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Treaty of Passarowitz

The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, a town in the Ottoman Empire, on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and Austria of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Republic of Venice on the other. Between 1714 and 1718, the Ottomans had been successful against Venice in Greece and Crete, but had been defeated at Petrovaradin by the Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy; the treaty reflected the military situation. The Ottoman Empire lost the Banat and southeastern Syrmia, central part of present-day Serbia, a tiny strip of northern Bosnia and Lesser Wallachia to Austria. Venice renounced the Peloponnese peninsula, gained by the Treaty of Karlowitz, as well as its last remaining outposts in Crete and islands of Aegina and Tinos, retaining only the Ionian Islands and the cities of Preveza and Arta on the Epirote mainland. In Dalmatia, it made some small advances, taking the areas of Vrgorac in the hinterland; the result of the treaty was the restoration of Habsburg administration over much of the territory of present-day Serbia, which they had temporarily occupied during the Great Turkish War between 1688 and 1690, the effective establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia as a crown land.

Following Passarowitz, a Habsburg crown land known as the Banat of Temeswar was established. After another Austro-Turkish war, in the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia, southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar and Lesser Wallachia. List of treaties Hochedlinger, Michael. Austria's Wars of Emergence: War and Society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1683-1797. London & New York: Routledge. Ćirković, Sima. The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Ingrao, Charles; the Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. "Treaty of Passarowitz". Encyclopædia Britannica. Text of treaty in English

James Fittler

James Fittler was an English engraver of portraits and landscapes and an illustrator of books. He was appointed by King George III to be his marine engraver. Fittler was born in London in October 1758. In April 1778 he studied engraving. Besides book illustrations, he distinguished himself by numerous works after English and foreign masters, chiefly portraits, he engraved landscapes, marine subjects, topographical views, was appointed marine engraver to George III. In 1788 he resided at Rathbone Place. Fittler was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1800, he died at Turnham Green, was buried in Chiswick churchyard. His prints and copper-plates were sold at Sotheby's on 14 July 1825, the two following days. Fittler exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1776 and 1824. Among his works are: two views of Windsor Castle, after George Robertson. Views and buildings of Scotland in Scotia DepictaHe executed the plates for Edward Forster's British Gallery, many of those for John Bell's British Theatre, all the illustrations in Thomas Frognall Dibdin's Ædes Althorpianæ, published in 1822, after which he undertook no important work.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Fittler, James". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Engravings in the digitised copy of Scotia Depicta, or the antiquities, public buildings and gentlemen's seats, cities and picturesque scenery of Scotland, 1804 at National Library of Scotland Collection of prints at National Portrait Gallery, London

Irene Martínez

Irene Martínez Tartabull was a Cuban track and field athlete who competed in the long jump and the short sprints. She was the first woman from the Central American and Caribbean region to clear six metres in the long jump, she was the first Cuban to win a jumps gold medal at the Pan American Games – a discipline in which the country became successful. Martínez broke the Cuban record for the long jump eleven times, resulting in a lifetime best of 6.33 m. She was a gold medallist in the long jump at the 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games and was the inaugural champion at the 1967 Central American and Caribbean Championships in Athletics, she enjoyed success in the 4 × 100 metres relay, winning medals at the 1963 Pan American Games, 1963 Summer Universiade and the 1966 CAC Games, as well as twice breaking the national record for the event. Born in Cienfuegos, she was among the first athletes to enrol in the new national athletics program established after the end of the Cuban Revolution in 1959.

Her talent for running was noticed at high school and she transferred to a school in Havana to focus on sports in 1961. Among her contemporaries were sprinters Aurelia Pentón, Fulgencia Romay, Miguelina Cobián, her first international selection came at the age of fifteen and she managed fourth place in the long jump at the 1962 Central American and Caribbean Games. She rose to prominence the following year – at the 1963 Pan American Games in São Paulo she took fifth in the long jump and helped set a Cuban record in the 4 × 100 metres relay of 46.44 seconds alongside Romay, Cobián and Nereida Borges. She added to this with a fourth-place finish in the long jump and a relay bronze at the 1963 Summer Universiade; that year she achieved her first national record in the long jump, clearing 5.51 m in June improving further to 5.71 m one week later. Her fourth national record of the year came that December, as she was part of a Cuban relay quartet that ran 46.2 seconds. Despite being the country's best jumper, Martínez was not selected for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics on account of her young age.

