Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB, was a British soldier and adventurer who founded the Kingdom of Sarawak in Borneo. He ruled as the first White Rajah of Sarawak from 1841 until his death in 1868. Brooke was raised under the Company Raj of the British East India Company in India. After a few years of education in England, he served in the Bengal Army, was wounded, resigned his commission, he bought a ship and sailed out to the Malay Archipelago where, by helping to crush a rebellion, he became governor of Sarawak. He vigorously suppressed piracy in the region and, in the ensuing turmoil, restored the Sultan of Brunei to his throne, for which the Sultan made Brooke the Rajah of Sarawak, he ruled until his death. Brooke was not without detractors and was criticised in the British Parliament and investigated in Singapore for his anti-piracy measures, he was, however and feted in London for his activities in Southeast Asia. The naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace was one of many visitors whose published work spoke of his hospitality and achievements.
Brooke was born in Bandel, near Calcutta, but baptised in Secrole, a suburb of Benares. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge in the Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India. Brooke stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England for a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away; some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Assam during the First Anglo-Burmese War until wounded in 1825, was sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, resigned his commission, he remained on the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, returned home via China. Brooke was not successful. In 1833 he inherited £ 30,000, which he used as capital to purchase Royalist. Setting sail for Borneo in 1838, he arrived in Kuching in August to find the settlement facing an uprising against the Sultan of Brunei. Impressed with the Malay Archipelago, in Sarawak he met the sultan's uncle, Pangeran Muda Hashim, to whom he gave assistance in crushing the rebellion, thereby winning the gratitude of the Sultan, who in 1841 offered Brooke the governorship of Sarawak in return for his help.
Rajah Brooke was successful in suppressing the widespread piracy of the region. However, some Malay nobles in Brunei, unhappy over Brooke's measures against piracy, arranged for the murder of Muda Hashim and his followers. Brooke, with assistance from a unit of Britain's China Squadron, took over Brunei and restored its sultan to the throne. In 1842 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II ceded complete sovereignty of Sarawak to Brooke, he was granted the title of Rajah of Sarawak on 24 September 1841, although the official declaration was not made until 18 August 1842. In 1846 Brooke presented the island of Labuan to the British government, he was appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Labuan in 1848. During his reign, Brooke began to establish and cement his rule over Sarawak: reforming the administration, codifying laws and fighting piracy, which proved to be an ongoing issue throughout his rule. Brooke returned temporarily to England in 1847, where he was given the Freedom of the City of London, appointed British consul-general in Borneo and created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.
Brooke pacified the natives, including the Dayaks, suppressed headhunting and piracy. He said that only Dayaks can kill Dayaks. Brooke became the centre of controversy in 1851 when accusations against him of excessive use of force against natives, under the guise of anti-piracy operations led to the appointment of a Commission of Inquiry in Singapore in 1854. After investigation, the Commission dismissed the charges but the accusations continued to haunt him. Brooke wrote to Alfred Russel Wallace on leaving England in April 1853, "to assure Wallace that he would be glad to see him at Sarawak." This was an invitation that helped Wallace decide on the Malay Archipelago for his next expedition, an expedition that lasted for eight years and established him as one of the foremost Victorian intellectuals and naturalists of the time. When Wallace arrived in Singapore in September 1854, he found Rajah Brooke "reluctantly preparing to give evidence to the special commission set up to investigate his controversial anti-piracy activities."During his rule, Brooke faced threats from Sarawak warriors like Sharif Masahor and Rentap, an uprising by Liu Shan Bang in 1857, but remained in power.
