The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Both sides signed it on December 1814, in the city of Ghent, United Netherlands; the treaty restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum, restoring the borders of the two countries to the lines before the war started in June 1812. The treaty was approved by the British Parliament and signed into law by the Prince Regent on December 30, 1814, it took a month for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States during which American forces under Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, the British won the Second Battle of Fort Bowyer on February 12, 1815. The treaty was not in effect until it was ratified by the United States Senate, which occurred unanimously on February 17, 1815; that began more than two centuries of peaceful relations between the United States and Britain, despite a few tense moments, such as the Pig War in 1859 and Trent Affair in 1861.
After the abdication of Napoleon in April 1814, British public opinion demanded major gains in the war against the United States. The senior American representative in London told US Secretary of State James Monroe: There are so many who delight in War that I have less hope than of our being able to make peace. You will perceive by the newspapers that a great force is to be sent from Bordeaux to the United States, the order of the day is division of the States and conquest; the more moderate think that when our Seaboard is laid waste and we are made to agree to a line which shall exclude us from the lake. After rejecting Russian proposals to broker peace negotiations, Britain reversed course in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon the main British goals of stopping American trade with France and impressment of sailors from American ships were dead letters; the treaty was forward-looking and ignored matters. Negotiations were held in Ghent, United Netherlands, starting in August 1814; the Americans sent five commissioners: Henry Clay, James A. Bayard, Sr..
Jonathan Russell, Albert Gallatin. Except for Russell, all were senior political leaders; the British sent minor officials, who kept in close touch with their much closer superiors in London. At last in August 1814, peace discussions began in the neutral city of Ghent; as the peace talks opened American diplomats decided not to present President James Madison's demands for the end of impressment and suggestion that Britain turn Canada over to the U. S, they were quiet and the British instead opened with their demands, the most important one being the creation of an Indian barrier state in the American Northwest Territory. It was understood. For decades, the British strategy had been to create a buffer state to block American expansion; the Americans refused to consider a buffer state, the proposal was dropped. Article IX of the treaty included provisions to restore to Natives "all possessions and privileges which they may have enjoyed, or been entitled to in 1811", but the provisions were unenforceable.
In any case, the British soon lost interest in the idea of creating an Indian buffer state and stopped supporting or encouraging tribes in American territory. The British, assuming their planned invasion of New York State would go well demanded that Americans not have any naval forces on the Great Lakes and for the British to obtain certain transit rights to the Mississippi River in exchange for continuation of American fishing rights off Newfoundland; the US rejected the demands, there was an impasse. American public opinion was so outraged when Madison published the demands that the Federalists were willing to fight on. During the negotiations, the British had four invasions underway. One force carried out a burning of Washington, but the main mission failed in its goal of capturing Baltimore; the British fleet sailed away. A small force invaded the District of Maine from New Brunswick, capturing parts of northeastern Maine and several smuggling towns on the seacoast. Much more important were two major invasions.
In northern New York State, 10,000 British troops marched south to cut off New England until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada. The defeat was a humiliation. Nothing was known at the time of the fate of the other major invasion force, sent to capture New Orleans and control the Mississippi River; the British prime minister wanted the Duke of Wellington to go to command in Canada with the assignment of winning the war. Wellington believed that he was needed in Europe, he stated: I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America.... You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success, now undoubted military superiority, have not cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cession of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power... If
Lara Briden is a naturopathic doctor, women’s health speaker, author of the book Period Repair Manual. She runs the Sensible Alternative clinic in Sydney and travels to speak on issues of women’s health. Lara Grinevitch was born in 1969 in Alberta. Briden is a 1993 graduate of the University of Calgary and 1997 graduate of the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, she has Bachelor of Science degree in evolutionary biology, worked as an evolutionary biology researcher at the University of Calgary from 1990-1993. From 1993-1997 she studied at CCNM. From 1997 to 2002, Briden worked in private practice in rural Alberta. In 2002 she moved to Sydney, Australia where she established a practice focusing on women’s health issues. In 2015 she moved to Christchurch, New Zealand, but continued to travel to Sydney to provide ongoing care for her Australian patients. Briden is a regular speaker on women’s health issues, writes for a variety of publications and health-related websites, is a regular guest on health-related podcasts.
