The Granada War was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula; the ten-year war was not a continuous effort but a series of seasonal campaigns launched in spring and broken off in winter. The Granadans were crippled by internal conflict and civil war, while the Christians were unified; the Granadans were bled economically by Castile, with the tribute they had to pay to avoid being attacked and conquered. The war saw the effective use of artillery by the Christians to conquer towns that would otherwise have required long sieges. On January 2, 1492, Muhammad XII of Granada surrendered the Emirate of Granada, the city of Granada, the Alhambra palace to the Castilian forces; the war was a joint project between Ferdinand's Crown of Aragon.
The bulk of the troops and funds for the war came from Castile, Granada was annexed into Castile's lands. The Crown of Aragon was less important: apart from the presence of King Ferdinand himself, Aragon provided naval collaboration and some financial loans. Aristocrats were offered the allure of new lands, while Ferdinand and Isabella centralized and consolidated power; the aftermath of the war ended convivencia between religions In the Iberian peninsula: the Jews were forced to convert to Christianity or be exiled in 1492, by 1501, all of Granada's Muslims were obliged to convert to Christianity, become slaves, or be exiled. "New Christians" came to be accused of crypto-Judaism. Spain would go on to model its national aspirations as the guardian of Catholicism; the fall of the Alhambra is still celebrated every year by the City Council of Granada, the Granada War is considered in traditional Spanish historiography as the final war of the Reconquista. The Emirate of Granada had been the last Muslim state in Iberia for more than two centuries by the time of the Granada War.
The other remnant al-Andalus states of the once powerful Caliphate of Córdoba had long been conquered by the Christians. Pessimism for Granada's future existed before its ultimate fall. Still, Granada was wealthy and powerful, the Christian kingdoms were divided and fought amongst themselves. Granada's problems began to worsen after Emir Yusuf III's death in 1417. Succession struggles ensured that Granada was in an constant low-level civil war. Clan loyalties were stronger than allegiance to the Emir; the only territory the Emir controlled was the city of Granada. At times, the emir did not control all the city, but rather one rival emir would control the Alhambra, another the Albayzín, the most important district of Granada; this internal fighting weakened the state. The economy declined, with Granada's once world-famous porcelain manufacture disrupted and challenged by the Christian town of Manises near Valencia, in Aragon. Despite the weakening economy, taxes were still imposed at their earlier high rates to support Granada's extensive defenses and large army.
Ordinary Granadans paid triple the taxes of Castilians. The heavy taxes that Emir Abu-l-Hasan Ali imposed contributed to his unpopularity; these taxes did at least support a respected army. The frontier between Granada and the Castilian lands of Andalusia was in a constant state of flux, "neither in peace nor in war." Raids across the border were common, as were intermixing alliances between local nobles on both sides of the frontier. Relations were governed by occasional truces and demands for tribute should one side have been seen to overstep their bounds. Neither country's central government controlled the warfare much. King Henry IV of Castile died in December 1474, setting off the War of the Castilian Succession between Henry's daughter Joanna la Beltraneja and Henry's half-sister Isabella; the war raged from 1475–1479, setting Isabella's supporters and the Crown of Aragon against Joanna's supporters and France. During this time, the frontier with Granada was ignored. Truces were agreed upon in 1475, 1476, 1478.
In 1479, the Succession War concluded with Isabella victorious. As Isabella had married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, this meant that the two powerful kingdoms of Castile and Aragon would stand united, free from inter-Christian war which had helped Granada survive; the truce of 1478 was still theoretically in effect when Granada launched a surprise attack against Zahara in December 1481, as part of a reprisal for a Christian raid. The town fell, the population was enslaved; this attack proved to be a great provocation, factions in favor of war in Andalusia used it to rally support for a counterstrike moving to take credit for it, backed a wider war. The seizure of Alhama and its subsequent royal endorsement is said to be the formal beginning of the Granada War. Abu Hasan was unsuccessful. Reinforcements from the rest of Castile and Aragon averted t
Mudéjar refers to an architecture and decoration style in Christian Iberia, influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship, reaching its greatest expression in medieval Aragon and the city of Toledo. Mudéjar refers to the large group of Muslims in Spain who remained in Christian Iberia despite their territories being reconquered; the distinctive Mudéjar style is still evident in regional architecture, as well as in art, crafts Hispano-Moresque ware, lustreware pottery, exported across Europe. The Mudéjar style was first characterized as a specific aesthetic trend by Spanish art historian Pedro de Madrazo in 1888; this important distinction clarified that the specific qualities were not just signature of specific artisans or craftsmen but it was the collective aesthetic style of Mudéjar Muslims in the Iberian peninsula. Mudéjar was the term used for Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not forcibly converted to Christianity or forcibly exiled.
