Adoption of the Gregorian calendar
For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. In the western world, the change was a date shift from the previous Julian Calendar. Today, the Gregorian calendar is internationally the worlds most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them. Although Gregorys reform was enacted in the most solemn of forms available to the Church, the bull had no authority beyond the Catholic Church, the changes that he was proposing were changes to the civil calendar, over which he had no authority. They required adoption by the authorities in each country to have legal effect. The bull became the law of the Catholic Church in 1582, but it was not recognised by Protestant churches, Orthodox churches. Consequently, the days on which Easter and related holidays were celebrated by different Christian churches again diverged, when converting a date that occurs in a leap year on one calendar but not the other, include 29 February in the calculation if the conversion spans the February/March month change.
A month after having decreed the reform, the granted to one Antoni Lilio the exclusive right to publish the calendar for a period of ten years. The papal brief was revoked on 20 September 1582, because Antonio Lilio proved unable to keep up with the demand for copies. Catholic states such as France, the Italian principalities, Spain, Thursday,4 October 1582 was followed by Friday,15 October 1582, with ten days missing. Countries that did not change until the 18th century had by observed an additional leap year, some countries did not change until the 19th or 20th century, necessitating one or two more missing days. France adopted the new calendar with Sunday,9 December 1582, the seven Catholic Swiss cantons adopted the new calendar in January 1684 while Geneva and several Protestant cantons adopted it in January 1701 or at other dates throughout the 18th century. The two Swiss communes of Schiers and Grüsch there the last areas of Western and Central Europe to switch to the Gregorian calendar in 1812.
Many Protestant countries initially objected to adopting a Catholic innovation, some Protestants feared the new calendar was part of a plot to return them to the Catholic fold, in the Czech lands, Protestants resisted the calendar imposed by the Habsburg Monarchy. They finally adopted the Gregorian calculation of Easter in 1774, the remaining provinces of the Dutch Republic adopted the Gregorian calendar on 12 July 1700,12 December 1700,12 January 1701 and 12 May 1701. Swedens relationship with the Gregorian calendar was a difficult one and this system had potential for confusion when working out the dates of Swedish events in this 40-year period. To add to the confusion, the system was administered
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, in 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991. Estonia is a parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn, with a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, OECD and Schengen Area. Estonia is a country with an advanced, high-income economy that is among the fastest growing in the EU.
Its Human Development Index ranks very highly, and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, the 2015 PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan. Citizens of Estonia are provided with health care, free education. Since independence the country has developed its IT sector, becoming one of the worlds most digitally advanced societies. In 2005 Estonia became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, in the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning country people or people of the land. The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning Country Parish or Land Parish, one hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric, the geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being further down south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is called in Icelandic. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia, esthonia was a common alternative English spelling prior to 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago, the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to Kunda culture, which is named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people in whole or in part. The hybrid word genocide is a combination of the Greek word génos, the United Nations Genocide Convention, which was established in 1948, defines genocide as acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial or religious group. The term genocide was coined in a 1943 book responding to mass murder of populations in the 20th century, in 1943, Raphael Lemkin created the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe, the term described the systematic destruction of a nation or people, and the word was quickly adopted by many in the international community. The word genocide is the combination of the Greek prefix geno-, Lemkin defined genocide as follows, Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation.
The preamble to the 1948 Genocide Convention notes that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. Lemkins lifelong interest in the murder of populations in the 20th century was initially in response to the killing of Armenians in 1915. He dedicated his life to mobilizing the international community, to together to prevent the occurrence of such events. In a 1949 interview, Lemkin said I became interested in genocide because it happened so many times and it happened to the Armenians, after the Armenians, Hitler took action. In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention, the CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951. The USSR argued that the Conventions definition should follow the etymology of the term, and may have feared greater international scrutiny of its own Great Purge. Other nations feared that including political groups in the definition would invite international intervention in domestic politics.
”The conventions purpose and scope was described by the United Nations Security Council as follows, In 2007 the European Court of Human Rights, noted in its judgement on Jorgic v. In the same judgement the ECHR reviewed the judgements of several international and municipal courts judgements, in the case of Onesphore Rwabukombe the German Supreme Court adhered to its previous judgement and didnt follow the narrow interpretation of the ICTY and the ICJ. The phrase in whole or in part has been subject to discussion by scholars of international humanitarian law. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 ICTY8 that Genocide had been committed. The aim of the Genocide Convention is to prevent the destruction of entire human groups. The Appeals Chamber goes into details of other cases and the opinions of respected commentators on the Genocide Convention to explain how they came to this conclusion. The judges continue in paragraph 12, The determination of when the part is substantial enough to meet this requirement may involve a number of considerations
Assault on Copenhagen (1659)
The assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 was a major battle during the Second Northern War, taking place during the siege of Copenhagen by the Swedish army. This forced the Danes to sue for peace, a preliminary treaty, the Treaty of Taastrup, was signed on February 18,1658 with the final treaty, the Treaty of Roskilde, signed on February 26,1658, granting Sweden major territorial gains. Without any warning, in defiance of international treaty, he ordered his troops to attack Denmark-Norway a second time, the Swedish armies had never left Denmark after the peace and already occupied all of Denmark apart from the capital, Copenhagen. After a failed assault, Copenhagen was put under siege in the hope of breaking the defense by starvation, the Dutch were an ally of Denmark from the Anglo-Dutch Wars and were afraid that Swedish control of the Baltic would ruin their profitable trade in this area. The Copenhageners had been forewarned by spies, so they had planned their defences well and stockpiled weapons, craftsmen and other civilians were divided into nine companies, and each of these companies was allocated a part of the wall to defend.