Brooke ruled Sarawak until his death following three strokes over ten years. All three White Rajahs are buried in St Leonard's Church in the village of Sheepstor on Dartmoor. Having no legitimate children, in 1861 he formally named Captain John Brooke Johnson-Brooke, his sister's eldest son, as his successor. Two years the Rajah reacted to criticism by returning to the east: after a brief meeting in Singapore John was deposed and banished from Sarawak. James increased the charges to treasonous conduct and named John's younger brother, Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke, as successor. Brooke was influenced by the success of previous British adventurers and the exploits of the British East India Company, his actions in Sarawak were directed at expanding the British Empire and the benefits of its rule, assisting the local people by fighting piracy and slavery, securing his own personal wealth to further
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia. The largest among the 13 states, with an area equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan to the south, Brunei in the north; the capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, the seat of the Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri and Bintulu; as of the 2015 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,636,000. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species, it has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak; the earliest known human settlement in Sarawak at the Niah Caves dates back 40,000 years. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the archaeological site of Santubong; the coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century.
In 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946. During World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation; the creation of the Federation resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990. The head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. Sarawak is divided into administrative divisions and districts, governed by a system, modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and was the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia; because of its natural resources, Sarawak specialises in the export of oil and gas and oil palms, but possesses strong manufacturing and tourism sectors.
It is ethnically and linguistically diverse. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state; the generally-accepted explanation of the state's name is that it is derived from the Malay word sarawak, which means people or community in Sanskrit. The Bengal region, a prominent trade and cultural hub which influenced East Asian history had communities of Sarawak which means people or community. However, the latter explanation is incorrect: the territory had been named Sarawak before the arrival of James Brooke, the word awak was not in the vocabulary of Sarawak Malay before the formation of Malaysia. Sarawak is nicknamed "Land of the Hornbills"; these birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is believed that if a hornbill is seen flying over residences, it will bring good luck to the local community. Sarawak has eight of the world's fifty-four species of hornbills, the Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak. Foragers are known to have lived around the west mouth of the Niah Caves 40,000 years ago.
A modern human skull found near the Niah Caves is the oldest human remain found in Malaysia and the oldest modern human skull from Southeast Asia. Chinese ceramics dating to the Tang and Song dynasties found at Santubong hint at its significance as a seaport; the Bruneian Empire was established in the coastal regions of Sarawak by the mid-15th century, the Kuching area was known to Portuguese cartographers during the 16th century as Cerava, one of the five great seaports of Borneo. It was during this time that witnessed the birth of the Sultanate of Sarawak, a local kingdom that lasted for half a century before being reunited with Brunei in 1641. By the early 19th century, the Bruneian Empire was in decline, retaining only a tenuous hold along the coastal regions of Sarawak which were otherwise controlled by semi-independent Malay leaders. Away from the coast, territorial wars were fought between a Kenyah-Kayan alliance; the discovery of antimony ore in the Kuching region led Pangeran Indera Mahkota, a representative of the Sultan of Brunei, to increase development in the territory between 1824 and 1830.
Increasing antimony production in the region led the Brunei Sultanate to demand higher taxes, which led to civil unrest. In 1839, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II assigned his uncle Pangeran Muda Hashim the task of restoring order but his inability to do so caused him to request the aid of British sailor James Brooke. Brooke's success in quelling the revolt was rewarded with antimony and the governorship of Sarawak, which at that time consisted only of a small area centred on Kuching; the Brooke family called the White Rajahs, set about expanding the territory they had been ceded. With expansion came the need for efficient governance and thus, beginning in 1841, Sarawak was separated into the first of its administrative divisions with currency, the Sarawak dollar, beginning circulation in 1858. By 1912, a total of five divisions had been established in Sarawak, each headed by a Resident; the Brooke family practised a paternalistic for
Other men sometimes referred to as White Rajahs include Englishman Alexander Hare in Borneo, Scot John Clunies Ross in the Cocos Islands, Dane Mads Lange in Bali. For the book by Nigel Barley, see Nigel Barley The White Rajahs were a dynastic monarchy of the British Brooke family, who founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak, located on the north west coast of the island of Borneo, from 1841 to 1946; the first ruler was an Englishman James Brooke. As a reward for helping the Sultanate of Brunei fight piracy and insurgency among the indigenous peoples, he was granted the province of Kuching, known as Sarawak Asal in 1841 and received independent kingdom status. Based on descent through the male line in accordance with the Will of Sir James Brooke, the White Rajahs' dynasty continued through Brooke's nephew and grandnephew, the latter of whom ceded his rights to the United Kingdom in 1946, his nephew had been the legal heir to the throne and objected to the cession, as did most of the Sarawak members of the Council Negri.
