Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious called the Fair, the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor with his father, from 813. He was King of Aquitaine from 781; as the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the empire's southwestern frontier, he conquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 812. As emperor he included his adult sons, Lothair and Louis, in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them; the first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans.
Though his reign ended on a high note, with order restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort. Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus, he was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard. His grandfather was King Pepin the Younger. Louis was sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after the destructive war against the Aquitanians and Basques under Waifer and Hunald II, which culminated in the disastrous Battle of Roncesvalles. Charlemagne wanted his son Louis to grow up in the area. However, in 785, wary of the customs his son may have been taking in Aquitaine, Charlemagne sent for him to Aquitaine and Louis presented himself at the Royal Council of Paderborn dressed up in Basque costumes along with other youths in the same garment, which may have made a good impression in Toulouse, since the Basques of Vasconia were a mainstay of the Aquitanian army.
In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou, Ebreuil in Allier, Angeac-Charente, the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs, thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March. In 797, the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, handed it to them; the Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony, Provençals under Leibulf, Goths under Bera, over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated.
The sons were not given independence from central authority and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Italian Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once. Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, he had Lothair who died during infancy. According to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger, King of Neustria, Pepin, King of Italy. In the Divisio Regnorum of 806, Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia, while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy, which Charlemagne possessed by conquest. To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania and part of Burgundy. However, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died – Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 – and Louis alone remained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813.
On his father's death in 814, he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions. While at his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine, Louis received news of his father's death, he rushed to Aachen and crowned himself emperor to shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus by the attending nobles. Upon arriving at the imperial court in Aachen, one of Louis' first acts was to purge the palace of its "filth", he destroyed the old Germanic pagan tokens and texts, collected by Charlemagne. He further exiled members of the court he deemed morally "dissolute", including some of his own relatives. From the start of his reign, his coinage imitated his father Charlemagne's portrait, which gave it an image of imperial authority and prestige, he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, to avoid any possible entanglements from overly powerful brothers-in-law. Sparing his illegitimate half-brothers, he forced his father's cousins and Wala to be tonsured, placing them in Noirmoutier and Corbie despite the latter's initial loyalty.
His chief counsellors were
Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald was the King of West Francia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. After a series of civil wars during the reign of his father, Louis the Pious, Charles succeeded by the Treaty of Verdun in acquiring the western third of the Carolingian Empire, he was the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife, Judith. He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt, when his elder brothers were adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father; the attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land, once Gaul. At a diet in Aachen in 837, Louis the Pious bade. Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles at last received that kingdom, which angered Pepin's heirs and the Aquitainian nobles.
The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new Emperor Lothair I, the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg; the war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up until governing and which corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as East Francia and as Germany. Lothair retained the Kingdom of Italy, he received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia. The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855, were comparatively peaceful.
During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting with one another, at Koblenz, at Meerssen, at Attigny. In 858, Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, he fled to Burgundy, he was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis the German king, by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions by having himself consecrated as King of Lotharingia at Metz, but he was compelled to open negotiations when Louis found support among Lothair's former vassals. Lotharingia was partitioned between Louis in the resulting treaty. Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons.
Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at the Battle of Ballon and the Battle of Jengland, the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, up to the borders of Aquitaine. At the Vikings' successful siege and sack of Paris in 845 and several times thereafter Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864, made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885–886. In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II, Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on 29 December.
Louis the German a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, Charles had to return hastily to West Francia. After the death of Louis the German, Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at the Battle of Andernach on 8 October 876. In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, by his regent in Lombardy and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bains, on 6 October 877. According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body.
He was to have been may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there, melted down at the Revolution. Charles was succeeded by Louis. Charles was
Meerssen is a place and a municipality in southeastern Netherlands. The Treaty of Meerssen was signed in Meerssen in 870; the Treaty of Meerssen was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles II of the West Franks and Louis the German of East Franks. Around the middle of the 10th century the allodium Meerssen was the property of queen Gerberga, the daughter of king Henry I, she was the spouse of Louis IV of France. In 968 she donated all her property to the abbey of Saint Remigius in Reims. Bunde Geulle Meerssen Rothem Ulestraten Railway station: Meerssen Meerssen is a founding member of the Douzelage, a town twinning association of 24 towns across the European Union; this active town twinning began in 1991 and there are regular events, such as a produce market from each of the other countries and festivals. Discussions regarding membership are in hand with three further towns. Notes Media related to Meerssen at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Lothair I or Lothar I was the Holy Roman Emperor, the governor of Bavaria, King of Italy and Middle Francia. Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman the duke of Hesbaye. On several occasions, Lothair led his full-brothers Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father to protest against attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the father's death and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three-year civil war; the struggles between the brothers led directly to the breakup of the Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne, laid the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany. Lothair was born in 795, his father was the son of Charlemagne. Little is known of Lothair's early life, passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne. In 814, the elderly Charlemagne died, left his son Louis the Pious his vast empire.