In February 2015, Briden published her first book, “Period Repair Manual”. The second edition was picked up by Pan Macmillan for the Australia/New Zealand market in 2018; the book is available in print, multiple eBook formats, as an audio-book, published through Audible. German translation: “Die Perioden-Werkstatt”, published in 2018. Spanish translation: “Cómo mejorar tu ciclo menstrual”, published in 2019. Estonian translation: “Paremate päevade käsiraamat”, published in 2019. Further language translations are underway. Briden has been a member of the Scientific Advisory Council for the Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research at the University of British Columbia, since 2018. Official website Period Repair Manual Amazon author page GoodReads author page
C-K design theory or concept-knowledge theory is both a design theory and a theory of reasoning in design. It defines design reasoning as a logic of expansion processes, i.e. a logic that organizes the generation of unknown objects. The theory builds on several traditions of design theory, including systematic design, axiomatic design, creativity theories and formal design theories, artificial intelligence-based design models. Claims made for C-K design theory include that it is the first design theory that: Offers a comprehensive formalization of design, independent of any design domain or object Explains invention and discovery within the same framework and as design processes; the name of the theory is based on its central premises: the distinction between two spaces: a space of concepts C a space of knowledge K. The process of design is defined as a double expansion of the C and K spaces through the application of four types of operators: C→C, C→K, K→C, K→K; the first draft of C-K theory was sketched by Armand Hatchuel, developed by Hatchuel and his colleague, Benoît Weil.
Recent publications explain its practical application in different industries. C-K theory is a research field and a teaching area in several academic institutions in France, Israel, the UK, the USA, Sweden. C-K theory was a response to three perceived limitations of existing design theories: Design theory when assimilated to problem solving theory is unable to account for innovative aspects of design. Classic design theories dependent on object domains, machine design, architecture or industrial design favored design theories that were tailored to their specific knowledge bases and contexts. Without a unified design theory these fields experience difficulties over cooperation in real design situations. Design theories and creativity theories have been developed as separate fields of research, but design theory should include the creative and serendipitous aspects of design. C-K theory claims to have overcome these three limitations, it uses an approach, domain-independent and which allows acting on unknown objects, changes of the definitions of known objects during the process.
C-K theory was shown by Hatchuel and Weil to be related to Braha's Formal Design Theory and its clarification by Braha and Reich’s Coupled Design Theory, which are both based on topological structures for design modeling. The core idea behind C-K theory is to define rigorously a design situation. A brief is an incomplete description of objects that do not exist yet and are still unknown; the first step in C-K theory is to define a brief as a concept, through the introduction of a formal distinction between concept and knowledge spaces. The knowledge space is defined as a set of propositions with a logical status, according to the knowledge available to the designer or the group of designers; the knowledge space describes all objects and truths that are established from the point of view of the designer. K-Space is expandable as new truths may appear in it as an effect of the design process. Conversely, the structure and properties of the K-Space have a major influence on the process. A concept is defined as a proposition without a logical status in the K-Space.
A central finding of C-K theory is that concepts are the necessary departure point of a design process. Without concepts, design reduces to standard problem-solving. Concepts assert the existence of an unknown object that presents some properties desired by the designer. Concepts can be partitioned or included, but not explored. Building on these premises, C-K theory shows the design process as the result of four operators: C→K, K→C, C→C, K→K; the initial concept is partitioned using propositions from K: K→C These partitions add new properties to the concepts and create new concepts: C→C Thanks to a conjunction C→K this expansion of C may in return provoke the expansion of the K space: K→KThe process can be synthesized through a design square. One design solution for a first concept C0 will be a path in the C-space that forms a new proposition in K. There may exist several design paths for the same C0; the following graphical representation summarises the design process using C-K theory. Crazy conceptsCrazy concepts are concepts that seem absurd as an exploration path in a design process.
Both C-K theory and practical applications have shown that crazy concepts can benefit the global design process by adding extra knowledge, not to be used to pursue that "crazy concept" design path, but to be used to further define a more "sensible concept" and lead to its eventual conjunction. The following image is a graphical representation of this process. Design creativityThe creative aspect of Design results from two distinct expansions: C-expansions which may be seen as "new ideas", K-expansions which are necessary to validate these ideas or to expand them towards successful designs. Unification of design theoriesDomain dependent design theories are built on some specific structure of the K-space, either by assuming that some objects have invariant definitions and properties, or by assuming that the K-space presents some stable structure. Theory of designAt The Design Society's 2009 International Conference on Engineering Design, an awarded-paper links scientific discovery and design process using C-K theory as a formal framework.
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