The Treaty of Shackamaxon called the Great Treaty, was a legendary treaty between William Penn and the Delaware Indians signed in 1682. There is no extant copy of the treaty and no firm evidence of its existence, nor is it known what the terms were; the site was a historic meeting place along the Delaware River used by the Lenape Indians in North America. It was located within what are now the borders of the city of Philadelphia, United States. From the Lenape term "Sakimauchheen Ing" which means "to make a chief or king place", it was where the Lenapi "crowned" their many family "sakima" or their three clan "kitakima" of the Lenape Nation. Others have interpreted the name to mean "the place of eels", which refers to it as being an important summer fishing spot for the Native Americans; the area is the modern neighborhoods of Fishtown and Port Richmond in Philadelphia. Purportedly, in late 1682, William Penn made a treaty with the Lenni Lenape under an ancient elm tree. Francis Jennings argues that William Penn likely signed a treaty, but that his less scrupulous sons, William Jr. John, Thomas, destroyed the original document.
Through such means, according to Jennings, the younger Penns sought to renege on the treaty to which their father had agreed. Curators of the Philadelphia History Museum at Atwater Kent claim that a wampum belt in their possession serves as authentication that such a meeting did indeed take place. However, the wampum belt cannot prove or disprove whether the Lenni Lenape and the colony came to a formal agreement, if so, what the provisions of such an agreement entailed; the legend of such a treaty was immortalized in several works of art and was mentioned by the French author Voltaire. The legendary elm tree marking the spot blew down in a storm on March 5, 1810, its location was memorialized by the placing of an obelisk in 1827 by the Penn Society. The legendary event was further memorialized by the founding of a park in 1893, known as Penn Treaty Park. Six Swedish families were recorded as living in this area before Penn's arrival; the Swedes sold out to the new English settlers. In the 18th century, the territory of Shackamaxon was developed as part of the Port Richmond and Kensington sections of Philadelphia.
Today there is a Shackamaxon Street in Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission refers to the Shackamaxon treaty on its website. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission: Shackamaxon Treaty history website. Penn Treaty Museum
Hakea oligoneura is a small rare shrub known from only a few populations south of Perth, Western Australia growing on coastal limestone ridges. It has stiff, thick yellow-greenish leaves. A small shrub 1.8–2 m high and up to 2 m wide with smooth bark or fine cracks at maturity. Smaller branches are cylindrical with dense white or rusty coloured hairs 0.2–0.4 mm long and pressed against the stem becoming glabrous as they mature. Flat or slightly inward curving leaves grow alternately along the stem. Narrowly lance-shaped, broader above the middle 21–68 mm long and 4.5–10 mm wide. The leaves are stiff, with toothed thorny margins on the edges with 1-4 longitudinal veins. Fruit are 10–15 mm long, 7–10 mm wide and have small corky pyramid shaped projections on their surface. Hakea oligoneura was first formally described by Kelly Shepherd and Robyn Barker in 2009 and published in Nuytsia; the specific epithet is said to be derived from the Greek oligo meaning "few" and neuron meaning "nerve", referring to the lack of prominent secondary veins in the leaves, distinguishing it from other related species.
The proper word in ancient Greek for "few" is however oligos. Hakea oligoneura has a restricted distribution known only in a few isolated populations in Yalgorup National Park between Mandurah and Bundbury along the Western Australian coast. Hakea oligoneura grows on limestone ridges in white-brown sand in open mallee scrubland. Hakea oligoneura is classified as "Priority Four" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife, meaning, rare or near threatened, due to its restricted distribution
This is a list of Beninese writers. Christine Adjahi Gnimagnon connected with Senegal Stanislas Adotevi, French-language academic and philosopher Berte-Evelyne Agbo, French-language poet connected with Senegal Colette Senami Agossou Houeto Barbara Akplogan, French-language writer Julien Alapini and playwright Ryad Assani-Razaki Francis Aupiais, French-born missionary and anthropologist Olympe Bhêly-Quenum and journalist Jérôme Carlos, poet Florent Couao-Zotti, writer of comics and short stories Félix Couchoro, novelist connected with Togo Moudjib Djinadou, novelist Richard Dogbeh connected with Togo, Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire Bazini Zakari Dramani and writer Paul Fabo and playwright Adelaide Fassinou, novelist Dieudonné Gnammankou and historian Paul Hazoumé, novelist Gisèle Hountondji, French-language novelist Paulin J. Hountondji and politician Béatrice Lalinon Gbado, children's writer Rashidah Ismaili, fiction writer, playwright Paulin Joachim, poet and editor Lauryn connected with Côte d'Ivoire and Togo, born in France Barnabé Laye, poet Hortense Mayaba, French-language novelist and children's writer Dallys-Tom Medali, French-language poet and writer living in the United States Jean Pliya and short story writer José Pliva and playwright Eustache Prudencio, journalist and diplomat Alidjanatou Saliou-Arekpa, French-language novelist Arnold Sènou, French-language novelist List of African writers
The Aloys Bilz House is a private house located at 107 South Division Street in Spring Lake, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987; the house is remarkably unaltered from its original look in 1872. Aloys Bilz was born in Bohemia to Joseph and Margaret Bilz of Bavaria. In 1850, the family emigrated to New York. In 1854, Aloys apprenticed himself to a tinsmith, spent the next few years learning the trade. Starting in 1857, he supervised a tin shop in New Baltimore, where he worked until 1863. In 1864, Bilz married Mary Alice Thompson moved to various communities until settling in Spring Lake in 1866 and opening a tin shop and hardware business; the business was profitable, in six months, Bilz purchased this plot of land on which he built a shop and house. However, in 1871, fire destroyed the community, including Bilz's house. Following the fire, Bilz rebuilt his business, constructed this new house on the site of his previous one. Bilz rebuilt his business, went on to invest in other business interests in the Spring Lake area, as well as serve as village president for ten years.