The professional soldiers were stationed at the field works, Kastellet. The Swedish army consisted of about 9,000 professional soldiers, while the Danish defenders, the Swedes started the action by making a diversionary attack at Christianshavn and Slotsholmen at the evening on 9 February. They were repulsed, and the Swedes left one of their assault bridges behind and they found that the Swedish assault bridges were 36 feet long, and thus they realised that they could render these bridges useless by making the ice free parts of the moats wider than that. The moats and the beaches had been free of ice. The ice was thick, and the work was done in heavy snowfall from 4 oclock in the afternoon till evening on the 10 February. The main assaults were made against Christianshavn and Vestervold, but the chopped-up ice, they fought their way to the top of the wall, and fierce hand-to-hand fighting broke out. When the Swedes realised that the assaults on the Western part of the wall were in trouble, the Swedes got very close to Nyboder and were in the process of crossing the moat, when they fell victim to a well-conducted ambush, and they withdrew with heavy losses.
At about five in the morning the Swedes gave up and retreated, before the walls 600 bodies were counted, and many more had perished in the ice-cold water and were never found. On top of there were many wounded. The Danes had only suffered about 17 dead, after Nyborg had been taken by a Dutch-Danish force, the Danish Isles were abandoned by the Swedes. In conjunction with the Treaty of Roskilde, it ended a generation of warfare and established the borders of Denmark, Norway. Fortifications of Copenhagen Lars Ericson, Köpenhamn 1659, Följden av en felritad karta in Svenska slagfält
Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s. Most European nations copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country. As of the early 21st century, many no longer conscript soldiers. The ability to rely on such an arrangement, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities, many states that have abolished conscription therefore still reserve the power to resume it during wartime or times of crisis. Around the reign of Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire used a system of conscription called Ilkum, under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war.
During times of peace they were required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land. It is possible that this right was not to hold land per se, various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Later records show that Ilkum commitments could become regularly traded, in other places, people simply left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them, with the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi. The levies raised in this way fought as infantry under local superiors, although the exact laws varied greatly depending on the country and the period, generally these levies were only obliged to fight for one to three months. Most were subsistence farmers, and it was in everyones interest to send the men home for harvest-time, the bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the landowning minor nobility.
These thegns were the aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour. Medieval levy in Poland was known as the pospolite ruszenie, the system of military slaves was widely used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers by the Abbasid caliph al-Mutasim in the 820s and 830s. In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, the new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands, especially from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Swedens territorial control of much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries, a time when Sweden was one of the great European powers. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, in Swedish history, the period is referred to as stormaktstiden, literally meaning the Great Power era. The interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy, in territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, and there was a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper. The Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to efforts of the nobility. However, in the course of this war as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with support of her closest ally. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire and ensured a period of peace, before Russia and Denmark started an attack on his successor.
Sweden emerged as a great European power under Axel Oxenstierna and King Gustavus Adolphus, during the Thirty Years War, Sweden managed to conquer approximately half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire. After France had intervened on the side as Sweden, the fortunes would shift again. As the war continued, it turned more and more grim, although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that as many as one-third of the people in the Holy Roman Empire may have died as a result of the war. At the same time, Sweden joined the other important northern European nations in founding overseas colonies, New Sweden was founded in the valley of the Delaware River in 1638, and Sweden laid claim to a number of Caribbean islands. A string of Swedish forts and trading posts was constructed along the coast of West Africa as well, at the conclusion of the Thirty Years War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted Sweden territories as war reparations. Sweden demanded Silesia, Pomerania pay a sum of 200,000 Riksdaler out of the lands they would receive, or 2) surrender a fourth of the property itself.
