Podolia or Podilia is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova. The name derives from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along" and dol, "valley"; the area is part of the vast East European Plain, confined by the Dniester River and the Carpathian arc in the southwest. It comprises an area of about 40,000 km2, extending for 320 km from northwest to southeast on the left bank of the Dniester. In the same direction run two ranges of low hills separated by the Southern Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights; the Podolian Upland, an elongated, up to 472 ft high plateau stretches from the Western and Southern Bug rivers to the Dniester, includes hill countries and mountainous regions with canyon-like fluvial valleys. Podolia lies east of historic Red Ruthenia, i.e. the eastern half of Galicia, beyond the Seret River, a tributary of the Dniester. In the northwest it borders on Volhynia, it is made up of the present-day Ukrainian Vinnytsia Oblast and southern and central Khmelnytskyi Oblast.
The Podolian lands further include parts of adjacent Ternopil Oblast in the west and Kiev Oblast in the northeast. In the east it consists of the neighbouring parts of Cherkasy and Odessa Oblasts, as well as the northern half of Transnistria. Two large rivers, with numerous tributaries, drain the region: the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Moldova and is navigable throughout its length, the Southern Bug, which flows parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, interrupted in several places by rapids; the Dniester forms an important channel for trade in the areas of Mohyliv-Podilskyi and other Podolian river-ports. In Podolia, "black earth" soil predominates, making it a fertile agricultural area. Marshes occur only beside the Bug. A moderate climate predominates, with average temperatures at Kamianets-Podilskyi of 9 °C. Russian-ruled Podolia in 1906 had an estimated population of 3,543,700, consisting chiefly of Ukrainians. Significant minorities included Poles and Jews, as well as 50,000 Romanians, some Germans, some Armenians.
The chief towns include Kamianets-Podilskyi, the traditional capital, Bar, Haisyn, Letychiv, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia, Skala-Podilska and Yampil. In Moldova, the major Podolian cities are Rîbniţa. Podolia is known for its cherries, melons and cucumbers; the country has had human inhabitants since at least the beginning of the Neolithic period. Herodotus mentions it as the seat of the Graeco-Scythian Alazones and Scythian Neuri. Subsequently, the Dacians and the Getae arrived; the Romans left traces of their rule in Trajan's Wall, which stretches through the modern districts of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia and Khmelnytskyi. During the Great Migration Period, many nationalities passed through this territory or settled within it for some time, leaving numerous traces in archaeological remains. Nestor in the Primary Chronicle mentions four Slavic tribes: the Buzhans and Dulebes along the Southern Bug River, the Tivertsi and Ulichs along the Dniester; the Avars invaded in the 7th century.
Prince Oleg of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory known as the Ponizie, or "lowlands." These lowlands became a part of the Rus' principalities of Volhynia and Galicia. In the 13th century, Bakota served as its administrative centre. During that time, the Mongols plundered Ponizie. Polish colonisation began in the 14th century. After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas in 1430, Podolia was incorporated into Podolian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown, with the exception of its eastern part, the Province of Bratslav, which remained with Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569. From 1672, Podolia became part of the Ottoman Empire and where it was known as Podolia Eyalet. During this time, it was a province, with its center being Kamaniçe, was divided into sanjaks of Kamaniçe, Bar and Yazlovets, it remained with the Ottoman Empire for a substantial period of time, only returning to the Polish regime in 1699. The Poles retained Podolia until the partitions of their country in 1772 and 1793, when the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia annexed the western and eastern parts respectively.