That year, she improved the Cuban long jump record on five occasions, beginning with a jump of 5.75 m in April and ending with a clearance of 5.99 m in November. She struggled to improve in the 1965 season, managing a best of 5.80 m, but set a lifetime best in the 100 metres with a time of 11.8 seconds. Martínez became the first woman from the Central America and Caribbean region to surpass six metres for the long jump, doing so with a jumps of 6.07 m 6.10 m at a meeting in Havana in April 1966. Her first major individual success followed at the 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games, where she succeeded fellow Cuban Díaz to the women's long jump title with a Games record of 5.87 m. The 21-year-old won the third major international relay medal of her career, taking the silver with the Cuban women behind a Jamaican team led by 200 metres champion Una Morris. Martínez had a patriotic approach to the competition and held up her performance as a tribute to her country – her greatest memory of the period was of Fidel Castro signing her two medals.

The best performances of her career were in the 1967 season. In June she improved the Cuban national record for the tenth time with a jump of 6.15 m in Budapest. At the 1967 Central American and Caribbean Championships in Athletics she became the first women's long jump champion with a result of 5.65 m, narrowly beating her compatriot Garbey – Marina Samuells and Garbey would turn Martínez's 1967 win into a four-edition streak of wins for Cuba. Cuba took a sweep of the women's titles at the event held in Mexico. Martínez was chosen for the 1967 Pan American Games and she came up against the defending champion, Willye White of the United States. White produced a jump of 6.17 m – two centimetres further than her winning jump four years earlier. However, that mark was not sufficient; this was a Pan American Games good 13 cm clear of runner-up Gisela Vidal. The pre-event favourite, American Martha Watson, did not make the podium. Martínez's performance made her the first Cuban athlete – male or female – to win a Pan American gold medal in a jumping discipline.

Cuba has since gone on to produce numerous world class jumpers, such as world record holder Javier Sotomayor, four-time long jump world champion Iván Pedroso and double triple jump world champion Yargelis Savigne. She hoped to be selected for Cuba at the 1968 Summer Olympics, but did not receive a call-up to compete; the selectors requested that she be part of the team as an alternate for the 4 × 100 metres relay, but she refused due to her damaged pride of not being selected individually – a decision she regretted in life. She produced marks of 5.68 m and 5.65 m in the 1969 and 1970 seasons, but she retired at age 24, having failed to recapture her best form. After retiring from competition she went into academia and became a professor of physical education at the Instituto Técnico Militar in Havana, she remained in the role for 30 years. She died in April 2014 and was buried at Colon Cemetery, alongside other Cuban female athletes

Dutch Antilles Express

Dutch Antilles Express was an airline of the Dutch country of Curaçao. It operated high-frequency scheduled services in the Dutch Caribbean to United States, Dominican Republic, Colombia and Suriname, its main base was at Curaçao. Due to an escalating debt from poor market conditions, the government of Curaçao stepped in on May 31, 2011, to keep the airline in the air; the airline has been purchased from Arnold Leonora by the Curaçao government for a cash injection sum of two injections of 1.5m Guilders. In August 2013, the company's management and employees approached the Curacao government through various departments for a new loan of 5m Guilders to, among other items, pay employee salaries outstanding from July 2013; the appeal for the loan was denied by the Curacao Parliament on August 16, 2013. The Court of First Instance of Curaçao declared the local airline Dutch Antilles Express bankrupt on August 30, 2013. At the time of its bankruptcy, the airline operated two aircraft Fokker 100, one ATR-42, one ATR-72 and three McDonnell Douglas MD-83 wet-leased from Falcon Air Express.

There were plans to replace the Fokker 100s with newer A319-100s and A320-200s. The airline started operations with a three ATR 42 in 2003 as BonairExel and CuracaoExel and soon expanded to encompass most of the Dutch Antilles and Aruba. Although an Embraer ERJ 145 was used on the Bonaire-Aruba flights, the aircraft was soon disposed of again, returning to Air Exel. Although BonairExel flew its aircraft in the Exel color scheme; as the local market was rather small, a subsidiary was formed on Curaçao, named Curaçao Exel. Dutch Caribbean Airlines declared bankruptcy not long after. Exel Aviation noticed that the Caribbean airlines were profitable, set up its own Aruba Exel, causing distress amongst the other franchise carriers. With the Exel empire expanding too in Europe and the Caribbean, it was no surprise that the dream would not last long. In a lawsuit against Nick Sandman to demand back the invested amount, confiscate back the ATR 42 aircraft, ties dissolved between the Exel Aviation Group and the Caribbean franchise carriers.