Sarawak was part of the realm of Brunei until 1841 when James Brooke was granted a sizeable area of land in the southwest area of Brunei – around the town of Sarawak and the nearby mining region of Bau – from Bruneian Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. He was confirmed with the title of Rajah of the territory; the Kingdom of Sarawak developed and expanded during the rule of the first two White Rajahs, growing to occupy much of the north region of the island of Borneo. The Brooke administrations annexed more land from Brunei; the White Rajahs were all related: James and Charles had short grammar school educations, Vyner and Anthony went to public schools and Cambridge University. All but Anthony are buried at Sheepstor parish church, Devon. Anthony Brooke had his ashes interred at Sheepstor as well as at the Brooke Family graveyard in Kuching, as per his last wish; the White Rajahs pursued a policy of paternalism, with the goal of protecting the "native peoples" from "capitalist exploitation". While James Brooke laid much of the groundwork for the expansion of Sarawak, his nephew Charles, the second Rajah, was the great builder.
He constructed public buildings to serve welfare, such as a hospital, in addition to forts. He worked to extend the borders of the state. Vyner Brooke instituted significant political reforms during his tenure, he ended the absolute rule of the Rajah in 1941, before the Japanese invasion of World War II, by granting new powers to the Council Negri. Bertram co-ruled with his elder brother, taking turns of 6 – 8 months in charge of the country each year. By 1939 Bertram's son Anthony had taken the reins of government, it was with a considerable controversy that Vyner attempted to cede Sarawak to Britain secretly in 1946 in what gave rise to the anti-cession movement of Sarawak; the Sovereign: His Highness The Rajah of Sarawak The consort of the ruling prince: Her Highness The Ranee of Sarawak The Heir Apparent: His Highness The Rajah Muda of Sarawak Wife of the Heir Apparent: Her Highness The Ranee Muda of Sarawak The Heir Presumptive: His Highness The Tuan Muda of Sarawak Wife of the Heir Presumptive: Her Highness The Dayang Muda of Sarawak Daughters of the Sovereign and his heirs: Dayang.
In accordance with the Will of the first Rajah, Sir James Brooke, the line of succession to the'sovereignty of Sarawak and all the rights and privileges whatsoever thereto belonging,' was to the heirs male lawfully begotten of the Rajah's nephew Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. Charles inherited under the Will in 1868, confirmed the succession in his own will of 1913. On his accession in 1918, his son Vyner swore to uphold the Will'as forming the constitution of the state'; this unique testamentary trust became known as'The Sarawak Sovereignty Trust'. When James Brooke first arrived in Sarawak, it was governed as a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei. Brooke reorganised the government according to the British model creating a civil service, it recruited European, chiefly British, officers to run district outstations. The Sarawak Service was continually reformed by his successors. Rajah James retained many of the customs and symbols of Malay monarchy, combined them with his own style of absolute rule.
The Rajah acted as chief judge in Kuching. The White Rajahs were determined to prevent the indigenous peoples of Sarawak from being exploited by Western business interests, they allowed the Borneo Company Limited to assist in managing the economy. The core of the early Sarawak economy was antimony followed by gold, mined in Bau by Chinese syndicates who imported numerous workers from China. After the local Chinese uprising in 1857, the mining operations were taken over by the Borneo Company; the Borneo Company provided military support to the White Rajahs during crises such as the Chinese uprising. One of the company steamships, the Sir James Brooke, helped recapture Kuching. Rajah Charles formed a small paramilitary force, the Sarawak Rangers, to police and defend the expanding state; this small army manned a series of forts around the country, acted as the Rajahs' personal guard, performed ceremonial duties. After the Second World War, during which Sarawak and Borneo had been occupied by Japanese forces, the third rajah, Vyner Brooke, ceded his life interest in Sarawak to the Colonial Office.