He lived in the house until his death in 1934. Bilz's son, William A. Bilz, was active in the community, operated his father's hardware store, lived in the same house, he lived in the house until his death in 1940. After this, his W. Preston Bilz inherited the house and lived here until his own death in 1983; the Aloys Bilz House is an L-shapes, two-story Italianate house with a gabled roof and brick foundation. It is clad with clapboard; the roofline gables have classical cornices with returns, echoing a Greek Revival style, but it has Italianate details, including paired brackets under the eaves and arched window and door openings. The main entrance to the house is through a porch on the inside of the L. On the inside, the first floor contains an entry hall with stairway, a sitting/dining room and master bedroom off the entry hall. A kitchen and day room are in the rear, within a single-story extension; the second floor is smaller than the first, contains three bedrooms and a bathroom
Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 is an Australian Government white paper released on 2 May 2009. The publication seeks to provide guidance for Australia's defence policy and the Australian Defence Force during the period 2009–2030. In 2000, the Coalition government released a defence white paper in response to the East Timor crisis that saw Australia deploying and leading a peacekeeping force in South-East Asia; the paper called for an increased expeditionary capability, marked a departure from the defensive military posture of the Defence of Australia Policy, in place since the end of the Vietnam War. A commitment to develop a new Defence white paper was one of the Australian Labor Party's policies during the 2007 Australian federal election. At the time the policy was launched, Labor's leader Kevin Rudd argued that the Howard Government had over-committed the ADF and conducted insufficient planning. Rudd promised that if elected his government would commission a new white paper to clarify the ADF's role and force structure.
In December 2007, shortly after the ALP Rudd Government was sworn in, the Minister for Defence, Joel Fitzgibbon, directed the Department of Defence to begin work on the white paper. While the white paper was due to be completed in December 2008, it was delayed until 2009 due to the volume of work required. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 was based around assumptions that China will become dominant in Australia's region and that Australia cannot rely on the United States for protection; the white paper outlines the Government's preferred ADF force structure, with specific elements for each of the three services. The RAN is planned to undergo significant expansion: Replacing the current six Collins class submarines with twelve new submarines Replacing the eight Anzac class frigates with nine larger frigates Developing a class of twenty corvettes to replace the RAN's patrol boats and survey ships Replacing the Navy's heavy lift ship and replenishment ship Buying 24 new naval combat helicoptersThe previously-approved construction of at least three Hobart class destroyers and two Canberra class Landing Helicopter Dock will go ahead.
The RAAF is planned to be re-equipped with up to 100 F-35 Lightning II combat aircraft, eight new maritime patrol aircraft, up to seven unmanned aerial vehicles and ten new light tactical transport aircraft along with an additional two C-130J Hercules. There will be few changes to the Army, to be organised into three brigades each with about 4,000 soldiers; the main new equipment for the Army will be up to 1,100 light armoured vehicles, seven new CH-47F Chinook helicopters to replace the current CH-47D models and new self-propelled and towed 155mm artillery guns. The white paper received a mixed response from governments in Australia's region, Australian political parties and defence commentators. Malcolm Turnbull, the leader of the Federal opposition, said the document did not provide details on how the plans it described would be funded. Senator Bob Brown, leader of the Australian Greens was critical of increasing defence expenditure during an economic downturn and said that these resources would be better used to counter climate change.