From 1793–1917, part of the region was the Podolia Governorate in southwestern Russia bordering with Austria across the Zbruch River and with Bessarabia across the Dniester. Its area was 36,910 km2. In the 1772 First Partition of Poland, the Austrian Habsburgs had taken control of a small part of Podolia west of the Zbruch River around Borschiv, in what is today Ternopil Oblast. At this time, Emperor Joseph II toured the area, was impressed by the fertility of the soil, was optimistic about its future prospects. Poland disappeared as a state in a third partition in 1795 but the Polish gentry continued to maintain local control in both eastern and western Podolia over a peasant population, ethnically Ukrainian whose
The Eyalet of Temeşvar, known as Eyalet of Yanova after 1658, was a first-level administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire located in the Banat region of Central Europe. Besides Banat, the province included area north of the Mureș River, part of the Crișana region, its territory is now divided between Hungary and Serbia. Its capital was Temeşvar; the name of the province in Ottoman Turkish was Eyâlet-i Temeşvar or Eyâlet-i Tımışvar, in Hungarian was Temesvári vilajet, in Romanian was Eialetul Timișoarei or Pașalâcul Timișoara, in Serbian was Темишварски ејалет or Temišvarski ejalet. The province was named after Temeşvar; the Turkish name Temeşvar is given after the Hungarian one, Temesvár meaning "Castle on the Temes". The Eyalet of Temeşvar was formed in 1552, when the Hungarian castle of Temesvár defended by the troop of István Losonczy was captured by the Ottoman troops led by Kara Ahmed Pasha in July 26, 1552 and existed until 1716, when it was conquered by the Habsburg Monarchy; the Eyalet was led by a vali or beylerbey, whose residence was at the former Hunyadi Castle in Temeşvar.
In 1718, the Habsburgs formed a new province in this region, named the Banat of Temeswar. Kazim-bey or Gazi Kasim-pasha Hasan-pasha Sofi Sinan-pasha Hasan-pasha, the younger Mustafa Pasha Dželalija Hasan-paša Ahmed-paša Dugalić Ibrahim-pasha Ibrahim-pasha Banat Banat of Temeswar Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990. Milan Tutorov, Banatska rapsodija, Novi Sad, 2001. Province of Temeşvar in 1600 - Map Province of Temeşvar in 1700 - Map Province of Temeşvar - Map Province of Temeşvar - Map Province of Temeşvar - Map
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as "Calvary" or "Golgotha", Jesus' empty tomb, where he is said to have been buried and resurrected; the tomb is enclosed by an 19th-century shrine called the Aedicula. The Status Quo, a 260-year-old understanding between religious communities, applies to the site. Within the church proper are the last four Stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of Jesus' Passion; the church has been a major Christian pilgrimage destination since its creation in the fourth century, as the traditional site of the Resurrection of Christ, thus its original Greek name, Church of the Anastasis. Today, the wider complex accumulated during the centuries around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre serves as the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, while control of the church itself is shared among several Christian denominations and secular entities in complicated arrangements unchanged for over 160 years, some for much longer.
The main denominations sharing property over parts of the church are the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic, to a lesser degree the Coptic Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox. Meanwhile, Protestants have no permanent presence in the Church; some Protestants prefer the Garden Tomb, elsewhere in Jerusalem, as a more evocative site to commemorate Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. In 70 AD, the siege of Jerusalem by Emperor Titus saw the destruction of the Second Temple. Sixty years in 130 AD, the Roman emperor Hadrian started a Roman colony in Jerusalem, c. 135, ordered that a cave containing a rock-cut tomb be filled in to create a flat foundation for a temple dedicated to Jupiter or Venus. The temple referred to as Jupiter Capitolinus, remained until the early 4th century. After seeing a vision of a cross in the sky in 312, Constantine the Great converted to Christianity, signed the Edict of Milan legalising the religion, sent his mother Helena to Jerusalem to look for Christ's tomb.
With the help of Bishop of Caesarea Eusebius and Bishop of Jerusalem Macarius, three crosses were found near a tomb, leading the Romans to believe that they had found Calvary. Constantine ordered in about 326. After the temple was torn down and its ruins removed, the soil was removed from the cave, revealing a rock-cut tomb that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus. In 327, Constantine and Helena separately commissioned the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem to commemorate the birth of Jesus. Constantine's church was built as separate constructs over the two holy sites: the great basilica, an enclosed colonnaded atrium with the traditional site of Calvary in one corner, across a courtyard, a rotunda called the Anastasis, where Helena and Macarius believed Jesus to have been buried; the church was consecrated on 13 September 335. Every year, the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the anniversary of the Dedication of the Temple of the Resurrection of Christ; this building was destroyed by a fire in May of 614 A.