Unclear as to the legality of cession, the British Government passed a Bill of Annexa
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Alan Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton
Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, CH, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician. Lennox-Boyd was the son of Alan Lennox-Boyd by his second wife Florence, daughter of James Warburton Begbie, he had an elder half-sister and three full brothers, two of whom were killed in the Second World War and one who died in Germany in April 1939. He was educated at Sherborne School and graduated from Christ Church, with a BA promoted to MA. In the Second World War he saw active service as a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve with Coastal Forces. Lennox-Boyd was elected as Member of Parliament for Mid Bedfordshire in 1931, was admitted to Inner Temple, as a barrister in 1941, he was a member of Winston Churchill's peacetime government as Minister for Transport and Civil Aviation from 1952 to 1954. In this post he once memorably opined that road accidents were the result not of the taking of large risks, but of the taking of small risks large numbers of times; as a Minister, he opened the third Woodhead Tunnel on the British Railways electrified railway across the Pennines on 3 June 1954.
In 1954 he became Secretary of State for the Colonies, where he oversaw early stages of decolonisation, with the granting of independence to Cyprus, Iraq and Sudan. He was in office during the Mau Mau Rebellion in Kenya, was persuaded to stay in office by Harold Macmillan after being censured for the Hola massacre, he talked about independence for the Federation of Malaya, invited the Chief Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman and his colleagues to Lancaster House to discuss the possibility of independence. Following the Suez Crisis of 1956, Lennox-Boyd appears to have made the initial approach to writer Ian Fleming about the possibility of Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden's using Fleming's Jamaican house, for a rest cure given the precarious state of Eden's health; because of security considerations, he intimated to Fleming that he wanted Goldeneye for a holiday of his own and, when he resisted Fleming's suggestion that his and Fleming's wife liaise over the arrangements, Fleming at first assumed that he was planning an extra-marital assignation.
After the 1959 general election, Lennox-Boyd was replaced as Colonial Secretary by Iain Macleod. In September 1960 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Boyd of Merton of Merton-in-Penninghame in the County of Wigtown; this caused a by-election for his Mid Bedfordshire constituency, won by Stephen Hastings. He was further honoured the same year. Being opposed to the line taken in Harold Macmillan's Wind of Change speech, he subsequently became an early patron of the Conservative Monday Club. Lord Boyd of Merton held the office of Deputy Lieutenant of Bedfordshire between 1954 and 1960 and Deputy Lieutenant of Cornwall in 1965, he was managing director of Arthur Guinness & Sons between 1959 and 1967, was a Companion of Honour and Privy Councillor. In June 1957, Lennox-Boyd, Secretary of State for the Colonies, received a secret memorandum written by Eric Griffiths-Jones, the attorney general of Kenya; the letter described the abuse of Mau Mau detainees. The memorandum was passed on by Sir Evelyn Baring, the Governor of Kenya, alleged to have added a cover letter asserting that inflicting "violent shock" is the only way to deal with Mau Mau insurgents.
In April 2011 a Guardian report described a cache of government documents which may indicate that, despite clear briefings, Lennox-Boyd denied that the abuses were happening, publicly denounced those colonial officials who came forward to complain. Lord Boyd married Lady Patricia Guinness, daughter of Rupert Guinness, 2nd Earl of Iveagh, on 29 December 1938, his mother-in-law, the Countess of Iveagh, had been an MP in 1927-35 and he was brother-in-law to Sir Henry Channon an MP, making them jointly a first mother-in-law and child-in-law set of MPs. They had three children: Simon Lennox-Boyd, 2nd Viscount Boyd of Merton Hon. Christopher Lennox-Boyd Hon. Mark Lennox-Boyd Lord Boyd was knocked down and killed by a car when walking across Fulham Road in London in March 1983, aged 78, after cremation, was buried at St Stephen's Church, Cornwall, he was succeeded by Simon. Lady Boyd died in May 2001, aged 83, she gave her name to the Viscountess of Merton cup, awarded at the Cornwall Spring Flower Show.