The word Mudéjar references cultural borrowings. It was a medieval Spanish borrowing of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning "tamed", referring to Muslims who submitted to the rule of Christian kings; the term originated as a taunt, as the word was applied to domesticated animals such as poultry. The term Mudéjar can be translated from Arabic as "one permitted to remain", which references Christians allowing Muslims to remain in Christian Spain. Another term with the same meaning, ahl al-dajn, was used by Muslim writers, notably al-Wansharisi in his work Kitab al-Mi'yar. Mudéjars in Spain lived under a protected tributary status known as dajn which references ahl al-dajn; this protected status suggested subjugation at the hands of Christian rulers as the word dajn resembled haywanāt dājina which meant "tame animals". Their protected status was enforced by local charters which dictated Christians laws. Muslims of other regions outside of the Iberian Peninsula disapproved of the Mudéjar subjugated status and their willingness to live with non-Muslims.
Mudéjar was used in contrast to both Muslims in Muslim-ruled areas and Moriscos, who were forcibly converted and may or may not have continued to secretly practice Islam. The Treaty of Granada protected religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims in the imminent transition from the Emirate of Granada to a Province of Castile. After the fall of the last Islamic kingdom in the Battle of Granada in January 1492, Mudéjars, unlike the Jews who were expelled that same year, kept a protected religious status, although there were Catholic efforts to convert them. However, over the next several decades this religious freedom deteriorated. Islam was outlawed in Portugal by 1497, the Crown of Castile by 1502, the Crown of Aragon by 1526, forcing the Mudéjars to convert or in some cases leave the country. Following the forced conversion, they faced suspicions that they were not converted but remained crypto-Muslims, were known as Moriscos; the Moriscos, were expelled, in 1609–1614. The Muslim population in Castile immigrated from Toledo and other Andalusi territories.
They were not original to the land in Castile. Muslim immigration into Castile was sponsored settlement by the Kingdom of Castile, it is hypothesized that the slow-growing Christian population demonstrated a need to bring more people into Castile. Primary documents written by the Spanish in Castile in the 13th century indicate that Muslims were able to maintain some agency while in Spain; the Mudéjars were able to maintain their religion, their laws, they had their own judges. The Mudéjars in Castile spoke the Romance dialects as their Christian neighbors. Like the Mudéjars in Castile and Catalan Mudéjars spoke the Romance languages of their Christian counterparts. However, unlike the Mudéjars in Castile, there were Muslim villages in Aragon and, to a lesser extent, in south-western Catalonia which populated the land before Christian conquests, setting up a history of Muslim cultivation and population of the land. Besides the large Muslim populations in Granada and Valencia, the Aragonese Muslim peasants were the most well-established Muslim community in the region, while in Catalonia Muslim authoctonous presence was limited only to the Low Ebro and Low Segre areas.
Aragonese and Catalan Muslims were under the jurisdiction of the Christian Crown and were designated a special status. This status applied to the Mudéjar cultivators, the exarici, this status made them subservient to their Christian superiors because by law, they were required to cultivate the land of royal estates. However, this status was beneficial as the law suggested that this land be passed down through Muslim family members. Despite their expulsion at the end of the Morisco period, the Mudéjars in Aragon left evidence of their style in architecture, while in Catalonia only some reminiscences of this architecture can be appreciated in some Gothic churches and cathedrals in some shires of Lleida. In the 13th century, the Aragonese Christians conquered Valencia. Unlike in Aragon, the Mudéjar population in Valencia vastly outnumbered Christians in the area. In Valencia, the majority of communities were Muslim. Although there was a disparity between Christians and Muslims, it is important to note that a Christian king ruled over Valencia, not a sultan or an imam and this shaped the experience of Mudéjars in this regi
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses; therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. Born in the territories of the Crown of Aragon in Spain, his bulls of 1493 confirmed or reconfirmed the rights of the Spanish crown in the New World following the finds of Christopher Columbus in 1492. On the other hand, he sided with France during the second Italian war and supported his son Cesare Borgia as a condottiero for the French King; the scope of his foreign policy was to gain the most advantageous terms for his family. Two of Alexander's successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Saint Peter. Rodrigo de Borja was born on 1 January 1431, in the town of Xativa near Valencia, one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon, in what is now Spain.