The next year, now an adult, was sent to govern Bavaria in 815 for his father the new Emperor Louis the Pious. In 817, Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir and ordered that Lothair would be the overlord of Louis' younger sons Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his nephew Bernard of Italy. Lothair would inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair, aged 22, was crowned joint emperor by his father at Aachen. At the same time and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis as subsidiary kingdoms. Following the death of Bernard by Louis the Pious, Lothair received the Kingdom of Italy. In 821, Lothair married daughter of Hugh the Count of Tours. In 822, he assumed the government of Italy, at Easter, 5 April 823, he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I, this time at Rome. In November 824, Lothair promulgated a statute, the Constitutio Romana, concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.
On Lothair's return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme, carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father, he was alternately master of the Empire, banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced. The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father. In 831, their father was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to Charles; the second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan, in 833, again Louis was deposed in 834. Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.
When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. He was 45 years old. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom resisted this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841, when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong, taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned his capital to them, he met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years. Peace negotiations began, in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône, they agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843.
By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhône. He soon ceded Italy to his eldest son and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen and the Saracens. In 845 the count of Arles, led a rebellion in Provence; the emperor put it down and the count joined him in an expedition against the Saracens in Italy in 846. In 855 he became ill, despairing of recovery renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, on 23 September entered the monastery of Prüm, where he died six days later, he was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860. It was at Prüm that Lothair was
Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg
The Diocese of Lausanne and Fribourg is a Latin Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland, exempt. It comprises the Cantons of Fribourg, Geneva and Neuchâtel, with the exception of certain parishes of the right bank of the Rhône belonging to the Diocese of Sion, it was created by the merger in 1821 of the Diocese of Lausanne and the Diocese of Geneva, both prince-bishoprics until they were secularized during the Reformation. Until 1924, it was called the Diocese of Geneva; the diocese has its seat at Fribourg. The current bishop is Charles Morerod, O. P., ordained and installed on 11 December 2011. Despite the name, it has no direct link with the former Roman Catholic Diocese of Geneva, merged into the Diocese of Chambéry, promoted a Metropolitan see but lost former Genevan territory to the bishopric of Lausanne in 1819; the origin of the See of Lausanne can be traced to the ancient See of Windisch. Bubulcus, the first Bishop of Windisch, appeared at the imperial Synod of Epaone for th Arelatian Kingdom of Burgundy in 517.
The second and last known Bishop of Windisch was Gramatius, who signed the decrees of the Synods of Clermont in 535, of Orléans, 541, that of Orléans in 549. It was believed that shortly after this the see was transferred from Windisch to Konstanz, until investigations by Marius Besson, made it probable that, between 549 and 585, the see was divided and the real seat of the bishops of Windisch transferred to Avenches, while the eastern part of the diocese was united with the Diocese of Konstanz. According to the Synod of Mâcon of 585 St. Marius seems to have been the first resident Bishop of Avenches; the Chartularium of Lausanne affirms that St. Marius was born in the Burgundian Diocese of Autun about 530, was consecrated Bishop of Avenches in May, 574, died 31 December, 594. To him we owe a valuable addition to the Chronicle of St. Prosper of Aquitaine; the episcopal see of Avenches may have been transferred to Lausanne by Marius, or not before 610. Lausanne was a suffragan of the archbishopric of Lyon of Besançon, from which it was detached by the French Napoleonic Concordat of 1801.
In medieval times the diocese extended from the Aar, near Solothurn, to the northern end of the Valley of St. Imier, thence along the Doubs and the ridge of the Jura Mountains to where the Aubonne flows into Lake Geneva, thence along the north of the lake to Villeneuve whence the boundary-line followed the watershed between Rhône and Aar to the Grimsel, down the Aar to Attiswil, thus the diocese included the town of Solothurn and part of its territory that part of the Canton of Berne which lay on the left bank of the River Aar Biel/Bienne, the Valley of St. Imier and Les Longevilles in the Franche-Comté, the countships of Neuchâtel and Valangin, the greater part of the Canton of Vaud, the Canton of Fribourg, the countship of Gruyère and most of the Bernese Oberland; the present Diocese of Lausanne includes the Cantons of Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Of the bishops who in the seventh century succeeded St. Marius nothing is known. Between 594 and 800 only three bishops are known: Arricus, present at the Council of Chalon-sur-Saône, elected about 651, Chilmegisilus, about 670.
From the time of Charlemagne until the end of the ninth century the following bishops of Lausanne are mentioned: Udalricus, a contemporary of Charlemagne. The most distinguished subsequent bishops are: Heinrich von Lenzburg, who rebuilt the cathedral in 1000. Meanwhile, the prince-bishops of Lausanne, Counts of Vaud since the time of Rudolph III of Burgundy, until 1218 subject only to imperial authority, were in 1270 granted the status of prince of the Holy Roman Empire, but their temporal power only extended over a small part of the diocese, namely over the city and district of Lausanne, as well as a few towns and villages in the Cantons of Vaud and Fribourg.