According to many sources Lennox-Boyd was a practising homosexual. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Boyd of Merton
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after military attacks or military threats by foreign powers. Starting with the rise of Chinese nationalism and anti-imperialism in the 1920s, the Kuomintang and Communist Party used these concepts to characterize the Chinese experience in losses of sovereignty between 1839 to 1949; the term "unequal treaty" became associated with the concept of China's "century of humiliation" the concessions to foreign powers and loss of tariff autonomy through the treaty ports. In China, the term "unequal treaty" first came into use in the early 1920s. Dong Wang, a professor of contemporary and modern Chinese history, noted that "while the phrase has long been used, it lacks a clear and unambiguous meaning" and that there is "no agreement about the actual number of treaties signed between China and foreign countries that should be counted as'unequal'."
Historian Immanuel Hsu explained that the Chinese viewed the treaties they signed with Western powers as unequal "because they were not negotiated by nations treating each other as equals but were imposed on China after a war, because they encroached upon China's sovereign rights... which reduced her to semicolonial status". In response, historian Elizabeth Cobbs wrote, "Ironically, the treaties resulted from China's initial reluctance to consider any treaties whatsoever, since it viewed all other nations as inferior, it did not wish to be equal."In many cases, China was forced to pay large amounts of financial reparations, open up ports for trade, cede or lease territories, make various other concessions of sovereignty to foreign "spheres of influence", following military threats. The earliest treaty referred to as "unequal" was the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi negotiations during the First Opium War; the first treaty between China and Great Britain termed "unequal" was the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.
Following Qing China's defeat, treaties with Britain opened up five ports to foreign trade, while allowing foreign missionaries, at least in theory, to reside within China. In addition, foreign residents in the port cities were afforded trials by their own consular authorities rather than the Chinese legal system, a concept termed extraterritoriality. Under the treaties, the UK and the US established the British Supreme Court for China and Japan and United States Court for China in Shanghai. After World War I, patriotic consciousness in China focused on the treaties, which now became known as "unequal treaties"; the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party competed to convince the public that their approach would be more effective. Germany was forced to terminate its rights, the Soviet Union surrendered them, the United States organized the Washington Conference to negotiate them. After Chiang Kai-shek declared a new national government in 1927, the western powers offered diplomatic recognition, arousing anxiety in Japan.
The new government declared to the Great Powers that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties, that the time for such treaties was over, demanding they renegotiate all of them on equal terms. In the face of Japanese expansion in China, ending the system was postponed. Most of the treaties China considers unequal were abrogated during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which started in 1937 and merged into the larger context of World War II; the United States Congress ended American extraterritoriality in December 1943. Significant examples did outlast World War II: treaties regarding Hong Kong remained in place until Hong Kong's 1997 handover, in 1969, to improve Sino-Russian relations, China reconfirmed the 1858 Treaty of Aigun; when the American Commodore Matthew Perry reached Japan in 1854, it signed the Convention of Kanagawa. Its importance was limited. Much more important was the Harris Treaty of 1858 negotiated by U. S. envoy Townsend Harris. Korea's first unequal treaty was not with the West but instead with Japan.
Taking a page from Western tactics, in 1875 Japan sent Captain Inoue Yoshika and the warship Un'yō to display military might over Korea in the Ganghwa Island incident. This forced Korea to open its doors to Japan by signing the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876; the unequal treaties ended at various times for the countries involved. Japan's victories in the 1894–95 First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that unequal treaties could no longer be enforced on Japan. Korea's unequal treaties with European states became null and void in 1910, when it was annexed by Japan. Client state Puppet state Most favoured nation Treaty of Waitangi Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire Auslin, Michael R.. Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01521-0; the Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC 300287988 Nish, I. H. "Japan Reverses the Unequal Treaties: The Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1894".