His parents were Jofré Llançol i Escrivà, his Aragonese wife and distant cousin Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles. His family name is written Llançol in Lanzol in Castillian. Rodrigo adopted his mother's family name of Borja in 1455 following the elevation to the papacy of maternal uncle Alonso de Borja as Calixtus III. Alternatively, it has been argued that Rodrigo's father was Jofré de Borja y Escrivà, making Rodrigo a Borja from his mother and father's side. However, his children were known to be of Llançol paternal lineage; some revisionists suggest that the confusion is attributed by attempts to connect Rodrigo as the father of Giovanni, Cesare and Gioffre, who were surnamed Llançol i Borja. Rodrigo Borgia studied law at Bologna where he graduated, not as Doctor of Law, but as "the most eminent and judicious jurisprudent". After the election of his uncle as Pope Callixtus III, he was ordained deacon and created Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere at the age of twenty-five in 1456; the following year, he was appointed vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
Both nepotistic appointments were characteristic of the age. Each pope during this period found himself surrounded by the servants and retainers of his predecessors who owed their loyalty to the family of the pontiff who had appointed them. In 1468, he was ordained to the priesthood and, in 1471, he was consecrated bishop and appointed Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. Having served in the Roman Curia under five popes – his uncle Calixtus III, Pius II, Paul II, Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII – Rodrigo Borgia acquired considerable administrative experience and wealth. Contemporary accounts suggest that Rodrigo was "handsome, with a cheerful countenance and genial bearing, he was gifted with the quality of being a smooth talker and of choice eloquence. Beautiful women were attracted to him and excited by him in quite a remarkable way, more than how'iron is drawn to a magnet'." Rodrigo Borgia was an intelligent man with an appreciation for the arts and sciences and an immense amount of respect for the Church.
He was cautious, considered a "political priest" by some. He was a gifted speaker and great at conversation. Additionally, he was "so familiar with Holy Writ, that his speeches were sparkling with well-chosen texts of the Sacred Books"; when his uncle Alonso de Borja was elected Pope Callixtus III, he "inherited" the post of bishop of Valencia. Sixteen days before the death of Pope Innocent VIII, he proposed Valencia as a metropolitan see and became the first archbishop of Valencia; when Rodrigo de Borgia was elected pope as Alexander VI following the death of Innocent VIII, his son Cesare Borgia "inherited" the post as second archbishop of Valencia. The third and the fourth archbishops of Valencia were Juan de Borja and Pedro Luis de Borja, grand-nephews of Alexander VI. There was change in the constitution of the College of Cardinals during the course of the fifteenth century under Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII. Of the twenty-seven cardinals alive in the closing months of the reign of Innocent VIII no fewer than ten were Cardinal-nephews, eight were crown nominees, four were Roman nobles and one other had been given the cardinalate in recompense for his family's service to the Holy See.
On the death of Pope Innocent VIII on 25 July 1492, the three candidates for the Papacy were the sixty-one-year-old Borgia, seen as an independent candidate, Ascanio Sforza for the Milanese, Giuliano della Rovere, seen as a pro-French candidate. It was rumored but not substantiated that Borgia succeeded in buying the largest number of votes and Sforza, in particular, was bribed with four mule-loads of silver. Mallett shows that Borgia was in the lead from the start and that the rumours of bribery began after the election with the distribution of benefices; the benefices and offices granted to Sforza, would be worth more than four mule-loads of silver. Johann Burchard, the conclave's master of ceremonies and a leading figure of the papal household under several popes, recorded in his diary that the 1492 conclave was a expensive campaign. Della Rovere was bankrolled to the cost of 200,000 gold ducats by King Charles VIII of France, with another 100,000 supplied by the Republic of Genoa. Bo
Muhammad XII of Granada
Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII, known to the Castilians as Boabdil, was the 22nd and last Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Iberia. Muhammad XII was the son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of the Emirate of Granada whom he succeeded in 1482, as a result of both court intrigue and unrest amongst the population at large. Muhammad XII soon sought to gain prestige by invading Castile, he was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483. Muhammad's father was restored as ruler of Granada, to be replaced in 1485 by his uncle Muhammed XIII known as Abdullah ez Zagal. Muhammad obtained his freedom and Christian support to recover his throne in 1487, by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under the Catholic monarchs, he further undertook not to intervene in the Siege of Málaga, in which Málaga was taken by the Christians. Following the fall of Málaga and Baza in 1487, Almuñécar, Salobreña and Almería were taken by the Christians the following year. By the beginning of 1491, Granada was the only Muslim-governed city in Iberia.
