Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, entered into force on 1 January 2009, it amends the Maastricht Treaty, known in updated form as the Treaty on European Union or TEU, the Treaty of Rome, known in updated form as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union or TFEU. It amends the attached treaty protocols as well as the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of Ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

The Treaty made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights binding. The Treaty for the first time gave member states the explicit legal right to leave the EU, established a procedure by which to do so; the stated aim of the treaty was to "complete the process started by the Treaty of Amsterdam and by the Treaty of Nice with a view to enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and to improving the coherence of its action". Opponents of the Treaty of Lisbon, such as former Danish Member of the European Parliament Jens-Peter Bonde, argued that it would centralize the EU, weaken democracy by "moving power away" from national electorates. Supporters argue that it brings more checks and balances into the EU system, with stronger powers for the European Parliament and a new role for national parliaments. Negotiations to modify EU institutions began in 2001, resulting first in the proposed Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which would have repealed the existing European treaties and replaced them with a "constitution".

Although ratified by a majority of member states, this was abandoned after being rejected by 55% of French voters on 29 May 2005 and by 61% of Dutch voters on 1 June 2005. After a "period of reflection", member states agreed instead to maintain the existing treaties and amend them, to bring into law a number of the reforms, envisaged in the abandoned constitution. An amending "reform" treaty was drawn up and signed in Lisbon in 2007, it was intended to have been ratified by all member states by the end of 2008. This timetable failed due to the initial rejection of the Treaty in June 2008 by the Irish electorate, a decision, reversed in a second referendum in October 2009 after Ireland secured a number of concessions related to the treaty; the need to review the EU's constitutional framework in light of the accession of ten new Member States in 2004, was highlighted in a declaration annexed to the Treaty of Nice in 2001. The agreements at Nice had paved the way for further enlargement of the Union by reforming voting procedures.

The Laeken declaration of December 2001 committed the EU to improving democracy and efficiency, set out the process by which a constitution aiming to achieve these goals could be created. The European Convention was established, presided over by former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, was given the task of consulting as as possible across Europe with the aim of producing a first draft of the Constitution; the final text of the proposed Constitution was agreed upon at the summit meeting on 18–19 June 2004 under the presidency of Ireland. The Constitution, having been agreed by heads of government from the 25 Member States, was signed at a ceremony in Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it could enter into force, however, it had to be ratified by each member state. Ratification took different forms in each country, depending on the traditions, constitutional arrangements, political processes of each country. In 2005, referendums held in France and the Netherlands rejected the European Constitution.

While the majority of the Member States had ratified the European Constitution, due to the requirement of unanimity to amend the treaties of the EU, it became clear that it could not enter into force. This led to a "period of reflection" and the political end of the proposed European Constitution. In 2007, Germany declared the period of reflection over. By March, the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration was adopted by all Member States; this declaration outlined the intention of all Member States to agree on a new treaty in time for the 2009 Parliamentary elections, to have a ratified treaty before mid-2009. Before the Berlin Declaration, the Amato Group – a group of European politicians, backed by the Barroso Commission with two representatives in the group – worked unofficially on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. On 4 June 2007, the group released their text in French – cut from 63,000 words in 448 articles in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe to 12,800 words in 70 articles.

In the Berlin Declaration, the EU leaders unofficially set a new timeline for the new treaty: 21–23 June 2007: European Council meeting in Brussels, mandate for Intergovernmental Conference 23 July 2007: IGC in L


Bagnot is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bagnotines. Bagnot is located some 30 km south of 15 km east by north-east of Beaune. Access to the commune is by the D20 from Argilly in the west which passes through the village and continues east to Auvillars-sur-Saône; the D35E goes south from the village to the D973. The A36 autoroute passes through the south of the commune from west to east but has no exit in the commune; the nearest exit is Exit 1 some 5 km east of the commune. The commune is extensively forested in the south with forests in the north-west; the Sereine river flows through the commune and the village from the north-east and continues south-west to join the Meuzin near Palleau. Two tributaries feed the Sereine from the commune - one fed by the Étang de Menans just west of the commune and the other from the Grand Étang west of the village. Another stream rises in the east of the commune and flows east through the Étang Limonet and Étang du Moulin, both just east of the commune, to the Saône river at Glanon.

List of Successive Mayors. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year; the commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Farmhouse at CVO 2 Meix Martin A Farmhouse at D20 A Town Hall/School at D20 A Farmhouse at Les Granges de Bagnot The Farmhouse contains a Statue of the Sacred Heart, registered as an historical object. Houses and Farms The commune has several religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: A Cemetery Cross at D20 A Presbytery at D20 The Church of the Nativity; the Church is a Romanesque building novel from the 12th and 13th centuries and redesigned. It is decorated with murals from the 15th century on the theme of the Last Judgment which were discovered in 1862.

In particular there are the Diables de Bagnot. The walls and the choir vaults depict scenes from sacred history: The Annunciation, Saints and donors; the arch in the choir is decorated with a calendar representing the twelve months of the year with scenes of daily life. The Church contains a large number of items. For a complete list including links to descriptions click here. Communes of the Côte-d'Or department Bagnot on the old National Geographic Institute website Bagnot on Lion1906 Bagnot on Google Maps Bagnot on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Bagnot on the 1750 Cassini Map Bagnot on the INSEE website INSEE

Imperial Conference

Imperial Conferences were periodic gatherings of government leaders from the self-governing colonies and dominions of the British Empire between 1887 and 1937, before the establishment of regular Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in 1944. They were held in 1887, 1894, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930, 1932 and 1937. All the conferences were held in London, the seat of the Empire, except for the 1894 and 1932 conferences which were held in Ottawa, the capital of the senior Dominion of the Crown; the 1907 conference changed the name of the meetings to Imperial Conferences and agreed that the meetings should henceforth be regular rather than taking place while overseas statesmen were visiting London for royal occasions. Instituted to emphasise imperial unity, as time went on, the conferences became a key forum for dominion governments to assert the desire for removing the remaining vestiges of their colonial status; the conference of 1926 agreed to the Balfour Declaration, which acknowledged that the dominions would henceforth rank as equals to the United Kingdom, as members of the'British Commonwealth of Nations'.

The conference of 1930 decided to abolish the legislative supremacy of the British Parliament as it was expressed through the Colonial Laws Validity Act and other Imperial Acts. The statesmen recommended that a declaratory enactment of Parliament, which became the Statute of Westminster 1931, be passed with the consent of the dominions, but some dominions did not ratify the statute until some years afterwards; the 1930 conference was notable, for the attendance of Southern Rhodesia, despite it being a self-governing colony, not a dominion. As World War II drew to a close, Imperial Conferences were replaced by Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conferences, with 17 such meetings occurring from 1944 until 1969, all but one of the meetings occurred in London; the gatherings were renamed Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings in 1971 and were henceforth held every two years with hosting duties rotating around the Commonwealth. British Empire Economic Conference Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting First Colonial Conference Historiography of the British Empire Imperial War Cabinet Keith, A.

B. The Government of the British Empire. Olson, James S. ed. Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism pp 292–300. E. H. Constitution and Cooperation in the British Commonwealth