D when the Sassanid Empire, under Khosrau II, captured the True Cross. In 630, the Emperor Heraclius rebuilt the church after recapturing the city. After Jerusalem came under Arab rule, it remained a Christian church, with the early Muslim rulers protecting the city's Christian sites, prohibiting their destruction or use as living quarters. A story reports that the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab visited the church and stopped to pray on the balcony, he feared that future generations would misinterpret this gesture, taking it as a pretext to turn the church into a mosque. Eutychius added; the building suffered severe damage due to an earthquake in 746. Early in the ninth century, another earthquake damaged the dome of the Anastasis; the damage was repaired in 810 by Patriarch Thomas. In the year 841, the church suffered a fire. In 935, the Orthodox Christians prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent to the Church. In 938, a new fire came close to the rotunda. In 966, due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region of Syria, a riot broke out, followed by reprisals.
The basilica was burned again. The doors and roof were burnt, the Patriarch John VII was murdered. On 18 October 1009, Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the complete destruction of the church as part of a more general campaign against Christian places of worship in Palestine and Egypt; the damage was extensive, with few parts of the early church remaining, the roof of the rock-cut tomb damaged. Some partial repairs followed. Christian Europe reacted with shock and expulsions of Jews, serving as an impetus to Crusades. In wide-ranging negotiations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine Empire in 1027–28, an agreement was reached whereby the new Caliph Ali az-Zahir agreed to allow the rebuilding and redecoration of the Church; the rebuilding was completed wi
Ottoman Turkish language
Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language, used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin outnumbered native Turkish words. Ottoman Turkish was unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe, which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language; the Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish. Nominative case: كول göl, چوربه çorba, گجه gece. Accusative case: طاوشان گترمش ṭavşan getirmiş. No suffix. Genitive case: answers the question كمڭ kimiñ, formed with the suffix ڭ –ıñ, –iñ, –uñ, –üñ. E.g. پاشانڭ paşanıñ from پاشا paşa. Accusative case: answers the question كمى kimi and نه يى neyi, formed with the suffix ى –ı, -i: طاوشانى گترمش ṭavşanı getürmiş.
The variant suffix –u, –ü does not occur in Ottoman Turkish unlike in Modern Turkish because of the lack of labial vowel harmony. Thus, كولى göli, but Modern Turkish has gölü. Dative case: Locative case: answers the question نره ده nerede, formed with the suffix ده –de, –da: مكتبده mektebde, قفصده ḳafeṣde, باشده başda, شهرده şehirde; as with the indefinite accusative case, the variant suffix –te, –ta does not occur unlike in Modern Turkish. Ablative case: answers the questions نره دن nereden and ندن neden. Instrumental case: answers the question نه ايله ne ile; the conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows: Ottoman Turkish was influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary; as in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact, evidenced by the Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.
The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the north-east of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find. In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Persian incorporated into the text, it was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic. In a social and pragmatic sense, there were three variants of Ottoman Turkish: Fasih Türkçe: the language of poetry and administration, Ottoman Turkish in its strict sense.
A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it. Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras: Eski Osmanlı Türkçesi: the version of Ottoman Turkish used until the 16th century, it was identical with the Turkish used by Seljuk empire and Anatolian beyliks and was regarded as part of Eski Anadolu Türkçesi. Orta Osmanlı Türkçesi or Klasik Osmanlıca: the language of poetry and administration from the 16th century until Tanzimat, it is the version of Ottoman Turkish. Yeni Osmanlı Türkçesi: the version shaped from the 1850s to the 20th century under the influence of journalism and Western-oriented literature. In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents.
It saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state. See the list of replaced loanwords in Turkish for more examples on Ottoman Turkish words and their modern Turkish counterparts. Two examples of Arabic and two of Persian loanwords are found below. Hi
Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)
The Principality of Transylvania was a semi-independent state, ruled by Hungarian princes. Its territory, in addition to the traditional Transylvanian lands included eastern regions of Hungary, called Partium; the establishment of the principality was connected with Treaty of Speyer. However Stephen Báthory's status as king of Poland helped to phase in the name Principality of Transylvania, it was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. The principality continued to be a part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown and was a symbol of the survival of Hungarian statehood, it represented the Hungarian interests against Habsburg encroachments in Habsburg ruled Kingdom of Hungary. All traditional Hungarian law remained to be followed scrupulously in the principality. After the unsettled period of Rákóczi's War of Independence, it was subordinated within the Habsburg Monarchy. On 29 August 1526, the army of Sultan Suleiman of the Ottoman Empire inflicted a decisive defeat on the Hungarian forces at Mohács.
John Zápolya was en route to the battlefield with his sizable army but did not participate in the battle for unknown reasons. The youthful King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia fell in battle; as Zápolya was elected king of Hungary, Ferdinand from the House of Habsburg claimed the throne of Hungary. In the ensuing struggle John Zápolya received the support of Sultan Suleiman I, who after his death in 1540, occupied Buda and central Hungary in 1541 under the pretext of protecting Zápolya's son, John II. Hungary was now divided into three sections: the West and north Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom under Ottoman suzerainty, which became the Principality of Transylvania where Austrian and Turkish influences vied for supremacy for nearly two centuries; the Hungarian magnates of Transylvania resorted to policy of duplicity in order to preserve independence. Transylvania was administrated by Isabella, John Sigismund's mother from 1541 to 1551, when it fell for 5 years under Habsburg rule.
The House of Zapolya gained again the control of Transylvania in 1556, when the Diet of Szászsebes elected Sigismund as prince of Transylvania. Transylvania was now beyond the reach of Catholic religious authority, allowing Lutheran and Calvinist preaching to flourish. In 1563, Giorgio Blandrata was appointed as court physician, his radical religious ideas influenced both the young king John II and the Calvinist bishop Francis David converting both to the Anti-Trinitarian creed. In a formal public disputation, Francis David prevailed over the Calvinist Peter Melius; the Principality of Transylvania was established in 1570 when John II renounced his claim as King of Hungary in the Treaty of Speyer, however he became a Transylvanian prince. The treaty recognized that Principality of Transylvania belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary in the sense of public law. Upon the death of John II in 1571 the Royal House of Báthory came to power and ruled Transylvania as princes under the Ottomans, their rise to power marked the beginning of the Principality of Transylvania as a semi-independent state.
His Royal Highness Prince Stephen Báthory was the first powerful prince of independent Transylvania, a Hungarian Catholic who became King under the name Stephen Báthory of Poland, undertook to maintain the religious liberty granted by the Edict of Torda, but interpreted this obligation in an restricted sense. The latter period of Báthory rule saw Transylvania under Sigismund Báthory – prince of the Holy Roman Empire – enter the Long War, which started as a Christian alliance against the Turks and became a four-sided conflict involving Transylvania, the Habsburgs, the Ottomans, the voivode of Wallachia, Michael the Brave. After 1601 the Principality for a short time was under the rule of Rudolf I who initiated the Germanization of the population, in order to reclaim the Principality for Catholicism the Counter Reformation. From 1604 to 1606, the Hungarian nobleman Stephen Bocskay led a successful rebellion against Austrian rule. Bocskay was elected prince of Hungary two months later, he achieved the Peace of Vienna in 1606.
By the Peace of Vienna, Bocskay obtained religious liberty and political autonomy, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all "unrighteous" judgments, a complete retroactive amnesty for all Hungarians in Royal Hungary, as well as his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged Principality of Transylvania. By the Treaty of Vienna was guaranteed the right of Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes, but Georg Keglević, the Commander-in-chief, Vice-Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia, was since 1602 Baron in Transylvania, it was a difficult and complicated peace treaty after a long war. Under Bocskay's successors Transylvania had its golden age, especia
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of