East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, it was created through the Treaty of Verdun. The east–west division, enforced by the German-Latin language split, "gradually hardened into the establishment of separate kingdoms", with East Francia becoming the Kingdom of Germany and West Francia the Kingdom of France. In August 843, after three years of civil war following the death of emperor Louis the Pious on 20 June 840, the Treaty of Verdun was signed by his three sons and heirs; the division of lands was based on the Meuse, Scheldt and Rhone rivers. While the eldest son Lothair I kept the imperial title and the kingdom of Middle Francia, Charles the Bald received the West Francia and Louis the German received the eastern portion of Germanic-speaking lands of Duchy of Saxony, Alamannia, Duchy of Bavaria, March of Carinthia; the contemporary East Frankish Annales Fuldenses describes the kingdom being "divided in three" and Louis "acceding to the eastern part".
The West Frankish Annales Bertiniani describe the extent of Louis's lands: "at the assigning of portions, Louis obtained all the land beyond the Rhine river, but on this side of the Rhine the cities of Speyer and Mainz with their counties". The kingdom of West Francia went to Louis's younger half-brother Charles the Bald and between their realms a kingdom of Middle Francia, incorporating Italy, was given to their elder brother, the Emperor Lothair I. While Eastern Francia contained about a third of the traditional Frankish heartland of Austrasia, the rest consisted of lands annexed to the Frankish empire between the fifth and the eighth century; these included the duchies of Alemannia, Bavaria and Thuringia, as well as the northern and eastern marches with the Danes and Slavs. The contemporary chronicler Regino of Prüm wrote that the "different people" of East Francia Germanic- and Slavic-speaking, could be "distinguished from each other by race, customs and laws". In 869 Lotharingia was divided between East Francia under the Treaty of Meersen.
The short lived Middle Francia turned out to be the theatre of Franco-German wars up until the 20th century. All the Frankish lands were reunited by Charles the Fat, but in 888 he was deposed by nobles and in East Francia Arnulf of Carinthia was elected king; the increasing weakness of royal power in East Francia meant that dukes of Bavaria, Franconia and Lotharingia turned from appointed nobles into hereditary rulers of their territories. Kings had to deal with regional rebellions. In 911 Saxon, Franconian and Swabian nobles no longer followed the tradition of electing someone from the Carolingian dynasty as a king to rule over them and on November 10, 911 elected one of their own as the new king; because Conrad I was one of the dukes, he found it hard to establish his authority over them. Duke Henry of Saxony was in rebellion against Conrad I until 915 and struggle against Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria cost Conrad I his life. On his deathbed Conrad I chose Henry of Saxony as the most capable successor.
This kingship changed from Franks to Saxons, who had suffered during the conquests of Charlemagne. Henry, elected to kingship by only Saxons and Franconians at Fritzlar, had to subdue other dukes and concentrated on creating a state apparatus, utilized by his son and successor Otto I. By his death in July 936 Henry had prevented collapse of royal power as was happening in West Francia and left a much stronger kingdom to his successor Otto I. After Otto I was crowned as the Emperor in Rome in 962 the era of the Holy Roman Empire began; the term orientalis Francia referred to Franconia and orientales Franci to its inhabitants, the ethnic Franks living east of the Rhine. The use of the term in a broader sense, to refer to the eastern kingdom, was an innovation of Louis the German's court. Since eastern Francia could be identified with old Austrasia, the Frankish heartland, Louis's choice of terminology hints at his ambitions. Under his grandson, the terminology was dropped and the kingdom, when it was referred to by name, was Francia.
When it was necessary, as in the Treaty of Bonn with the West Franks, the "eastern" qualifier appeared. Henry I refers to himself in the treaty. By the 12th century, the historian Otto of Freising, in using the Carolingian terminology had to explain that the "eastern kingdom of the Franks" was "now called the kingdom of the Germans"; the regalia of the Carolingian empire had been divided by Louis the Pious on his deathbed between his two faithful sons, Charles the Bald and Lothair. Louis the German in rebellion, received nothing of the crown jewels or liturgical books associated with Carolingian kingship, thus the symbols and rituals of East Frankish kingship were created from scratch. From an early date the East Frankish kingdom had a more formalised notion of royal election than West Francia. Around 900, a liturgy for the coronation of a king, called the early German ordo, was written for a private audience, it required the coronator to ask the "designated prince" whether he was willing to defend the church and the people and to turn and ask the people whether they were willing to be subject to the prince and obey his laws.
The latter shouted, "Fiat, fiat!", an act that became k
Belley is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France. Belley is of Roman origin, in the 5th century became an episcopal see, it was the capital of the province of Bugey, a dependency of Savoy till 1601, when it was ceded to France. In 1385 the town was entirely destroyed by an act of incendiarism, but was subsequently rebuilt by the dukes of Savoy, who surrounded it with ramparts of which little is left. Belley was the birthplace of the epicure Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. Belley was the seat of the location of Belley Cathedral. Belley is the home region of St. Peter Chanel, the famous 19th-century Marist missionary martyr and proto-martyr of Oceania; the town is famed for its cheese, la Tome de Belley known as Chevret or still "Le pavé d'Affinois". It is at the centre of the Bugey wine region, it is home to a sizeable Volvo production unit producing compact excavators and Ciat. Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas lived in Belley. French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was born and lived in Belley and served as its mayor for some time.
French writer Andrée Martinerie writer winner of the 1961 Prix des Libraires was born in Belley. Communes of the Ain department INSEE City´s Official Website Gazetteer Entry