor Mexico colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal areas of present-day California, small areas of present-day Arizona, so they exerted no effective control in modern-day California north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California Coast Ranges. Most interior areas such as the Central Valley and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples until in the Mexican era when more inland land grants were made, after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.
Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department, granting it more autonomy. Most of the areas comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the coastal area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century and prospected the area as a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, including Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition in 1602–03 preparatory to colonization planned for 1606–07, canceled in 1608.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. Father Eusebio Kino missionized the Pimería Alta from 1687 until his death in 1711. Plans in 1715 by Juan Manuel de Oliván Rebolledo resulted in a 1716 decree for extension of the conquest which came to nothing. Juan Bautista de Anssa proposed an expedition from Sonora in 1737 and the Council of the Indies planned settlements in 1744. Don Fernando Sánchez Salvador researched the earlier proposals and suggested the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Alta California was not accessible from New Spain: land routes were cut off by deserts and hostile Native populations and sea routes ran counter to the southerly currents of the distant northeastern Pacific.
New Spain did not have the economic resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. Spanish interest in colonizing Alta California was revived under the visita of José de Gálvez as part of his plans to reorganize the governance of the Interior Provinces and push Spanish settlement further north. In subsequent decades, news of Russian colonization and maritime fur trading in Alaska, the 1768 naval expedition of Pyotr Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev, in particular, alarmed the Spanish government and served to justify Gálvez's vision. To ascertain the Russian threat, a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. In preparation for settlement of Alta California, the northern, mainland region of Las Californias was granted to Franciscan missionaries to convert the Native population to Catholicism, following a model, used for over a century in Baja California; the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule.
The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu; the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781. By law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents; the Franciscans, prolonged their control over the missions after control of Alta California passed from Spain to independent Mexico, continued to run the missions until they were secularized, beginning in 1833.
The transfer of property never occurr
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature, the upper house being the California State Senate. The Assembly convenes, along with the State Senate, at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the Assembly consists with each member representing at least 465,000 people. Due to a combination of the state's large population and small legislature, the Assembly has the largest population-per-representative ratio of any state lower house and second largest of any legislative lower house in the United States after the federal House of Representatives. Members of the California State Assembly are referred to using the titles Assemblyman, Assemblywoman, or Assemblymember. In the current legislative session, Democrats enjoy a three-fourths supermajority of 61 seats, while Republicans controls 19 seats; the Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the chief leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the full Assembly.
Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon; the majority leader is Democrat Ian Calderon. As a result of Proposition 140 in 1990 and Proposition 28 in 2012, members elected to the Legislature prior to 2012 are restricted by term limits to three two-year terms, while those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years in the legislature in any combination of four-year State Senate or two-year State Assembly terms; every two years, all 80 seats in the Assembly are subject to election. This is in contrast to the State Senate, in which only half of its 40 seats are subject to election every two years; the chamber's green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of Abraham Lincoln and a Latin quotation: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. To run for the Assembly, a candidate must be a United States citizen and a registered voter in the district at the time nomination papers are issued, may not have served three terms in the State Assembly since November 6, 1990. According to Article 4, Section 2 of the California Constitution, the candidate must have one year of residency in the legislative district and California residency for three years; the chief clerk of the Assembly, a position that has existed since the Assembly's creation, is responsible for many administrative duties. The chief clerk is the custodian of all Assembly bills and records and publishes the Assembly Daily Journal, the minutes of floor sessions, as well as the Assembly Daily File; the chief clerk is the Assembly's parliamentarian, in this capacity gives advice to the presiding officer on matters of parliamentary procedure. The chief clerk is responsible for engrossing and enrolling of measures, the transmitting passed legislation to the governor.