Journal of Oriental Studies. 13: 137–146. Perez, Louis G. Japan Comes of Age: Mutsu Munemitsu & the Revision of the Unequal Treaties. P. 244. Ringmar, Erik. Liberal Barbarism: The European Destruction of the Palace of the Emperor of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Wang, Dong. "The Discourse of Unequal Treaties in Modern China". Pa
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo. Sabah has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and Indonesia's Kalimantan region to the south; the Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off the Sabah coast. Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah state government. Other major towns in Sabah include Tawau; as of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the state's population is 3,543,500. Sabah has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species; the state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park. Kinabatangan River, second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah as well as of Malaysia; the earliest human settlement in Sabah can be traced back to 20,000–30,000 years ago along the Darvel Bay area at the Madai-Baturong caves.
The state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries while the eastern part of the territory fell under the influence of the Sultanate of Sulu between the 17th and 18th centuries; the state was subsequently acquired by the British-based North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah was occupied by the Japanese for three years, it became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah was granted self-government by the British. Following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia alongside Sarawak and the Federation of Malaya; the federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the threats of annexation by the Philippines, threats which continue to the present day. Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity and language; the head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister.
The government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature systems in Malaysia. Sabah is divided into 27 districts. Malay is the official language of the state. Sabah is known for the sompoton; the Sabah International Folklore Festival is the main folklore event in Malaysia, other festivals including the Japanese Bon Odori Festival, Borneo Bird Festival, Borneo Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival, Kota Kinabalu Food Fest, Kota Kinabalu Jazz Festival, Sabah Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah Fest and Sabah Sunset Music Festival. Sabah is the only state in Malaysia to celebrate the Kaamatan festival. Sabah has abundant natural resources, its economy is export oriented, its primary exports include oil, gas and palm oil. The other major industries are ecotourism; the origin of the name Sabah is uncertain, there are many theories that have arisen. One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba because of the presence a variety of banana called pisang saba, grown on the coast of the region and popular in Brunei.
The Bajau community referred to it as pisang jaba. While the name Saba refers to a variety of banana in both Tagalog and Visayan languages, the word in Visayan has the meaning of "noisy". Due to local dialect, the word Saba has been pronounced as Sabah by the local community. While Brunei was a vassal state of Majapahit, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama described the area in what is now Sabah as Seludang. Meanwhile, although the Chinese since during the Han dynasty had long been associated with the island of Borneo, they did not have any specific names for the area. Instead during the Song dynasty, they referred to the whole island as Po Ni, the same name they used to refer to the Sultanate of Brunei at the time. Due to the location of Sabah in relation to Brunei, it has been suggested that Sabah was a Brunei Malay word meaning upstream or "in a northerly direction". Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay word sabak which means a place where palm sugar is extracted. Sabah is an Arabic word which means "morning".
The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name. It is nicknamed "Land Below the Wind" as the state lies below the typhoon belt of East Asia and never battered by any typhoons, except for several tropical storms; the earliest known human settlement into the region existed 20,000–30,000 years ago, as evidenced by stone tools and food remains found by excavations along the Darvel Bay area at Madai-Baturong caves near the Tingkayu River. The earliest inhabitants in the area were thought to be similar to Australian aborigines, but the reason for their disappearance is unknown. In 2003, archaeologists discovered the Mansuli valley in the Lahad Datu District, which dates back the history of Sabah to 235,000 years; the first southern Mongoloid migration occurred 5,000 years ago, as evidenced from the discovery of archaeological site at Bukit Tengkorak in Semporna District, famed for being the largest pottery making site during the Neolithic Southeast Asian period.
Some anthropologists such as S. G. Tan and Thomas R. Williams be