Australian Department of Defence officials briefed the Chinese, Indonesian and United States governments as well as the governments of several other countries in Australia's region before the white paper was released. The Chinese Government was reported to be concerned about the white paper's identification of China as a possible threat to Australia's security; the Indonesian Government was supportive of the plan. Brookings Federal Executive Fellow of the John Angevine has argued that the concept of defence self-reliance in the white paper is wrong and that Australia should seek closer defence ties with the United States instead. Lyon, Rod. "Assessing the Defence White Paper 2009". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. "Defence White Paper 2009". "Defence White Paper 2000"
Glass recycling is the processing of waste glass into usable products. Glass, crushed and ready to be remelted is called cullet. There are two types of cullet: external. Internal cullet is composed of defective products detected and rejected by a quality control process during the industrial process of glass manufacturing, transition phases of product changes and production offcuts. External cullet is waste glass, collected or reprocessed with the purpose of recycling. External cullet is classified as waste; the word "cullet", when used in the context of end-of-waste, will always refer to external cullet. To be recycled, glass waste needs to be cleaned of contamination. Depending on the end use and local processing capabilities, it might have to be separated into different colors. Many recyclers collect different colors of glass separately since glass retains its color after recycling; the most common colours used for consumer containers are clear glass, green glass, brown glass. Glass is ideal for recycling.
Many collection points have separate bins for clear and brown. Glass re-processors intending to make new glass containers require separation by color, because glass tends to retain its color after recycling. If the recycled glass is not going to be made into more glass, or if the glass re-processor uses newer optical sorting equipment, separation by color at the collection point may not be required. Heat-resistant glass, such as Pyrex or borosilicate glass, must not be part of the glass recycling stream, because a small piece of such material will alter the viscosity of the fluid in the furnace at remelt. To be able to use external cullet in production, any contaminants should be removed as much as possible. Typical contaminations are: Organics: Paper, caps, rings, PVB foils for flat glass Inorganics: Stones, porcelains Metals: Ferrous and non-ferrous metals Heat resistant and lead glassManpower or machinery can be used in different stages of purification. Since they melt at higher temperatures than glass, separation of inorganics, the removal of heat resistant glass and lead glass is critical.
In the modern recycling facilities, dryer systems and optical sorting machines are used. The input material should be cleaned for the highest efficiency in automatic sorting. More than one free fall or conveyor belt sorter can be used, depending on the requirements of the process. Different colors can be sorted by optical sorting machines. Glass bottles and jars are infinitely recyclable; the use of recycled glass in manufacturing reduces energy consumption. Because the chemical energy required to melt the raw materials has been expended, the use of cullet can reduce energy consumption compared with manufacturing new glass from silica, soda ash, lime. Soda lime glass from virgin raw materials theoretically requires 2.671 GJ/tonne compared to 1.886 GJ/tonne to melt 100% glass cullet. As a general rule, every 10% increase in cullet usage results in an energy savings of 2–3% in the melting process, with a theoretical maximum potential of 30% energy saving; every metric ton of waste glass recycled into new items saves 315 kilograms of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere during the manufacture of new glass.
The use of the recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular, with large-scale research on that application being carried out at Columbia University in New York. Recycled glass enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete. Recent research has shown that concrete made with recycled glass aggregates have better long-term strength and better thermal insulation, due to the thermal properties of the glass aggregates. Glass, not recycled, but crushed, reduces the volume of waste sent to landfill. Waste glass may be kept out of landfill by using it for roadbed aggregate or landfill cover. Glass aggregate, a mix of colors crushed to a small size, is substituted for pea gravel or crushed rock in many construction and utility projects, saving municipalities, such as the City of Tumwater, Washington Public Works, thousands of dollars. Glass aggregate is not sharp to handle. In many cases, the state Department of Transportation has specifications for use and percentage of quantity for use. Common applications are as pipe bedding—placed around sewer, storm water or drinking water pipes, to transfer weight from the surface and protect the pipe.
Another common use is as fill to bring the level of a concrete floor with a foundation. Other uses for recycled glass include: Fiberglass insulation products Ceramic sanitary ware production As a flux in brick manufacture Astroturf Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material or golf bunker sand Recycled glass countertops As water filtration media AbrasivesMixed waste streams may be collected from materials recovery facilities or mechanical biological treatment systems; some facilities can sort mixed waste streams into different colours using electro-optical sorting units. In 2019, many Australian cities after decades of poor planning and minimum investment are winding back their glass recycling programmes in favour of plastic usage. For many years, there was only one state in Australia with a return deposit scheme on glass containers. Other states had unsuccessfully tried to lobby for glass deposit schemes. More this situation has changed with the original scheme in South Australia now joined by legislated container deposit schemes in New