Since 2016, the chaplain of the Assembly has been a Buddhist cleric. The chaplain from 2003 to 2016 was a Greek Orthodox priest; the position of sergeant-at-arms of the Assembly has existed since 1849. The sergeant-at-arms is tasked with law enforcement duties, but customarily has a ceremonial and protocol role. Today, some fifty employees are part of the Assembly Sergeant-at-Arms Office; the Chief Clerk, the acting Chief Sergeant-at-Arms, the Chaplains are not members of the Legislature. Elected in a special election Current committees include: Assembly Committee on Accountability and Administrative review Assembly Committee on Aging And Long-Term Care Assembly Committee on Agriculture Assembly Committee on Appropriations Assembly Committee on Arts, Sports and Internet Media Assembly Committee on Banking and Finance Assembly Committee on Budget Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 1 on Health and Human Services Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 on Education Finance Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 3 on Resources and Transportation Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 4 on State Administration Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 5 on Public Safety Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 6 on Budget Process Oversight and Program Evaluation Assembly Committee on Business and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Communications and Conveyance Assembly Committee on Education Assembly Committee on Elections and Redistricting Assembly Committee on Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials Assembly Committee on Governmental Organization Assembly Committee on Health Assembly Committee on Higher Education Assembly Committee on Housing and Community Development Assembly Committee on Human Services Assembly Committee on Insurance Assembly Committee on Jobs, Economic Development, the Economy Assembly Committee on Judiciary Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment Assembly Committee on Local Government Assembly Committee on Natural Resources Assembly Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Public Employees and Social Security Assembly Committee on Public Safety Assembly Committee on Revenue and Taxation Assembly Committee on Rules Assembly Committee on Transportation Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs Assembly Committ
Campo de Cahuenga
The Campo de Cahuenga, near the historic Cahuenga Pass in present-day Studio City, was an adobe ranch house on the Rancho Cahuenga where the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed between Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont and General Andrés Pico in 1847, ending hostilities in California between Mexico and the United States; the subsequent Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, ceding California, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona to the United States, formally ended the Mexican–American War. From 1858 to 1861 the Campo de Cahuenga became a Butterfield Stage Station; the original adobe structure was demolished in 1900. The city of Los Angeles provided funds for the purchase of the property in 1923, a Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style replica "adobe" ranch house was built by the city following an effort led by Irene T. Lindsay President of the San Fernando Valley Historical Society, dedicated on November 2, 1950, it is now a park and interpretive center managed by the City of Los Angeles's Department of Recreation and Parks in partnership with the Campo de Cahuenga Historical Memorial Association.
Campo de Cahuenga is registered on the National Register of Historic Places, as California Historical Landmark No. 151, as Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument No. 29. The foundations of the original adobe were unearthed beneath Lankershim Boulevard during construction of the Metro Red Line subway; the parts of the foundations within the park are preserved as an exhibit, the "footprint" of the foundations under the street and sidewalk is marked by decorative pavement. Campo de Cahuenga is confused with the nearby Rancho Cahuenga, an inholding within the Rancho Providencia land grant, now part of Burbank; the building is used by various organizations for special programs and regular meetings, it is open with a docent on the first Saturday of each month, from 12:00 PM to 4:00 PM. Battle of Cahuenga Pass – 1831 Battle of Providencia – 1845 Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass Conquest of California – 1846 Alta California Category:Conquest of California – 1846–1848 Cahuenga, California. Tongva—Tongva language History of California through 1899 History of the San Fernando Valley to 1915 List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley – city List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles – state Category: National Register of Historic Places in the San Fernando Valley – federal Jorgenson, Lawrence C.: The San Fernando Valley Past and Present, Pacific Rim Research, Los Angeles, 1982 ISBN 0-941014-00-2 Los Angeles Department of Parks and Recreation – Campo de Cahuenga Campo de Cahuenga at the University of Southern California Archives Campo de Cahuenga Historical Memorial Association
John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower was a United States Army officer and military historian. The son of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, his decorated military career spanned from before and after his father's presidency, he would retire from active duty in 1963 and altogether in 1974. From 1969 to 1971, he served as United States Ambassador to Belgium during the administration of President Richard Nixon his father's Vice President. Eisenhower was born on August 3, 1922 in Denver, Colorado to future U. S. President and United States Army General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower and his wife, Mamie, their elder son, known affectionately as "Icky", died in 1921, at age three, after contracting scarlet fever. Eisenhower, like his father, attended the United States Military Academy, graduating on June 6, 1944, the day of the Normandy landings, which his father was commanding. Eisenhower served in the U. S. Army during World War II and the Korean War, remaining on active duty until 1963. S. Army Reserve until retirement in 1975 – attaining the rank of brigadier general.