With minimal funds, the airline made an attempt to distance itself from its partner, changing its names to BonairExpress and CuraçaoExpress. This move permanently broke up the alliance, causing no more profits to go to the ailing Exel Aviation Group. All Exel airlines disappeared, including fellow Aruba Exel; the airline's head office was in the Plasa Medardo SV Thielman in Kralendijk, Bonaire. In April 2007 the airline moved its head office from Bonaire to Curaçao, where the airline's flight operations have been based; the airline's call centre and its revenue accounting and handling departments remained in Bonaire. After numerous lawsuits, BonairExel and Curaçao Express merged to form Dutch Antilles Express, which started operations on April 30, 2005 with flights between the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. On 9 December 2005, its first international services to Valencia, were launched. In March 2013, the Venezuela Civil Aviation Authority suspended the landing rights of Dutch Antilles Express to Maracaibo based on failure to provide adequate service and accommodation to passengers.

During this period, DAE had several aircraft that were undergoing required heavy maintenance, resulting in unavailability of aircraft to perform some scheduled routes. While it is stated in the documents released by INAC that the suspension was temporary until scheduling issues could be resolved, DAE never restarted operations to Maracaibo. In May 2013, INAC released an order suspending DAE's operating rights within the whole of Venezuela, claiming safety and security violations; these findings were publicly disputed by DAE in the media by Nelson Ramiz, a consultant to DAE, as well as the owner and CEO of Falcon Air Express, which provided wet-leased aircraft to Dutch Antilles Express. In June 2013, the first ground stop due to non-payment of services occurred in Suriname; this was resolved through the court system by implementing a cash basis payment agreement and services resumed within days. In June, the employees of DAE approached former Curacao Prime Minister Gerrit Schotte to negotiate the lifting of the suspension by the Venezuela government and allow DAE aircraft to once again operate to Venezuelan cities.

Shortly after that meeting in Caracas, the Venezuelan government issued a revocation of all operating permits for Dutch Antilles Express aircraft in Venezuela as of June 16, 2013. In July 2013, management of Dutch Antilles Express approached the Curacao Airport Holdings group regarding a capital loan of 5m Guilders, it became public that DAE's main competitor, Insel Air, had sent correspondence through the government proposing to purchase the government shares of DAE and take over the operations of the company, not pursued by the government. At this point it became public that DAE had received permission from the Curacao government to develop nine new destinations as compensation for the loss of the Venezuelan markets. Curacao Airport Holdings declined to provide assistance. During the first week of August, the St. Maartin airport issued a "ground hold" for all Dutch Antilles Express aircraft landing at the airp


Dag Hammarskjöld's farm at Backåkra, close to Ystad in southern Sweden, was bought in 1957 as a summer residence by Hammarskjöld Secretary-General of the United Nations. The farm was in decline and its restoration came to last until after Hammarskjöld's death in 1961, it is maintained by the Swedish Tourist Association, as a museum displaying artifacts of his tenure at the UN. The south wing of the farm is reserved as a summer retreat for the 18 members of the Swedish Academy, of which Hammarskjöld was a member. There is an outdoor meditation site on the property. Backåkra is the name of the village. Due to the 1803 land reform in Scania, farms were moved out of the village with the result that Backåra is now chiefly a land register, its local school, the folkskola, is today a summer hostel run by the Swedish Hiking Association. The lands of the village are situated less than a mile from the shores of the Baltic in the Österlen area of Scania. Known for its summer cottages and outdoor recreation, the area is popular with tourists.

In April 2018, the United Nations Security Council held a meeting at Backåkra. They have meetings outside the UN headquarters in New York. Backåkra farmstead tourism information by the City of Ystad Backåkra Youth Hostel by the Swedish Hiking Association

Plate glass

Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass produced in plane form used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, windscreens. For modern architectural and automotive applications, the flat glass is sometimes bent after production of the plane sheet. Flat glass stands in contrast to glass fibre. Flat glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, a lower silica, calcium oxide, aluminium oxide content.. Most flat glass is soda–lime glass, produced by the float glass process. Other processes for making flat glass include: Broad sheet method Window crown glass technique Blown plate method Plate polishing Cylinder blown sheet method Machine drawn cylinder sheet method Rolling Fourcault process Overflow downdraw method Scratches can occur on sheet glass from accidental causes. In glass trade terminology these include "block reek" produced in polishing, "runner-cut" or “over/under grind” caused by edge grinding, or a "sleek" or hairline scratch, as well as "crush" or "rub" on the surface.

Architectural glass The term plate glass universities is used in the United Kingdom to describe a group – or generation – of universities