Against this, the over-taxed lower estates protested, and the Diet had to be suspended, the king intervened, not to quell the commons, as the senate insisted, but to compel the nobility to give way. He proposed a committee to investigate the matter before the meeting of the next Riksdag. Charles X Gustav had done his best to recover from the extravagance of Christina. However, his own desire for military glory may have caused problems for his country, in three days, he persuaded the Swedish estates of the potential of his attack on the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, when he left Stockholm for Warsaw on July 10,1654, the Polish-Swedish War expanded into a general European war. He achieved passage over the Belts and emerged triumphant, only to die of sheer exhaustion, immediately after his death, a regency was appointed to govern Sweden during the minority of his only son and successor, Charles XI of Sweden, who was four years old
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
March Across the Belts
The risky but vastly successful crossing was a crushing blow to Denmark, and led to the Treaty of Roskilde that year, which handed Scania to Sweden. During the Second Northern War, King Charles X Gustav of Sweden was bogged down in his war with Poland, King Frederick III of Denmark provided a way out of Poland when he declared war on Sweden. The Swedish army could now march from Poland without it looking like a rout, the Swedish army marched to the western and central parts of Denmark from Poland, without returning to Sweden, to avoid fighting its way through then-Danish Scania. Forced marches of several tens of kilometers a day, brought 6,000 Swedish soldiers to Jutland, the Swedish army was not large, but the soldiers were some of the best equipped and best trained troops in Europe. The army swept away the Danish resistance, the remaining Danish did not risk a battle with the Swedes. On 25 August 1657, the Swedish army stood before the newly completed Danish fortress Fredriksodde on Jutlands east coast, the fortress had a complement of about 8,000 men.
This fortress did not exist in 1645, Fredriksodde was besieged by general Karl Gustav Wrangel for two months, and stormed on the night of 24 October. Few Swedes perished and 6,000 Danes were captured, in addition, the Swedish army now had all of the Jutland armys supplies. All of Jutland was soon under Swedish control and Charles X started preparations for an attack against the Danish islands, in the middle of December the weather shifted, turning into the coldest winter in memory. The seawater between the islands froze, making a ship-borne assault impossible, engineer Erik Dahlberg was dispatched by the king to ascertain whether the ice would support the weight of the Swedish cavalry and artillery. Dahlberg reported that a crossing over the ice was feasible, early in the morning of 30 January 1658, the army was lined up to cross the Little Belt to reach Funen. The army consisted of about 9,000 cavalrymen and 3,000 foot soldiers, the ice warped under the weight of the soldiers, on occasions water reached up to the mens knees.
Close to the shore of Funen a skirmish broke out with about 3,000 Danish defenders, but these were brushed aside quickly, now investigations were made to find the best way over the ice that covered the Great Belt in order to reach Zealand. Again Erik Dahlberg led the investigation, and he advised taking the route via Langeland and Lolland rather than the more direct route across the Belt. The night of 5 February the king set off with the cavalry across the ice, the infantry and the artillery followed the next day. Thus, on 8 February, the Swedish host was safely on Zealand, the Danes, who had thought the Swedes would start their offensive in the spring at the earliest and yielded. Negotiations were started and on 26 February the Treaty of Roskilde was signed by the two parties, the March Across the Belts was a risky but successful gamble which turned out to be entirely to King Charles X Gustavs benefit. The news of the spread quickly, it was an achievement that drew admiration all over Europe
In 1720 the town, like its province, became a formal part of Sweden. Around the Castle build by Danish king Christian III in 1549, Landskrona Citadel, today the Citadel is famous for its well-preserved moat system, which includes parts of four moats. At the northern part of the Citadel, Swedens second, and its port is based on a natural chute in the sandy sea floor, despite the lack of any nearby debouching river. The town is the seat of Landskrona Municipality, the town, which in March 2013 celebrated its 600th birthday, had close to 33,000 inhabitants at that time. For many years the town had a car line to Copenhagen. Landskrona is located close to the Danish capital, from Rådhustorget in Landskrona to Amalienborg Royal Palace in central Copenhagen, the crow flight distance is around 22–23 km. In the parts of the 19th century, the town was transformed from a settlement to a heavy industrial town. Between 1917 and 1983, the shipyard had up to 3,500 employees. The foundation was done at a place for a fishing settlement, there is still a very small settlement just north of the town, known as Säby.
This probably was the Nørre Sæby in the beginning of the 15th century, but since the village became the town. The original name of the officially founded town was Landszcrone, but changed to Landskrone sometime before 1450. A Carmelite monastery was founded in 1410, English merchants were granted the privileges in a charter in 1412. The monastery was closed by King Christian III after the reformation, a smaller street is named after this very contemplative and closed order, Karmelitergatan. The closest settlement Rydebäck belongs to the city, but the convent is entirely located within Landskronas countryside. The corresponding monastery is located in Norraby and this is located east of the town and its quite small countryside. The town supported the king Christian II, and opposed the Reformation in Denmark, the Reformist King Christian III of Denmark opted not to retaliate against the town, and instead founded a castle to protect the harbour. The castle, built where the monastery had been situated until the Reformation, was completed by 1559, the castle was reinforced by bastions, and the area inside the moats extended to 400x400 meters.
The castle was considered the strongest and most modern in Scandinavia, the commandant Colonel Hieronymus Lindeberg was consequently sentenced to death for high treason