A decorated soldier, Eisenhower found his World War II military career thwarted by fears for his safety and concern from the top brass that his death or capture would be a distraction to his father, the Supreme Allied Commander. During World War II, he was assigned to intelligence and administrative duties; this issue arose again in 1952 when Major Eisenhower was assigned to fight in a combat unit in Korea while his father ran for President. But unlike World War II, John was able to see combat in Korea. After serving combat with an infantry battalion, he was reassigned to the 3rd Division headquarters. During his father's presidency, John Eisenhower served as Assistant Staff Secretary in the White House, on the Army's General Staff, in the White House as assistant to General Andrew Goodpaster. In the administration of President Richard Nixon, his father's Vice President, he served as U. S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. In 1972, President Nixon appointed Eisenhower Chairman of the Interagency Classification Review Committee.
In 1975, he served President Gerald Ford as chairman of the President's Advisory Committee on Refugees. As a military historian, Eisenhower wrote several books, including The Bitter Woods, a study of the Battle of the Bulge, So Far from God, a history of the Mexican–American War. In a New York Times review of the latter, historian Stephen W. Sears remarked that Eisenhower "writes briskly and authoritatively, his judgments are worth reading." Eisenhower wrote Zachary Taylor: The American Presidents Series: The 12th President, 1849-1850. John Eisenhower wrote the forewords to Borrowed Soldiers, by Mitchell Yockelson of the U. S. National Archives, to Kenneth W. Rendell's Politics and Personality: 50 Iconic Documents of World War II. In years, he had been an opponent of Frank Gehry's proposed design for the National Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial, which he said was "too extravagant" and "attempts to do too much." A lifelong Republican, Eisenhower voted for Democrat John Kerry in the 2004 Presidential election, citing dissatisfaction with Republican incumbent George W. Bush's management of U.
S. foreign policy. During the 2008 presidential election, in which presidential candidate John McCain and vice presidential candidates Sarah Palin and Joe Biden all had children enlisted in the armed forces, he wrote about his wartime experience as the son of a sitting President in an cautionary opinion piece in The New York Times entitled "Presidential Children Don't Belong in Battle", he died at Trappe, Maryland on December 21, 2013. From the death of John Coolidge in 2000 until his own death, Eisenhower was the oldest living presidential child, his burial was at West Point Cemetery on the grounds of the United States Military Academy. Eisenhower married Barbara Jean Thompson on June 10, 1947, only a few days before her twenty-first birthday. Barbara was born on June 15, 1926, in Fort Knox, into an Army family, she was the daughter of Col. Percy Walter Thompson by his wife Beatrice. Col. Thompson was commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces; the Eisenhowers had four children: Dwight David Eisenhower II, who married Julie Nixon, herself a presidential daughter.
All of his daughters were presented as debutantes to high society at the prestigious International Debutante Ball at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City. John and Barbara divorced in 1986 after thirty-nine years of marriage. In 1988, Barbara married widower Edwin J. Foltz, a former Vice President at the Campbell Soup Company, she died on September 2014, in Gladwyne, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. In 1988, Eisenhower married Joanne Thompson, he lived in Trappe, after moving there from Kimberton, Pennsylvania. The city of Marshfield, Missouri chose Eisenhower as a 2008 honoree of the Edwin P. Hubble Medal of Initiative, his grandson, Merrill Eisenhower Atwater spoke on his behalf at Marshfield's annual Cherry Blossom Festival. The medal recognizes individuals; the Bitter Woods. Battery Classics. 1969. ISBN 9780898391060.. Doubleday. 1982. ISBN 9780385114790.. S. War with Mexico, 1846–1848. Random House. 1989. ISBN 978039456