In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, besieged by the Castilians. On 2 January 1492, Granada was surrendered. In most sumptuous attire the royal procession moved from Santa Fe to a place a little more than a mile from Granada, where Ferdinand took up his position by the banks of the Genil. A private letter written by an eyewitness to the bishop of León only six days after the event recorded the scene: The Moorish sultan, with about eighty or a hundred on horseback and well dressed, went forth to kiss the hand of their Highnesses. According to the final capitulation agreement, both Isabel and Ferdinand will decline the offer, the key to Granada will pass into Spanish hands without Muhammad XII having to kiss the hands of Los Reyes, as the Spanish royal couple became known; the indomitable mother of Muhammad XII insisted on sparing her son this final humiliation. Christopher Columbus seems to have been present. Legend has it that as Muhammad XII went into exile, he reached a rocky prominence which gave a last view of the city.
Here he reined in his horse and viewed for the last time the Alhambra and the green valley that spread below. The place where this took place is today known as the Suspiro del Moro, "the Moor's sigh". Muhammad mourned his loss, continued his journey to exile accompanied by his mother. Muhammad XII was given an estate in Laujar de Andarax, Las Alpujarras, a mountainous area between the Sierra Nevada and the Mediterranean Sea, but in October 1493 he crossed the Mediterranean to Fes, accompanied by an entourage of 1,130 courtiers and servants. Large numbers of the Muslim population of Granada had fled to North Africa, taking advantage of a clause in the articles of surrender that permitted free passage. Shortly after his surrender, Muhammad Boabdil sent a long letter to the Marinid rulers of Morocco asking for refuge; the letter begins with a long poem praising the Marinids, followed by a prose passage where he laments his defeat and asks forgiveness for past wrongdoings of his forefathers against the Marinids.
The entire text was reported by al-Maqqari:... The lord of Castile has proposed for us a respectable residence and has given us assurances of safety to which he pledged by his own handwriting, enough to convince the souls, but we, as descendants of Banu al-Ahmar, didn't settle for this and our faith in God does not permit us to reside under the protection of disbelief. We received from the east many letters full of goodwill, inviting us to come to their lands and offering the best of advantages, but we cannot choose other than our home and the home of our forefathers, we can only accept the protection of our relatives, not because of opportunism but to confirm the brotherhood relationship between us and to fulfill the testament of our forefathers, that tells us not to seek any help other that of the Marinids and not to let anything obstruct us from going to you. So we traversed the vast lands and sailed the tumultuous sea and we hope that we would not be returned and that our eyes will be satisfied and our hurt and grievous souls will be healed from this great pain...
- Muhamad Abu Abdallah Original text in Arabic: ولقد عرض علينا صاحب قشتالة مواضع معتبرة خير فيها، وأعطى من أمانه المؤكد فيه خطه بأيمانه ما يقنع النفوس ويكفيها، فلم نر ونحن من سلالة الأحمر، مجاورة الصفر، ولا سوغ لنا الإيمان الإقامة بين ظهراني الكفر، ما وجدنا عن ذلك مندوحة ولو شاسعة، وأمنا من المطالب المشاغب حمة شرٍ لنا لاسعة، وادكرنا أي ادكار، قول الله تعالى المنكر لذلك غاية الإنكار "ألم تكن أرض الله واسعة" وقول الرسول، عليه الصلاة والسلام، المبالغ في ذلك بأبلغ الكلام "أنا بريء من مؤمن مع كافر لا تتراءى ناراهما" وقول الشاعر الحاث على حث المطية، المتثاقلة عن السير في طريق منجاء البطية وما أنا والتلدد نحو نجد وقد غصت تهامة بالرجالووصلت أيضاً من الشرق إلينا، كتب كريمة المقاصد لدينا، تستدعي الانحياز إلى تلك الجنبات، وتتضمن ما لا مزيد عليه من الرغبات، فلم نختر إلا دارنا التي كانت دار آبائنا من قبلنا، ولم نرتض الإنضواء إلا لمن بحبله وصل حبلنا، وبريش نبله ريش نبلنا، إدلالاً على محل إخاء متوارث لا عن كلالة، وامتثالاً لوصاة أجداد لأنظارهم وأقدارهم أصالة وجلالة، إذ قد روينا عمن سلف من أسلافنا، في الإيصاء لمن يخلف بعدهم من أخلافنا، أن لا يبتغوا إذا دهمهم داهم بالحضرة المرينية بدلاً، ولا يجدوا عن طريقها في التوجه إلى فريقها معدلاً، فاخترقنا إلى الرياض الأريضة الفجاج، وركبنا إلى البحر الفرات ظهر البحر الأجاج، فلا غرو أن نرد منه ع
Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)
The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region. The rebels were Moriscos, the nominally Catholic descendants of the Mudéjares following the first rebellion of the Alpujarras. By 1250, the Reconquest of Spain by the Catholic powers had left only the Emirate of Granada, in southern Spain. In 1491 Granada city fell to the "Catholic Monarchs"—Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile—and under the terms of capitulation the whole Muslim-majority region came under Christian rule. However, the Muslim inhabitants of the city soon revolted against Christian rule in 1499, followed by the mountain villages: this revolt was suppressed by 1501; the Muslims under Christian rule were obliged to convert to Christianity, becoming a nominally Catholic population known as "Moriscos". Discontent among the new "Moriscos" led to a second rebellion, led by a Morisco known as Aben Humeya, starting in December 1568 and lasting till March 1571.
This violent conflict took place in the mountainous Alpujarra region, on the southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada, between Granada city and the Mediterranean coast and is known as the War of the Alpujarras. Most of the Morisco population was expelled from the Kingdom of Granada and was dispersed throughout the Kingdom of Castille; as this left many smaller settlements in Granada empty, Catholic settlers were brought in from other parts of the country to repopulate them. The Kingdom of Granada was the last Muslim-ruled state in Spain. After a long siege, the city of Granada fell to the Catholic Monarchs and Isabel, in 1492; the Muslim population was tolerated under the terms of the Treaty of Granada: they were allowed to stay in their dwellings, to be judged according to their own laws, they would not be obliged to convert to Christianity. | However, they did come under pressure to convert, growing discontent led to an uprising in 1499 in Granada city put down, in the following year two more serious revolts in the mountain villages of the Alpujarra—the region below the Sierra Nevada.
Ferdinand himself led an army into the area. There were revolts in the western parts of the Kingdom. Suppression by the Catholic forces was severe; this revolt enabled the Catholics to claim that the Muslims had violated the terms of the Treaty of Granada, which were therefore withdrawn. Throughout the region, Muslims were now forced to choose between conversion to Christianity or exile; the vast majority chose conversion and became known as "Moriscos" or "New Christians", though many continued to speak Andalusian Arabic and to maintain their Moorish customs. In 1526, Charles I —issued an Edict under which laws against heresy would be enforced; the Moriscos managed to get this suspended for forty years by the payment of a large sum. Since now all remaining Moors were Christian, mosques could be destroyed or turned into churches, their children had to be baptised. There was little or no follow-up in terms of explaining Christianity: indeed, the priests themselves were too ignorant to do so. On the other hand, they punished.
Tension built up. The archbishop of Granada, convinced that the Moriscos were maintaining their customs and traditions and would never become real Christians, called in 1565 a synod of the bishops of the kingdom of Granada, it was agreed that the policy of persuasion should be replaced by one of repression, that the measures of 1526 should now be applied. This meant prohibition of all the distinctive Morisco practices: language, public baths, religious ceremonies, etc. Moreover, in each place where the Moriscos lived at least a dozen "Old Christians" should be installed. Philip II, who had become King in 1556, gave his approval: the result was the Pragmatica of 1 January 1567; the Moriscos tried to negotiate its suspension, as in 1526. A Morisco leader, Francisco Núñez Muley, made a statement protesting against the injustices committed against the Moriscos: "Day by day our situation worsens, we are maltreated in every way. In Egypt, Syria and elsewhere there are people like us who speak and write in Arabic, they are Christians like us."
The American historian Henry Charles Lea wrote: "The Moriscos had come to the parting of the ways.
Kingdom of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile was a large and powerful state located on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region, it began in the 9th century as the County of Castile, an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities. Castile and León, with their southern acquisitions, came to be known collectively as the Crown of Castile, a term that came to encompass overseas expansion. According to the chronicles of Alfonso III of Asturias. In Al-Andalus chronicles from the Cordoban Caliphate, the oldest sources refer to it as Al-Qila, or "the castled" high plains past the territory of Alava, more south to it and the first encountered in their expeditions from Zaragoza.
The name reflects its origin as a march on the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Asturias, protected by castles, towers or castra. The County of Castile, bordered in the south by the northern reaches of the Spanish Sistema Central mountain system, just north of modern-day Madrid province, it was re-populated by inhabitants of Cantabria, Asturias and Visigothic and Mozarab origins. It had customary laws. From the first half of the 9th century until the middle of the century, in which it came to be paid more closer attention to, its administration and defense by the monarchs of Leon – due the increased incursions from the Emirate of Córdoba – its first repopulation settlements were led by small abbots and local counts from the other side of the Cantabrian ridge neighbor valleys and Primorias and smaller ones, being its first settlers from the contiguous maritime valleys of Mena and Encartaciones in nearby Biscay, some of whom had abandoned those exposed areas of the Meseta a few decades earlier, taken refuge by the much dense and intractable woods of the Atlantic valleys, so they were not that foreign to them.
A mix of settlers from the Cantabrian and Basque coastal areas, which were swelled with refugees, was led under the protection of Abbot Vitulus and his brother, count Herwig, as registered in the local charters they signed around the first years of the 800's. The areas that they settled didn't extend far from the Cantabrian southeastern ridges, not beyond the southern reaches of the high Ebro river valleys and canyon gores; the first Count of a wider and more united Castile was Rodrigo in 850, under Ordoño I of Asturias and Alfonso III of Asturias, who settled and fortified the ancient Cantabrian hill town of Amaya, much farther west and south of the Ebro river to offer a more easy defense and command of the still functional Roman Empire main highway passing by, south of the Cantabrian ridge all the way to Leon, from the Muslim military expeditions. Subsequently, the region was subdivided, separate counts being named to Alava, Cerezo & Lantarón, a reduced Castile. In 931 the County was reunified by Count Fernán González, who rose in rebellion against the Kingdom of León, successor state to Asturias, achieved an autonomous status, allowing the county to be inherited by his family instead of being subject to appointment by the Leonese king.
The minority of Count García Sánchez led Castile to accept Sancho III of Navarre, married to the sister of Count García, as feudal overlord. García was assassinated in 1028 while in León to marry the princess Sancha, sister of Bermudo III of León. Sancho III, acting as feudal overlord, appointed his younger son Ferdinand as Count of Castile, marrying him to his uncle's intended bride, Sancha of León. Following Sancho's 1035 death, Castile returned to the nominal control of León, but Ferdinand, allying himself with his brother García Sánchez III of Navarre, began a war with his brother-in-law Vermudo. At the Battle of Tamarón Vermudo was killed. In right of his wife, Ferdinand assumed the royal title as king of León and Castile, for the first time associating the royal title with the rule of Castile; when Ferdinand I died in 1065, the territories were divided among his children. Sancho II became King of Castile, Alfonso VI, King of León and García, King of Galicia, while his daughters were given towns, Urraca and Elvira, Toro.
Sancho II allied himself with Alfonso VI of León and together they conquered divided Galicia. Sancho attacked Alfonso VI and invaded León with the help of El Cid, drove his brother into exile, thereby reuniting the three kingdoms. Urraca permitted the greater part of the Leonese army to take refuge in the town of Zamora. Sancho laid siege to the town, but the Castilian king was assassinated in 1072 by Bellido Dolfos, a Galician nobleman; the Castilian troops withdrew. As a result, Alfonso VI recovered all his original territory of León, now became the king of Castile and Galicia; this was the second union of León and Castile, although the two kingdoms remained distinct entities joined only in a personal union. The before Alfonso VI in Santa Gadea de Burgos regarding the innocence of Alfonso in the matter of the murder of his brother is well known. During the first years of the 12th century Alfonso VI only son Sancho died leaving only his daughter. Due to this Alfonso VI took a different approach to the rest of Europeans kingdoms, including France
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion of Iberia by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms.
His armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged; the northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects.
Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. The Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads.
In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest". Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880; the modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element. The idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism, their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
The Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018. Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'.. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century.
However, the term is still in use